Monday, June 5, 2017
09:00 - 10:30

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09:00 - 09:15: / 301B PRACTICAL, FIELD-TESTED USES FOR LOW-COST OPEN-SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES: CASE STUDIES FROM EAST AFRICA.

6/05/2017  |   09:00 - 09:15   |  301B

PRACTICAL, FIELD-TESTED USES FOR LOW-COST OPEN-SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES: CASE STUDIES FROM EAST AFRICA. Commercially available water quality/quantity instruments from manufacturers utilizing proprietary platforms (hardware and software) are often expensive and impossible to repair from remote field sites. Malfunctioning or broken proprietary instruments in remote areas can cost valuable time in the life of a project. As an alternative, open source software and hardware are available at a fraction of the cost of commercially available equipment and allow for greater control over the data collection process at a similar level of resolution. Here we present several ways that we are utilizing low-cost open-source technologies to augment our research program in East Africa. We utilize commercially available low-cost open-source dataloggers instead of building from scratch to enable a quicker prototyping process. We have built data logging stations in remote environments transmitting data (water quality, water level, rainfall, temperature, etc.) in near-real time to a free, online data repository as well as handheld units for surveys. Incorporating the use of low-cost open-source instruments has allowed us to reduce equipment costs, build purpose-built data logging devices and engage with a broader community of open-source enthusiasts.

Christopher Dutton (Primary Presenter/Author), Yale University, cldutton@gmail.com;


Amanda Subalusky ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, asubalusky@gmail.com;


Emma Rosi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, rosie@caryinstitute.org;


David Post ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Yale University, david.post@yale.edu;


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09:15 - 09:30: / 301B ADOPTING OPEN-SOURCE TECHNOLOGY TO SIMULATE DAILY SALTWATER INTRUSION ON A TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLAND

6/05/2017  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  301B

Adopting open-source technology to simulate daily saltwater intrusion on a tidal freshwater wetland Conventional (manual) methods for soil amendment in a tidal wetland require time and energy-consuming actions such as a daytime application during weekly site visits at best. This manual approach increases the source and probability of experimental errors due to frequent and direct human involvement. To both overcome the disadvantages of manual work and accomplish a more natural transition of wetland salinization, we designed and installed a solar-powered irrigation system built from an open-source microcontroller and off-the-shelf electronics for simulating saltwater intrusion on a tidal freshwater wetland. Continuous operation of the system during the growing season has transitioned the soil salinity from freshwater to oligohaline and allowed us to observe the resulting biological changes in carbon cycling. We will describe the stages of development from designing the system, selecting the electronic and hardware components, integrating these components with the Arduino, programming the system, and installation in the field. This system could be easily adapted for other ecosystem manipulations to help enhance our understanding of environmental change.

Dong Yoon Lee (Primary Presenter/Author), Virginia Commonwealth University, dr.dongyoon.lee@gmail.com;


Olivia De Meo ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Institute of Marine Science, odemeo@vims.edu;


Scott Neubauer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Commonwealth University, sneubauer@vcu.edu;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 301B THE AFFORDABLE WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS (AWQUA) INITIATIVE

6/05/2017  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  301B

THE AFFORDABLE WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS (AWQUA) INITIATIVE The Affordable Water Quality Analysis (AWQUA) Initiative aims to make real-time monitoring of key water quality parameters easy, affordable, and tailorable. Founded by the Open Source Water Lab at Johns Hopkins University, the AWQUA Initiative has a three-fold mission: (1) Develop open-source electronics for affordable real-time measurement of key water quality parameters. We have established a public repository of water quality monitoring devices; providing layouts for circuit boards, detailing required electrical components and assembly requirements, and specifying firmware and procedures for calibration, use, and maintenance. All published plans are open-source. (2) Implement common communications protocols so that open-source water quality monitoring devices may communicate data to stakeholders. The AWQUA design repository includes low-cost, open-source communications system designs to connect monitoring devices to smartphones, cellular networks, and the web. (3) Develop tiered device performance standards for water quality monitoring devices, to accommodate a diverse array of budgets and needs. Ultimately, we intend to make continuous water quality monitoring a reality in every village on earth -- by publicly developing, reviewing, and refining the hardware, communications, and performance criteria needed. Join us!

Chris Kelley (Primary Presenter/Author), Johns Hopkins University, iamchriskelley@gmail.com;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 301B HANDHELD PHOTOMETERS: OPEN SOURCE, SMARTPHONE-BASED, AND LOW COST COMMERCIAL OPTIONS

6/05/2017  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  301B

HANDHELD PHOTOMETERS: OPEN SOURCE, SMARTPHONE-BASED, AND LOW COST COMMERCIAL OPTIONS NECi was founded in 1992 based on academic research into the biochemistry and molecular biology of nitrogen metabolism in plants. Our lab developed commercial-scale production methods for the enzyme Nitrate Reductase (NaR). NaR reduces nitrate to nitrite – making it a great reagent for nitrate detection, replacing cadmium in standard methods. The SBIR program of the USDA funded development of simplified versions of the method for accurate on site, or field, test kits. Nitrate results are pink, detectable by eye, but users wanted data in digital format: numbers. And then we developed an enzyme-based method for phosphate, with results in the UV. We could not find a handheld, low cost, portable, easy to use photometer that read standard cuvettes. NSF funded development of a smartphone-based, handheld photometer with a real “optical bench”. The “brains” of the photometer are an Android app; data is transmitted via Bluetooth. Instructions to fabricate this beta-tested, single wavelength version were published in 2015 in an open source journal. A dual wavelength version for nitrate and phosphate with improved data handling is commercially available.

Ellen R Campbell (Primary Presenter/Author), NECi, ellenr@nitrate.com;


Joshua Pearce ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), MI Technological University, professorpearce@mtu.edu;


Bill (Wilbur H) Campbell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), NECi/Michigan Technological Univeristy, bill@nitrate.com;


Justin Walbeck ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), NECi, justin@nitrate.com;


David Squires ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), NECi, squires@nitrate.com;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 301B QUANTIFYING CO2 INPUTS INTO BOREAL FOREST STREAMS UNDERLAIN BY DISCONTINUOUS PERMAFROST USING OPEN-SOURCE CO2 SENSORS

6/05/2017  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  301B

QUANTIFYING CO2 INPUTS INTO BOREAL FOREST STREAMS UNDERLAIN BY DISCONTINUOUS PERMAFROST USING OPEN-SOURCE CO2 SENSORS Deployment of CO2 sensors in streams provides critical information on processes controlling stream pCO2 throughout time including terrestrial input of CO2 from soil respiration, weathering sources, and in-stream microbial respiration. Recent technological advances in programming and hardware has created opportunities for implementing DIY sensors to assess controls of pCO2 in streams. We programmed open-source CO2 sensors with Arduino microcontrollers to measure pCO2 in streams at the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (Fairbanks, AK, USA) in four headwater streams draining watersheds underlain by contrasting amounts of permafrost. We hypothesized that pCO2 in streams draining watersheds underlain by high extents of permafrost is controlled by inputs from soil respiration, and will have greater variability compared with streams draining watersheds underlain by low extent of permafrost because permafrost limits watershed flowpaths to the upper organic layer of soil. Using an autoregressive integrated moving average model, we quantified daily variation in stream pCO2. All streams showed strong diel variability, but had contrasting amplitudes and white noise. These results suggest that pCO2 sensor data provides insight on terrestrial sources from storm responses as well as applications for determining stream metabolism.

Rachel Voight (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, rlvoight@alaska.edu;


Jeremy Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, jbjonesjr@alaska.edu;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 301B LOW COST STREAM MONITORING STATIONS USING THE ENVIRODIY MAYFLY DATA LOGGER

6/05/2017  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  301B

LOW COST STREAM MONITORING STATIONS USING THE ENVIRODIY MAYFLY DATA LOGGER Scientists and educators around the world have been building their own dataloggers and devices using a variety of boards based on the Arduino open source electronics platform as an inexpensive alternative to commercial data loggers. While there have been several useful boards on the market in the past few years, they still required significant modification or additional components in order to use them with various sensors or to deploy them in remote areas. We designed a custom data logger board called the EnviroDIY Mayfly Data Logger that has all of the essential features of a solar-powered datalogger with radio telemetry options, plus it has a very convenient and modular method for attaching a wide variety of sensors and devices. We will present a variety of deployment examples and configuration options that we have successfully used for the past several years. We will also showcase the new online database and real-time visualization system that allows the users to view and manage the data their devices are collecting.

Shannon Hicks (Primary Presenter/Author), Stroud Water Research Center, shicks@stroudcenter.org;


David Arscott ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Center, darscott@stroudcenter.org;


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