Tuesday, June 6, 2017
09:00 - 10:30

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09:00 - 09:15: / 302A A SUMMARY OF SUSE4: MAKING URBAN STREAM REHABILITATION A CO-EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS

6/06/2017  |   09:00 - 09:15   |  302A

A summary of SUSE4: making urban stream rehabilitation a co-evolutionary process Aquatic ecologists have developed a wealth of empirical evidence about how urban landscapes alter the structure and function of stream ecosystems. This research, however, often fails to lead to actionable outcomes such as implementation into restoration and management programs. One reason is that stream ecologists often have limited interactions with academics and professionals from engineering, management, planning, and the social sciences in a way that directly contributes to project designs. The 4th Symposium on Urbanization and Stream Ecology seeks to address this critical barrier by fostering discussions among this diverse group of contributors. This talk summarizes the Symposium’s outcomes and a framework for promoting cross-disciplinary interactions that foster a co-evolutionary approach to improving urban stream restoration and management programs. We report on the results of highly interactive discussion groups focusing on topics such as maximizing nutrient removal, real-time monitoring, prioritizing restoration locations, defining project endpoints, addressing multiple stressors, incorporating socio-cultural factors, and other topics. The outcomes of the Symposium demonstrate the importance of integrating knowledge and perspectives across engineering, planning, natural science, and social science fields for designing and implementing effective approaches to urban stream management and rehabilitation.

Robert Smith (Primary Presenter/Author), Lycoming College, smithr@lycoming.edu;


Joanna Blaszczak ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Duke University - University Program in Ecology, jrb78@duke.edu;


Brian Bledsoe ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, bbledsoe@uga.edu;


Thomas Parr ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Oklahoma, Thomas.parr@ou.edu;


Allison Roy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Massachusetts Amherst, aroy@eco.umass.edu;


Mateo Scoggins ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), City of Austin, mateo.scoggins@austintexas.gov;


Ryan Utz ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Chatham University, utz.ryan@gmail.com;


Seth Wenger ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, sethwenger@fastmail.fm;


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09:15 - 09:30: / 302A THE DICHOTOMY OF URBAN RESTORATION: WISHES AND EFFECTS

6/06/2017  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  302A

The dichotomy of urban restoration: wishes and effects Oslo, the capitol of Norway, has the highest growth rate of all major cities in Europe, and residential areas are rapidly created from former industrial spaces. In 2015, a stream and pond were created from a previously culverted, sewage affected stream. The aim was to retain nutrients and pollution, and developing a blue infrastructure in a previously industrial area. Water chemistry and biota was sampled the first summer season, at seven sites along the stream, and a reference upstream. Preliminary results show that the stream and pond act as both a sink and source of nutrients. The biota generally improved from upstream to downstream sites, indicating self-purification along the stream. Phytoplankton measurements in the pond indicate that the system had not yet reached a stable state, and any real improvement in water quality is doubtful. Furthermore, municipal restrictions on water related activities limit the overall value of the project. We believe there is a need for more ecological knowledge in urban restoration projects, as they are insular in their purpose of being primarily open water sewage treatment plants, and blue, but no-touch, spaces in the urban scape.

Therese Fosholt Moe (Primary Presenter/Author), Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), therese.fosholt.moe@niva.no;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 302A BOTTOM UP STREAM RESTORATION IN AUSTIN, TX: A CATCHMENT SCALE PARADIGM SHIFT

6/06/2017  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  302A

BOTTOM UP STREAM RESTORATION IN AUSTIN, TX: A CATCHMENT SCALE PARADIGM SHIFT Urban development without the benefit of stormwater controls degrades stream structure and function. Regulations that apply controls to development are in place in most cities, but there is often a large and costly legacy of dysfunctional stream systems with water quality, erosion and flooding problems and no room or economic feasibility for traditional restoration. In Austin, Texas, building on an international movement, a watershed-scale proof of concept project is taking form that will test the hypothesis that dense, distributed stormwater control measures (SCMs), on both public and private property, can significantly buffer the negative effects of legacy urban development on stream hydrology. A small, 2.8 sq km urban catchment, with 47% impervious cover was selected to examine this hypothesis. With basic stream function as the ultimate endpoint, modeling results have validated changes in key hydrology measures and an economic analysis strongly favors a private property service delivery model. In addition to distributed SCMs, this experiment includes extensive riparian restoration and an intensive focus on outreach and education that looks closely at how we think about water and cities.

Mateo Scoggins (Primary Presenter/Author), City of Austin, mateo.scoggins@austintexas.gov;


Ana Gonzalez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), City of Austin, ana.gonzalez@austintexas.gov;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 302A IDENTIFYING REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS FOR URBAN ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION

6/06/2017  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  302A

IDENTIFYING REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS FOR URBAN ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION Urbanization degrades biological conditions in streams in an almost universally accepted manner that results in the impairment of streams that requires states pursue a remedy. Restoration practices are frequently implemented as this remedy. The impairment decision is frequently based on a single, least-disturbed reference based biological condition target that also serves as the restoration goal. However, is a single biological target based on reference condition an achievable goal? And what other structure might be used instead? We analyzed biological conditions along gradients of urbanization in North Carolina to explore these questions. We found that essentially no streams in urban watersheds met least-disturbed reference based targets. However, biological condition did vary within these watersheds, with some maintaining better biological conditions than others. We developed a biological potential scoring framework to evaluate sites that were further from meeting what is attainable in urban streams and used that to explore and compare watershed and reach scale predictors to try and understand this variability. This scoring framework is consistent with the biological condition gradient concept and seeks to develop existing realistic targets for urban assessment and restoration.

Michael Paul (Primary Presenter/Author), Tetra Tech, Inc., Michael.Paul@tetratech.com;


Diane Allen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Tetra Tech Inc., Diane.Allen@tetratech.com;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 302A PRIORITIZING STREAM RESTORATION AND PROTECTION TO MAXIMIZE ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS: STREAM HABITAT, TEMPERATURE, AND WATERSHED CONSIDERATIONS

6/06/2017  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  302A

PRIORITIZING STREAM RESTORATION AND PROTECTION TO MAXIMIZE ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS: STREAM HABITAT, TEMPERATURE, AND WATERSHED CONSIDERATIONS Biotic assemblages consistently degrade with urbanization; however, at low impervious levels, biotic integrity varies widely across streams, suggesting a range in resistance to urban disturbance. We asked what reach- and watershed-scale characteristics explain differences in biota at similar levels of imperviousness, thereby identifying potential locations to prioritize restoration or protection. Forty sites were selected across Massachusetts within two narrow bands of impervious cover: 1–4% (n = 20) and 7–10% (n = 20) that exhibited a wide range of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage integrity. Models with reach-scale variables (reflecting habitat heterogeneity, flow, temperature, or water quality) or watershed-scale variables (e.g., geology, historic land cover, flow alterations, distance-weighted impervious) were better supported than models based solely on total impervious cover. Streams with higher habitat heterogeneity, more large wood, and colder water temperatures tended to have higher biotic integrity, suggesting that restoration should focus on strategies to reduce impacts that degrade these conditions. Watersheds in high-elevation regions, despite higher dam density, more road crossings, and more flow alteration, also had streams with higher biotic integrity, indicating they may be more resistant to urban disturbance and thus could be prioritized for protection.

Allison Roy (Primary Presenter/Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Massachusetts Amherst, aroy@eco.umass.edu;


Catherine Bentsen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Massachusetts Amherst, cbentsen@umass.edu;


David Armstrong ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, New England Water Science Center, darmstro@usgs.gov;


Matthew Baker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Maryland Baltimore County, mbaker@umbc.edu;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 302A THINKING OUTSIDE THE COOKBOOK: ADDRESSING ISSUES OF FUNCTIONAL AND SPATIAL SCALES IN FAIRFAX COUNTY (VA) URBAN STREAM BIOASSESSMENTS

6/06/2017  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  302A

THINKING OUTSIDE THE COOKBOOK: ADDRESSING ISSUES OF FUNCTIONAL AND SPATIAL SCALES IN FAIRFAX COUNTY (VA) URBAN STREAM BIOASSESSMENTS Many water resource agencies use multimetric indices (MMIs) to characterize benthic macroinvertebrate community condition and produce stream assessments to meet management, planning and/or regulatory objectives. Often managers use off-the-shelf “cookbook” metrics for MMIs without closely examining underlying assumptions that affect assessments. Functional metrics rely on autecological assignments such as tolerance values (TVs) for individual taxa and are widely used in bioassessments. However, many programs use TVs developed by others, and few metrics are developed within urban systems. Additionally, streams are assessed at different spatial scales to answer different management questions. Local variations in landform and land uses may be overlooked at broader regional/watershed scales. Urban land use is commonly a low percentage of total catchment area, yet it exerts a large influence locally. Fairfax County’s urban streams are assessed at hierarchical scales (county, state, and interstate watershed) by various entities to meet differing objectives. Our analyses suggest that widely used metrics do not fully reflect the range of taxa abundance within a variable urban landscape, and that broad-scaled assessments may not answer questions about ecological condition at local scales.

LeAnne Astin (Primary Presenter/Author), Fairfax County Stormwater Planning, leanne.astin@fairfaxcounty.gov;


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