Thursday, June 8, 2017
09:00 - 10:30

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09:00 - 09:15: / 301B ECOSYSTEM SERVICES REVEALED OR TRIGGERED BY MASSIVE REMEDIAL EFFORTS IN THE MINING REGION OF SUDBURY CANADA

6/08/2017  |   09:00 - 09:15   |  301B

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES REVEALED OR TRIGGERED BY MASSIVE REMEDIAL EFFORTS IN THE MINING REGION OF SUDBURY CANADA Rarely do we conduct ecosystem experiments at the scale of the metal (Ni, Cu) smelter-impacted landscape of Sudbury Canada, the world's largest point source of SO2. This experiment involved a 95-99% reduction of atmospheric emissions of acid and metals over a 40 year period. Many of the results were expected (pH?, metal?, biodiversity?), but mitigation efforts also revealed surprising recovery processes and ecosystems services. For example: biomass was conserved at many trophic levels; dispersal rate of colonists did not limit recovery; high concentrations of SO4 in lakes near smelters exerted stimulatory effects on future recovery (i.e. increased alkalinity generation); the developing forest reduced surface winds and enhanced lake stratification in some lakes (creating cold water habitat in the face of climate warming); elevated Se deposition led to reduced Hg bioaccumulation; base cations from roads, soil treatments and other disturbances reduced metal toxicity; terrestrial organic matter inputs in these "carbon-starved environments" enhanced fish production; forest insect "pests" helped recycle the new forest into much needed soil organic matter; and the once barren landscape began to sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon.

John Gunn (Primary Presenter/Author), Laurentian University, jgunn@laurentian.ca;


Wendel (B) Keller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Laurentian Univeristy, BKeller@laurentian.ca;


Norman Yan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), York University, normandyan@gmail.com;


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09:15 - 09:30: / 301B USING LAKE LANDSCAPE POSITION TO ASSESS SPATIAL PATTERNS OF BIOTIC MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS A FRESHWATER DRAINAGE BASIN IN NORTHERN ONTARIO, CANADA

6/08/2017  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  301B

USING LAKE LANDSCAPE POSITION TO ASSESS SPATIAL PATTERNS OF BIOTIC MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS A FRESHWATER DRAINAGE BASIN IN NORTHERN ONTARIO, CANADA Within a drainage basin, the position of a lake greatly affects its physical and chemical characteristics many of which have been shown to affect the cycling of mercury (Hg), a neurotoxic metal found in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we examined how aqueous and biotic Hg concentrations ([Hg]) varied across lakes and river sites within a large, pristine, subarctic drainage basin in northern Ontario, Canada, relative to their landscape position and associated physicochemical characteristics. A principal component analysis showed that, relative to systems downstream, headwater lakes had lower ion, nutrient, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, but similar pH. These headwater lakes also had lower total [Hg] in surface waters and forage fish (linear mixed effect models, p<0.01 and 0.03, respectively), as well as lower [MeHg] in pelagic (p<0.001), but not benthic (p = 0.39-0.98), invertebrates. Data analyses, including multiple regression models to assess which physicochemical parameters best explain these longitudinal changes in [Hg], are ongoing. Understanding the physicochemical drivers of Hg cycling in northern Ontario is particularly important given the extensive mining development expected over the next decade.

Gretchen Lescord (Primary Presenter/Author), Laurentian University, glescord@laurentian.ca;


Tom Johnston ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, tjohnston@laurentian.ca;


Brian Branfireun ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Western University, bbranfir@uwo.ca;


John Gunn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Laurentian University, jgunn@laurentian.ca;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 301B UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY FOREST MANAGEMENT ON STREAM ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY TO PROTECT AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

6/08/2017  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  301B

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY FOREST MANAGEMENT ON STREAM ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY TO PROTECT AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Forests are key suppliers of aquatic ecosystem services (AES); however, forestry may alter forest condition and thus compromise the integrity of stream ecosystems underpinning AES. This study examines a suite of in-stream abiotic and biotic indicators sensitive to disturbance and related to AES in 12 headwater streams with managed catchments ranging in harvesting (18-100 % of the catchment harvested in last 10 years), road density (21-89 road m/ha), stream crossings (0-4) and forest composition (deciduous/mixed/coniferous dominated) and 3 reference streams in New Brunswick (Canada). Most indicators reflect the gradient in forest management intensity, with fine inorganic sediment deposition and entrainment, water chemistry PC1 (related to conductivity, TIC…), DOC aromaticity and humification, temperature and total biofilm biomass increasing, leaf decomposition decreasing, and the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and composition shifting as management intensity increased. However, our results do not suggest site impairment due to forestry, since biotic endpoints in streams with managed catchments were comparable to those in reference streams. Therefore, it seems that intensive forest management under best management practices in these catchments does not adversely affect stream ecosystem structure and function, and the consequent provision of AES.

Maitane Erdozain (Primary Presenter/Author), University of New Brunswick, maitane.erdozain@gmail.com;


Karen Kidd ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Brunswick, kiddk@unb.ca;


David Kreutzweiser ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, dave.kreutzweiser@canada.ca;


Paul Sibley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Guelph, psibley@uoguelph.ca ;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 301B DOES BIOPHYSICAL AND PARTICIPATORY MAPPING OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES REVEAL SIMILAR LOCATIONS FOR STAKEHOLDER CONFLICT AND COOPERATION?

6/08/2017  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  301B

DOES BIOPHYSICAL AND PARTICIPATORY MAPPING OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES REVEAL SIMILAR LOCATIONS FOR STAKEHOLDER CONFLICT AND COOPERATION? Interactions among ecosystem services, such as trade-offs, are influenced by both the biophysical and social components of the landscapes that provide them. While most research on ecosystem service interactions has focused on their biophysical locations, the spatial interactions of people and their ecosystem services use has rarely been explored in tandem with biophysical interactions. Focusing on aquatic ecosystem services in a Northern Ontario watershed, we ask three main questions to explore the multiple facets of ecosystem service interactions: (1) Where are important locations of biophysical interactions among ecosystem services? (2) Where do activities of different user groups overlap across the landscape? and (3) How do user-reported areas of conflict and cooperation differ from those derived from biophysical mapping approaches? Using freely available geospatial data, including high-resolution aerial photography, we map biophysical locations important for ecosystem services and overlay these locations with maps of ecosystem service use identified by 28 stakeholders. We also asked stakeholders about their attitudes towards other user groups. Our paired understanding of biophysical and social components allows for a richer examination of ecosystem service interactions and their consequences, including potential conflict or cooperation among different stakeholders.

Stephanie Tomscha (Primary Presenter/Author), University of British Columbia, stephanie.tomscha@gmail.com;


Sarah Gergel ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of British Columbia, sarah.gergel@ubc.ca ;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 301B MAPPING CAPACITY, DEMAND AND PRESSURES FOR HYDROLOGICAL SERVICES IN CANADA

6/08/2017  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  301B

MAPPING CAPACITY, DEMAND AND PRESSURES FOR HYDROLOGICAL SERVICES IN CANADA Human settlements in Canada are mostly located at the southern edge of the country, but the watersheds that provide Hydrological Services (HS) often span across large northern areas. In the lights of competing interests for undeveloped lands and climate change, it is imperative to identify critical watersheds for the provision of HS in Canada. Ecosystem services are often conceptualized as two main components, namely capacity and demand. In river systems, the capacity and the demand for a service can be separated by long distances and, yet, be connected by river networks. So, to ensure the long-lasting quality of HS, it is necessary to consider and sustainably manage ecosystems upstream of the demand for these services. Using four HS, provision of water for municipalities, agriculture, industries and hydroelectricity, a map of critical watersheds in Canada was created using a hydrological approach. The demand for a service was redistributed on the land considering the runoff contribution. We used a cumulative approach to map out the hotspots and aimed to identify regions and river types potentially at risk. Identifying these key areas is beneficial for long-term and large-scale sustainable management of water resource.

Ouellet Dallaire Camille (Primary Presenter/Author), McGill University, camille.ouelletdallaire@mail.mcgill.ca;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 301B MEASURING LONG-TERM CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ON THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF RIVERINE SYSTEMS

6/08/2017  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  301B

MEASURING LONG-TERM CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ON THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF RIVERINE SYSTEMS Environmental assessment procedures lack approaches for long-term evaluation of ecosystems. Management of riparian zones, in particular, has changed greatly over the past 90 years. This work aims to characterize long-term spatio-temporal changes in heterogeneity of stream reaches and riparian zones. Using historical aerial photography spanning eight decades, we examined the Skeena river system in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, an important spawning route for Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon). We conducted manual air photo interpretation to quantify changes in stream reach type and riparian zone disturbances at multiple years from 1937 to 2015. We characterized changes in reaches with contrasting levels of disturbance over multiple time periods and compared disturbance patterns using spatial pattern metrics, including measures of spatial autocorrelation. We also correlated long-term changes in fish habitat with historical Chinook salmon spawner abundance data. Due to ever-increasing development pressures in Northern Canada and the changing milleu of environmental assessment globally, such approaches can form a key component of rigorous quantification of cumulative effects.

Karly Harker (Primary Presenter/Author), University of British Columbia, harkerkj@gmail.com;


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