FUNGICIDE (AZOXYSTROBIN) HAS VARIABLE EFFECTS ON AMERICAN TOAD AND LEOPARD FROG FITNESS: A MESOCOSM APPROACH
Landscapes are increasingly fragmented by human development causing the remaining viable habitat to become vitally important. One land-use that is thought of as fragmenting landscapes are golf courses. Turfgrass management on golf courses is essential to create an adequate playing area, but this management often involves the use of chemicals that enter surface waters, affecting water quality and native organisms. Our objective was to examine the influence of a widely used fungicide on golf course lentic ecosystems, Azoxystrobin. We used a randomized experimental design in a mesocosm setting to examine the effects of two concentrations (based on field surveys) of Azoxystrobin on survival and time to/size at metamorphosis of Northern Leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus). Azoxystrobin had no statistically measurably impact on survival of Leopard frogs, but lower concentrations decreased time to and increased size at metamorphosis. American toad survival and time to metamorphosis showed no response to Azoxystrobin, however toads in the lower concentration were smaller than individuals in the control and high concentration treatments. Our research suggests that Azoxystrobin has a varied, species-specific, effect on anurans and warrants further investigation.
Michael Vosburgh (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University, firstname.lastname@example.org;
Michael Vosburgh (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, email@example.com;
Isabella Lentini (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, firstname.lastname@example.org;
Martin Berg (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, email@example.com;