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SFS Annual Meeting

Wednesday, May 23, 2018
09:00 - 10:30

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09:00 - 09:15: / 430 B EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND HABITAT CONDITIONS IN GREAT LAKES INTERDUNAL WETLANDS

5/23/2018  |   09:00 - 09:15   |  430 B

EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND HABITAT CONDITIONS IN GREAT LAKES INTERDUNAL WETLANDS Determining how environmental conditions dictate community structure in a habitat is a fundamental question in community ecology. Great Lakes interdunal wetlands are coastal wetlands between sand dunes that follow a successional gradient from young, open-dune wetlands to older, wooded-dune wetlands. We investigated how habitat conditions dictate macroinvertebrate community structure (taxonomic composition, diversity, and feeding guild structure) in 13 interdunal wetlands in northern Michigan. We tested the hypothesis that if environmental conditions determine community structure, then interdunal wetlands with similar conditions will have similar community structure. We identified 82 taxa, with individual wetland species richness ranging from 5 to 24 and Shannon-Weaver diversity ranging from 0.46 to 2.42. An NMDS analysis showed separation between tightly clustered open-dune wetlands and a larger cluster of wooded-dune wetlands based on temperature, pH, distance from the lakeshore, and successional stage. Major feeding guilds differ between the habitat types, with open-dune wetlands characterized by predators and collector-gatherers and an absence of parasites and collector-filterers, while wetlands in wooded habitat have high proportions of collector-filterers. This study highlights the importance of small differences in environmental conditions in shaping community structure across a successional gradient.

Tiffany Schriever (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Western Michigan University, tiffany.schriever@wmich.edu;


Christopher Frazier (Primary Presenter/Author), Western Michigan University, christopher.f.frazier@wmich.edu;


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09:15 - 09:30: / 430 B SHALLOW LAKE MANAGEMENT ATTRACTS WATERFOWL IN MINNESOTA DURING FALL MIGRATION

5/23/2018  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  430 B

SHALLOW LAKE MANAGEMENT ATTRACTS WATERFOWL IN MINNESOTA DURING FALL MIGRATION Shallow lakes are key habitat for waterfowl, and aquatic managers will fluctuate lake water levels to enhance water quality, promote high abundance of aquatic vegetation, increase invertebrates for forage, and provide stop-overs for waterfowl during fall migration. Integration of long-term datasets on waterfowl use and habitat conditions are rare but valuable for demonstrating the utility of shallow lake management. We conducted aerial waterfowl surveys and in-lake habitat measurements at 34 shallow lakes for 10 years in order to obtain relationships regarding lake management, habitat changes, and waterfowl use in fall. We conducted waterfowl surveys annually (3-7 flights per year) and measured in-lake habitat variables, such as water chemistry, water clarity, emergent and submergent plant abundance, and water depth. Results show that managed lakes have an average water depth of <4 feet, improved water quality, increased submergent aquatic vegetation, and increased wild rice (Zizania palustris), compared to the unmanaged lakes. Regression suggested that duck density was best predicted by management, submergent vegetation, and wild rice (r2 = 0.4). We conclude that improved habitat conditions from lake management can increase total duck densities, including mallards and ring-neck ducks, during fall migration.

Danelle Larson (Primary Presenter/Author), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, danellelarson77@gmail.com;


Steve Cordts (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, steve.cordts@state.mn.us;


Nicole Hansel-Welch (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, nicole.hansel-welch@state.mn.us;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 430 B NUTRIENT UPTAKE POTENTIAL BY INVASIVE TYPHA X GLAUCA IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: A 15-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

5/23/2018  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  430 B

NUTRIENT UPTAKE POTENTIAL BY INVASIVE TYPHA X GLAUCA IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: A 15-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Invasive Typha × glauca, is pervasive in Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands (GLCW), and has reduced plant community diversity and altered biogeochemical functioning. In a 15-year study identifying mechanisms of invasion, plant diversity suppression, and management methods for diversity recovery, our team has determined that time-since-invasion strongly correlates with biodiversity loss, biogeochemical changes, and plant community restorability. We have demonstrated that biomass harvesting as a management strategy both increases native species diversity and decreases Typha dominance. Expanses of GLCW receiving high levels of nutrient runoff are commonly dominated by dense monocultures of Typha and no longer support diverse wildlife. We argue that these degraded wetlands can provide important ecosystem services by reducing nutrient input to the Great Lakes when harvesting is employed. Our large-scale experiments demonstrate that 90 kg/ha of N and 7 kg/ha P can be feasibly harvested in a mesotrophic GLCW per year. Further, harvested biomass is a viable renewable energy feedstock, with the potential to offset fossil-fuel use. Our team is working with a wide range of partners to enhance the ecosystem services provided by these degraded ecosystems and to utilize invasive Typha biomass for fuel and compost.

Nancy Tuchman (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University Chicago, ntuchma@luc.edu;


Shane Lishawa (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, slishawa@luc.edu;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 430 B EVIDENCE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONNECTEDNESS: FISH DISPERSAL ALONG INTERMITTENT FLOW PATHS AMONG SEASONAL WETLANDS

5/23/2018  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  430 B

EVIDENCE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONNECTEDNESS: FISH DISPERSAL ALONG INTERMITTENT FLOW PATHS AMONG SEASONAL WETLANDS While seasonal wetlands (SWs) often support high biodiversity, fish are generally uncommon due to seasonal drying. However, fish dispersal can occur when hydrologically wet periods create intermittent flow paths between wetlands. We examined fish dispersal and biological connectedness along such a flow path in southwestern Georgia. Using passive trapping, fish movement was assessed in 2014 and 2016. In both years, the dominant species among the 10 fish species captured was Ameiurus nebulosus followed by Lepomis sp. Ameiurus nebulosus moved quickly from perennial upstream refugia within days of surface flow while most Lepomis sp. individuals were encountered later, indicating both temperature and velocity changes may play a role in signaling movement. Aside from the many fish species encountered during trapping, two species of crayfish and 10 species of amphibians also utilized the flow path to move across the landscape. Our study shows that biological dispersal during hydrologically favorable periods serve as a potential nexus among SWs and between wetlands and perennial waters. SWs are already recognized as hotspots for biogeochemical transformations; future studies will reveal the role aquatic fauna play in nutrient redistribution at a landscape scale.

Chelsea Smith (Primary Presenter/Author), J.W. Jones Ecological Research Center, csmith@jonesctr.org;


Stephen Golladay (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), J.W.Jones Research Center, sgollada@jonesctr.org;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 430 B COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS IN EMERGENT MACROPHYTES OF COASTAL LAKE ERIE WETLANDS: DISSOLVED OXYGEN DRIVER

5/23/2018  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  430 B

COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS IN EMERGENT MACROPHYTES OF COASTAL LAKE ERIE WETLANDS: DISSOLVED OXYGEN DRIVER Invasive macrophytes, such as European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), may negatively impact wetlands and increase the difficulty to properly manage wetland ecosystems. Thus, the central focus of this study was to determine the abiotic and biotic wetland community characteristics that differentiate aquatic macrophyte habitats. Monotypic patches of four species of macrophytes; European frogbit, flowering rush, water smartweed, broadleaf arrowhead, plus open water were sampled at Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (Ohio) in July and September 2017 quantifying water chemistry, sediment nutrients, macrophyte biomass, periphyton growth, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish and water birds associated with each habitat. Dissolved oxygen measurements (at sunrise and midday; DO) in European frogbit showed hypoxic conditions consistently < 0.1mg O2/L, whereas DO in all other habitats was always >2.0mg O2/L, sometimes reaching >10mg O2/L. Correlated with low dissolved oxygen levels in European frogbit was significantly lower species diversity of macroinvertebrates, fish, and water birds (P-values < 0.05). We found a significant increase in low DO tolerant species such as Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and fewer low DO intolerant species such as Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in European frogbit, thus negatively affecting aquatic communities through environmental changes.

Jaimie Johnson (Primary Presenter/Author), Bowling Green State University, jaimiej@bgsu.edu;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 430 B TRADEOFFS AMONG ECOSTSTEM SERVICES AFTER PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS REMOVAL IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

5/23/2018  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  430 B

TRADEOFFS AMONG ECOSTSTEM SERVICES AFTER PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS REMOVAL IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS In many Great Lakes wetlands, invasive Phragmites australis (common reed) has displaced native communities and significant effort is devoted to its management. In this study, we investigated the tradeoff between floristic quality and nutrient retention in coastal wetlands five years after herbicide treatment was applied to remove Phragmites. We compared plant productivity, nutrient uptake, and floristic quality index (FQI) values in seven restored and four Phragmites-dominated sites along the western side of Lake Erie. The average aboveground biomass at Phragmites sites was four times greater than at restored sites (1903.0 grams and 415.5 grams m-2, respectively), indicating significantly greater nutrient uptake. The average floristic quality index was significantly greater for restored sites (7.1) than for Phragmites sites (2.4), indicating that restored sites support the re-establishment of native flora. These outcomes highlight trade-offs in of ecosystem services associated with invasive species management.

Amanda Kandies (Primary Presenter/Author,Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eastern Michigan University, akandies@emich.edu;


Kristi Judd (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eastern Michigan University, kjudd2@emich.edu;


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