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SFS Annual Meeting

Thursday, May 24, 2018
09:00 - 10:30

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09:00 - 09:15: / 310 A IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON RIVERINE RESOURCE SUBSIDIES

5/24/2018  |   09:00 - 09:15   |  310 A

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON RIVERINE RESOURCE SUBSIDIES Macroinvertebrate drift, aquatic-insect emergence, and terrestrial insect in-fall provide nutrient-dense resource subsidies among spatially separate ecosystems. Does urbanization impact these connections? To assess for potential urbanization impacts, drift nets, emergence traps, and pan traps were deployed to compare the macroinvertebrate and insect communities in 5 rural streams and 5 urban streams in the Clinton River Watershed (Michigan, USA). Drift contained greater macroinvertebrate diversity and richness, and greater emergent insect richness in rural streams compared to urban streams. Path analysis revealed that urbanization had direct negative effects on drift abundance, percent emergent EPT taxa, and insect in-fall abundance. Land use also had indirect effects on drift abundance, percent emergent EPT taxa, and insect in-fall abundance due to changes in conductivity resulting from urbanization. Effect sizes showed that urbanization had the strongest impacts on emergent macroinvertebrates compared to invertebrate drift and terrestrial insect in-fall. Urbanization was shown to negatively influence the connection between streams and riparian ecosystems and the nutrient-dense subsidies that are exchanged between them. These results improve the understanding of the impacts land-use has on resource subsidies and allows environmental managers to make informed decisions regarding resource management.

Catelyn Jones (Primary Presenter/Author), Oakland University, catelynjones@oakland.edu;


Scott Tiegs (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dept. of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, tiegs@oakland.edu;


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09:15 - 09:30: / 310 A WATER QUALITY IN WETLANDS ALONG AN URBANIZATION GRADIENT

5/24/2018  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  310 A

WATER QUALITY IN WETLANDS ALONG AN URBANIZATION GRADIENT Urban expansion changes native ecosystems, which may limit ecosystem services provision and alter their function. Increased impervious surface, one trait of urbanization, has been linked to augmented concentrations of nutrients in nearby waterways, which can have serious implications for biological processes. Valdivia, Chile is a small city with large wetlands that may be important for water purification. However, urban wetland area has declined due to development. We tested the hypothesis that water quality in wetlands would change along an urbanization gradient, defined by quantifying the amount of impervious surface in the area draining to the wetland. We sampled water from 82 locations in Valdivia’s wetlands and predicted that concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate would decline along the impervious surface gradient. After separating sites into categories of low, medium, and high amounts of impervious surface area, we found that there were no differences in phosphate or ammonium concentrations, but nitrate was significantly higher in high and medium categories than in the low category (p<0.05). These findings pave the way for in situ experiments to determine whether nutrient retention efficiency also changes along this gradient.

Elizabeth Cook (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The New School, elizabeth.m.cook@gmail.com ;


Olga Barbosa (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidad Austral de Chile, olgabarbosa@gmail.com ;


Nancy Grimm (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arizona State University, nbgrimm@asu.edu;


Stephen Elser (Primary Presenter/Author), Arizona State University, selser2014@gmail.com;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 310 A TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON MAYFLY RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CHLORIDE

5/24/2018  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  310 A

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON MAYFLY RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CHLORIDE Salinity in freshwater ecosystems has increased over the last several decades at numerous locations throughout the world. Salinity increases often reflect an increase in chloride. Chloride concentrations can vary seasonally when resulting from deicing, with highest chloride concentrations when water temperature is low. Our study examined at acute (96 h) responses for four mayfly species (Baetidae: Neocloeon triangulifer, Procloeon fragile; Heptageniidae: Maccaffertium modestum; Leptophlebiidae: Leptophlebia cupida). Based on acute LC50s at 20°C, P. fragile was most sensitive (LC50 = 311 mg Cl/L), followed by M. modestum (1566 mg/L), N. triangulifer (1583 mg/L), and L. cupida (2691 mg/L). Acute LC50s increased as temperature decreased, reaching a maximum of 4080 mg/L for P. fragile, 6259 mg/L for N. triangulifer, 4302 mg/L for M. modestum, and 6244 mg/L for L. cupida. Simple linear regressions were significant for all four species. Our results show that acute (96 h) chloride toxicity is strongly temperature dependent for the mayfly species tested, and suggest that brief periods of elevated chloride during cold seasons or in colder locations may be ecologically less important than might be predicted by standard laboratory bioassays conducted at 20 or 25°C.

John Jackson (Primary Presenter/Author), Stroud Water Research Center, jkjackson@stroudcenter.org;


David Funk (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Centrer, dfunk@stoudcenter.org;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 310 A USING CITIZEN SCIENCE DATA TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF LAND USE ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN AN URBAN RIVER

5/24/2018  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  310 A

USING CITIZEN SCIENCE DATA TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF LAND USE ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES IN AN URBAN RIVER As urban populations continue to grow, the stress placed upon aquatic resources continues to increase. Particularly in urban watersheds, like the Rouge River in Detroit, relative composition of land usages can impact stream biota through a variety of mechanisms. Urban watersheds provide a unique opportunity compared with rural systems in their potential for citizen science activities. We analyzed land usage in the Rouge River watershed using the 2011 National Land Cover data (USGS) for correlation with citizen science macroinvertebrate survey data (2013-2016) from the Friends of the Rouge organization to determine the impact of land use on stream biota. We examined three subwatersheds, along an agricultural-urban gradient from an upstream subwatershed with 30 percent urban development to a downstream subwatershed with 95 percent urban land use. There was a negative correlation between percent-urban land and both species richness and sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT]) for each year except 2015. Conversely, there were positive correlations between both agricultural and forested land use with richness and EPT taxa each year except 2015. These findings demonstrate the utility of citizen science data to evaluate the impact of urbanization on aquatic resources.

Corey Krabbenhoft (), Wayne State University, cakrabbe@gmail.com;


Corey Krabbenhoft (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Wayne State University, ckrab@wayne.edu;


Donna Kashian (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Wayne State University, dkashian@wayne.edu;


Niklas Krantz (Primary Presenter/Author), Wayne State University, fn8443@wayne.edu;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 310 A HYDROGEOMORPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ALTER AQUATIC INSECT DRIFT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE

5/24/2018  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  310 A

HYDROGEOMORPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ALTER AQUATIC INSECT DRIFT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE Stream geomorphic features have been strongly related to multiple characteristics of benthic aquatic invertebrate communities. However, the potential influence of fluvial geomorphic features on invertebrate drift – a key biotic process in fluvial ecosystems – remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated relationships among hydrogeomorphic features and insect drift in urban headwater streams of the Columbus Metropolitan Area, Ohio. Drift of insects were sampled in spring, summer, and autumn for three years (2013-2015). Multiple hydrogeomorphic features were associated with the abundance and composition of insect drift. For example, insect abundance was negatively related to the width of the floodprone area while family richness was positively associated with incision ratio. Taxonomic-level responses were also observed: the relative abundance of odonates was positively correlated with shear stress and negatively correlated with entrenchment ratio. These preliminary results suggest that stream geomorphic adjustment may be an important driver of invertebrate drift in urban streams.

Leslie O. Rieck (Primary Presenter/Author), The Ohio State University, rieck.6@osu.edu;


S. Mazeika P. Sullivan (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The Ohio State University, sullivan.191@osu.edu;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 310 A ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF URBAN GARDENS AS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA

5/24/2018  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  310 A

ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF URBAN GARDENS AS GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA Urban gardening is increasingly popular in the Western world. Proponents claim that it offers numerous benefits to health, communities, economic development and environmental protection. This study examines community gardens’ contribution to storm water management in the Washington DC area and explore whether community gardens should be acknowledged as green infrastructure. The results of a pilot study focused on developing methods to capture surface runoff during simulated rainfall events. Within plant beds and co-located grassy areas, runoff analysis showed the amount of surface runoff generated and the concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals present in it. Findings suggest that the runoff coefficient (percent of rainfall that becomes runoff) for both surface types in community gardens in DC is relatively low with 2% on average. Manganese and potassium were observed to leach out of soils, though these two metals from soils are considered to be negligible sources of freshwater pollution. Results of this study indicate that community gardens may contribute to storm water management in DC. The design and preliminary results of a comprehensive DCWRRI-funded study is being used to continue the study through the 2018 growing season.

Harrison Hyde (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), American University, hh7062a@student.american.edu;


Gwynn Pollard (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), American University, gp9867a@american.edu;


Keeli Howard (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), American University, kh5325a@student.american.edu;


Karen Knee (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), American University, knee@american.edu;


Anna Spiller (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Bonn, anna.rmspiller@googlemail.com;


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