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SFS Annual Meeting

Thursday, May 24, 2018
11:00 - 12:30

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11:00 - 11:15: / 420 A EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF BOTTOM DEPOSITS ON BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS FOR PROTECTING ARIZONA’S PERENNIAL STREAMS

5/24/2018  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  420 A

EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF BOTTOM DEPOSITS ON BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS FOR PROTECTING ARIZONA’S PERENNIAL STREAMS Fine sediment aggradation in perennial stream ecosystems has a detrimental effect on biological processes that occur in interstitial spaces, such as macroinvertebrate reproduction (Waters, 1995). Reference condition streams with low percent fine sediment in stream substrate tend to have more abundant and diverse macroinvertebrates (Chapman and McLeod, 1987). For example, a study performed by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) in 2008 identified several macroinvertebrate taxa with high tolerances (Tanytarsus, Tricorythodes, and Cheumatopsyche) and low tolerances (Brachycentrus, Epeorus, Serratella, and Polycentropus) to fine sediment in substrates (Spindler, et al., 2008). In 2009, ADEQ implemented numeric “bottom deposits” water quality standards; 30% fine sediment for coldwater streams, and 50% for warmwater streams. Fine sediment was measured using modified Wolman pebble count; utilizing reachwide counts for both cold and warm regions, as per ADEQ sampling protocols (Wolman, 1954; Harrelson, et al., 1994). These water quality standards are meant to protect the Aquatic and Wildlife designated use. Our objective is to assess stream conditions and the response of macroinvertebrate bioindicators defined in previous ADEQ studies to evaluate sediment impacts on aquatic life in Arizona, and understand water quality research and policy boundaries.

Catherine Gullo (Primary Presenter/Author), Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, cg8@azdeq.gov;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 420 A WHO IS ON MY ROCK?: THE ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC INSECTS CROSSING LOTIC-LENTIC BOUNDARIES IN THE LAKES BASIN, SIERRA NEVADA, CALIFORNIA

5/24/2018  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  420 A

WHO IS ON MY ROCK?: THE ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC INSECTS CROSSING LOTIC-LENTIC BOUNDARIES IN THE LAKES BASIN, SIERRA NEVADA, CALIFORNIA While the fauna of lakes and streams are frequently studied, surprisingly little is known about species that inhabit both lentic and lotic habitats. In this study, we examined how lake and stream environments affect ecological and evolutionary processes among these boundary-crossing species. We documented the presence of larvae of two aquatic insects known from lotic habitats, the water penny beetle, Eubrianax edwardsii, and the caddisfly, Heteroplectron californicum, in a number of high elevation lakes in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Additionally, we found the caddisfly Limnephilus externus in both lotic and lentic habitats, and noted the occurrence of distinct communities of microinvertebrates, including Chironomid midges and Acari mites, in phoretic association with the caddisfly and its cases. We observed differences between lentic and lotic populations with regards to larval morphology, genetic variation, and stable isotope signatures among these three insect species, indicating that lakes and streams produce distinct evolutionary pressures on species that inhabit both habitats. Ongoing work is investigating genetic differences among the three lotic-lentic species across the Sierra Nevada and the nature of the association between the microinvertebrates on the cases and abdomen of Limnephilus.

Michael Marchetti (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Saint Mary's College of California, mpm9@stmarys-ca.edu;


Matthew Cover (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University, Stanislaus, mcover@csustan.edu;


Christine Parisek (Primary Presenter/Author), California State University, Stanislaus, cparisek@csustan.edu;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 420 A MACROINVERTEBRATES OF BEAVER-ALTERED STREAMS IN NORTHEASTERN UTAH

5/24/2018  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  420 A

MACROINVERTEBRATES OF BEAVER-ALTERED STREAMS IN NORTHEASTERN UTAH Beavers are important ecosystem engineers, heavily altering streams with dams. However, much of what is known about stream ecology does not include the influence of beaver, as they were trapped to virtual extirpation by the year 1900 and have only recently recovered. One foundational question is how the addition of beaver ponds influences macroinvertebrate communities, especially in western North America. This study compared the macroinvertebrate communities of unaltered stream reaches and of beaver ponds in three beaver-altered tributaries to the Logan River in northeastern Utah. Species richness, density, biomass, functional feeding group prevalence, and mobility group prevalence were quantified for each habitat. Although communities varied by stream, unaltered reaches housed mainly Ephemeropterans, with high numbers of Elmidae larvae, and Simuliids. Beaver ponds were dominated by Chironomids, and Dytiscid beetles were present. Species richness and macroinvertebrate density were higher in unaltered reaches compared to beaver ponds. We use these beaver-driven differences in macroinvertebrate communities to provide insight to fish bioenergetics and population dynamics in beaver-altered habitats. Thus, our results can inform fisheries management and stream restoration efforts, and present a holistic perspective of stream communities.

Susan Washko (Primary Presenter/Author), Utah State University, susan.washko@aggiemail.usu.edu;


Trisha Atwood (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Utah State University, trisha.atwood@usu.edu;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 420 A FACTORS INFLUENCING STREAM INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ACROSS PRAIRIE TYPES IN THE GREAT PLAINS

5/24/2018  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  420 A

FACTORS INFLUENCING STREAM INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ACROSS PRAIRIE TYPES IN THE GREAT PLAINS Prairie streams are highly threatened ecosystems. Most of what is known about them comes from studies conducted at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, a tallgrass prairie preserve located in northeastern KS. We compared ecosystem metrics and invertebrate community structure across thirteen headwater streams draining tallgrass, mixed-grass, and shortgrass prairies. Invertebrate abundance (p = 0.035) and community structure (p = 0.001) differed significantly with prairie type, although there was high variability within prairie types. Chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.36, p = 0.001), discharge (R2 = 0.32, p = 0.01), mean monthly temperature (R2 = 0.29, p = 0.009), and percent erosional habitat (R2 = 0.19, p = 0.081) were among the variables linked with differences in community structure. Composition of invertebrate feeding functional structure (R2 = 0.63, p = 0.001) and habits (R2 = 0.50, p = 0.026) differed by site, and voltinism differed by site (R2 = 0.55, p = 0.021) and prairie type (R2 = 0.27, p = 0.007). This study highlights how regional climate, basal resources, and local hydromorphic factors shape community structure in prairie streams, and the high variability in prairie stream ecosystem structure.

Matt Whiles (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University - Carbondale, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


Logan Shoup (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, logan.shoup@gmail.com;


Jessica Fulgoni (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, jfulgoni@siu.edu;


Kasey Fralick (Primary Presenter/Author), Southern Illinois University - Carbondale, fralickk@siu.edu;


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12:00 - 12:15: / 420 A SEASONAL MIGRATION OF CORIXIDS (HEMIPTERA: CORIXIDAE) AS A LINKAGE BETWEEN WETLAND AND RIVER ECOSYSTEMS

5/24/2018  |   12:00 - 12:15   |  420 A

SEASONAL MIGRATION OF CORIXIDS (HEMIPTERA: CORIXIDAE) AS A LINKAGE BETWEEN WETLAND AND RIVER ECOSYSTEMS Linkages between spatially separated water bodies in the form of migratory insects have the potential to greatly influence ecosystem functioning and food web dynamics. Migratory insects that act as food web subsidies can also be instrumental to fish production in lotic ecosystems. We have identified a potentially important subsidy in the form of migrating corixids (Hemiptera: Corixidae) that move from wetlands into the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers during the fall. Results from 2015 and 2016 indicate that corixid migration begins in late September, marked by tremendous increases in abundance in the rivers and decreased abundances of migratory corixid species in wetlands. A shift in species composition also occurs as wetland migrants arrive in the rivers. The stable isotope of sulphur was used to trace this migration between the two habitats. Gut content analyses show that goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), make heavy use this forage subsidy. This study could underscore a need for the integrated conservation of both wetland and river habitats by characterizing a linkage that exists between these spatially separated ecosystems.

Stephen Srayko (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Saskatchewan, shs176@mail.usask.ca;


Tim Jardine (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Saskatchewan, tim.jardine@usask.ca;


Iain Phillips (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Troutreach Saskatchewan/ Water Security Agency of Saskatchewan, iain.phillips@wsask.ca;


Doug Chivers (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Saskatchewan, doug.chivers@usask.ca;


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12:15 - 12:30: / 420 A TRUE FRENEMIES: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LARVAE OF THE ENDANGERED HINE'S EMERALD DRAGONFLY (SOMATOCHLORA HINEANA), AND ITS TEMPERAMENTAL CRAYFISH ROOMMATE.

5/24/2018  |   12:15 - 12:30   |  420 A

TRUE FRENEMIES: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LARVAE OF THE ENDANGERED HINE'S EMERALD DRAGONFLY (SOMATOCHLORA HINEANA), AND ITS TEMPERAMENTAL CRAYFISH ROOMMATE. The Hine’s emerald dragonfly (HED) is a federally listed endangered species with a complex relationship with the omnivorous devil crayfish (Cambarus diogenes). They use crayfish burrows as refuge during winter and periods of low water, over their 4 to 5 year larval life. To explore how these larvae survive cohabitation with a predator, we analyzed 16 years of data looking for patterns of burrow occupancy. Burrow mesocosm studies were conducted to examine behavioral interactions between HED larvae and crayfish. Field studies indicate that larvae are found in greater numbers in specific burrows, and exhibit high burrow system fidelity. Mesocosm experiments suggest that low detectability of the HED larvae by the crayfish plays a role and allows coexistence for prolonged periods. The complex dependency of this endangered dragonfly on a predator and competitor, highlights the need for the integration of ongoing ecological and behavioral studies into conservation efforts.

Daniel Soluk (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of South Dakota, daniel.soluk@usd.edu ;


Patricia Dombrowski (Primary Presenter/Author), University of South Dakota, dombrowskitrish22@gmail.com;


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