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SFS Annual Meeting

Monday, May 20, 2019
09:00 - 10:30

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09:15 - 09:30: / 253 AB IRRIGATION CANALS ARE NEWLY CREATED STREAMS OF SEMI-ARID AGRICULTURAL REGIONS

5/20/2019  |   09:15 - 09:30   |  253 AB

IRRIGATION CANALS ARE NEWLY CREATED STREAMS OF SEMI-ARID AGRICULTURAL REGIONS Diversion of surface water to support production agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions has degraded ecosystems but also created potential habitat along and in canals. The prevalence of canals and the immense amount of water used for agriculture have created new artificial stream systems urban and agricultural landscapes. We examined the hydrological and ecological characteristics of streams and canals in urban in northeastern Colorado. Despite artificial flow patterns and physical structure taxonomic and functional composition of riparian plant and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities indicated that ecological similarities exist between streams and canals. Surrounding landuse impacted the degree of similarity, with stronger similarities between streams and canals in agricultural areas. We developed a Habitat Quality Index (HQI) that combined physical and biological measures into a single index and compared this to biodiversity and EPT bioassessment methods. Streams scored higher on average within agriculture and urban landscape compared to canals; however, one third of urban canals scored above the average of agricultural streams. This multidisciplinary study shows that irrigation canals can be valuable riparian and aquatic habitat, especially in regions with degraded streams.

Erick Carlson (Primary Presenter/Author), Marietta College, eac005@marietta.edu;


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09:30 - 09:45: / 253 AB VARIABLE INUNDATION PATTERNS, WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITIES, AND NITROGEN UPTAKE IN THE SALT RIVER WETLANDS

5/20/2019  |   09:30 - 09:45   |  150 DEF

VARIABLE INUNDATION PATTERNS, WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITIES, AND NITROGEN UPTAKE IN THE SALT RIVER WETLANDS Arid urban wetlands remove nitrogen from runoff through denitrification and plant uptake. Wetland nitrogen removal efficiency is influenced by environmental conditions and plant community composition, processes, and interactions, which all fluctuate significantly within and between years in arid urban systems. Therefore, nitrogen removal may depend on complex interactions between community composition and environmental conditions. Recent work found species-specific differences in nitrogen retention and biomass accumulation that varied over time and as a function of species interactions. We asked, how do plant community interactions vary as a function of water conditions in an arid urban wetland, and how does this variation affect nitrogen uptake? We approached these complex interactions between environmental context, plant community, and nitrogen removal using a combination of plant tissue chemistry and vegetation and water surveys of accidental urban wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona. We found significant intra-annual variation in hydrology that were unrelated to storm events but correlated with change in the wetland plant community composition and abundance, including shifts in dominance between Ludwigia peploides and Typha domingensis in perennial sites following sustained wetness, and the sudden death of substantial Typha domingensis stands following drying of intermittent sites.

Marina Lauck (Primary Presenter/Author), Arizona State University, mlauck1@asu.edu;


Nancy Grimm (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arizona State University, nbgrimm@asu.edu;


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09:45 - 10:00: / 253 AB DEVELOPMENT OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE MULTI-METRIC INDEX TO ASSESS IMPACTS TO WETLANDS IN THE IRRIGATED FLOODPLAINS OF WYOMING

5/20/2019  |   09:45 - 10:00   |  253 AB

DEVELOPMENT OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE MULTI-METRIC INDEX TO ASSESS IMPACTS TO WETLANDS IN THE IRRIGATED FLOODPLAINS OF WYOMING Wetlands remain highly threatened throughout the arid intermountain regions of the U.S. and are subjected to pressures from agricultural, residential, and energy development. In Wyoming, flood irrigation is common in agricultural areas, and paradoxically, water from irrigation is estimated to support or create up to 20% of current wetland acres. Land managers are increasingly aware of the ecological and economic importance of wetlands created or supported by irrigation and there is a growing need to better understand and monitor these highly managed, accidental wetlands. The objective of this study is to develop a multi-metric index that is responsive to different intensities and types of human activities that can be applied to wetlands with both natural and artificial water sources. We collected field data for 56 wetland sites in the Little Snake River basin, including metrics based on landscape, physical, biological, and hydrologic attributes, water quality parameters, plant diversity, and aquatic macroinvertebrates. We identified over 200 wetland macroinvertebrate taxa and selected a set of metrics that are reliable signals of disturbance. The integrated multi-metric index provides information that is relevant to the management of water resources and irrigation-influenced wetland habitats.

Teresa Tibbets (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Wyoming, ttibbets@uwyo.edu;


Lusha Tronstad (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wyoming, Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, tronstad@uwyo.edu;


Lindsey Washkoviak (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wyoming, lwashkov@uwyo.edu;


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10:00 - 10:15: / 253 AB INTEGRATING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS WITH THE DPSIR FRAMEWORK IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE NIGER DELTA ECOSYSTEM

5/20/2019  |   10:00 - 10:15   |  253 AB

INTEGRATING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS WITH THE DPSIR FRAMEWORK IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE NIGER DELTA ECOSYSTEM The Niger Delta is Africa’s largest delta consisting of the third largest mangrove forest in the world. The delta is home to all of Nigeria's endemic or near-endemic mammal species and to six International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List mammals. The Niger Delta harbours globally outstanding fish fauna and displays exceptional evolutionary phenomena with its high taxonomic endemism and distinct species assemblages. However, this fragile but rich ecosystem is seriously threatened by industrial pollution, resource over-exploitation and environmental degradation caused by over six decades of oil exploitation. Aquatic lives have been destroyed with the pollution of traditional fishing grounds, exacerbating hunger and poverty in fishing communities. The multifarious use of the delta has led to human-induced changes in biota, habitats and landscapes necessitating the development of a holistic policy that considers all the interacting factors in the ecosystem. Taking a systems approach which incorporates an understanding of The Ecosystem Approach, the Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework, ecosystem services and societal benefits are integrated in order to evolve a management tool that will result in sustainable resource exploitation, improvement in living standards of locals and restoration of the ecosystem.

Prince Emeka Ndimele (Primary Presenter/Author), Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria., emeka.ndimele@lasu.edu.ng;


Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Ibadan, Oyo State. Nigeria, kanayodrchukwuka97@gmail.com;


Hijrah Yetunde Kushoro (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria, kushorohijrah@yahoo.com;


Lois Oyindamola Ewenla (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria, ewenlaoyindamolalois@gmail.com;


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10:15 - 10:30: / 253 AB MICROBIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY IN URBAN STREAMS RECEIVING WASTEWATER EFFLUENT

5/20/2019  |   10:15 - 10:30   |  253 AB

MICROBIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY IN URBAN STREAMS RECEIVING WASTEWATER EFFLUENT Microbial communities are critical components of freshwater ecosystems that vary along spatiotemporal gradients and drive material cycling and energy flow. In urban streams, multiple stressors can affect these communities and influence ecosystem function. We quantified microbial abundance and diversity from three habitats (surface water, sediment, riparian soil) in two creeks in Charlotte, N.C. that are receiving treated wastewater. We collected samples from two sites upstream and downstream of WWTPs for both creeks. We used Illumina 16S sequencing to assay the microbial community at each site across four time points from late winter to mid-summer of 2016. As expected, water, sediment, and soil microbial communities were separate and unique at all taxonomic levels from phylum to genus. There were slight differences across time for each habitat and over half of the taxa were similar between upstream and downstream sites. In a companion project, we quantified an increase in antibiotic concentrations downstream of the WWTP and a slight suppression of functional pathways in the surface water microbial community. Further studies should investigate the impact of chronic, low concentrations antibiotics on both surface water and sediment microbial community function.

Sandra Clinton, PhD (Primary Presenter/Author), University of North Carolina at Charlotte, sclinto1@uncc.edu;


James Johnson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of North Carolina Charlotte, jjohn443@uncc.e;


Kevin Lambirth (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of North Carolina Charlotte, kclambirth@uncc.edu;


Anthony Fodor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of North Carolina Charlotte, afodor@uncc.edu;


Cynthia Gibas (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of North Carolina Charlotte, cgibas@uncc.edu;;


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