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SFS Annual Meeting

Monday, May 20, 2019
11:00 - 12:30

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11:00 - 11:15: / 151 ABC REDEFINING AQUATIC HABITAT CONNECTIVITY FOR URBAN CATCHMENTS

5/20/2019  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  151 ABC

REDEFINING AQUATIC HABITAT CONNECTIVITY FOR URBAN CATCHMENTS Maintaining thermal habitat connectivity at larger spatial scales is essential for conservation of coldwater stream species. Coldwater fish and aquatic invertebrates have specific thermal tolerance ranges, and their ability to survive thermal stress requires dispersal through connected thermal habitat and thermal refugia. Effects of urbanization are widespread throughout stream networks at multiple spatial scales. Urban areas affect the stream thermal and hydrological regimes and the extent of their influence depends on different local drivers such the repartition of impervious surface within the drainage area. Our ability to quantify amounts of stream burial, sewer-stream connectivity, and pipe-to-stream ratios as drivers of thermal regimes in urban stream networks are important first steps in redefining thermal habitat connectivity. Our study uses logger and modelled data to quantify influences of underground pipe systems on stream temperature for Baltimore City area urban streams. Our results will be compared to other studies to discuss how specific urban drivers influence thermal regimes and thus, thermal habitat connectivity at larger spatial scales. Stream restoration strategies need to include effective management practices for thermal pollution mitigation to maintain a network of thermal refugia for aquatic species across the landscape.

Anne L. Timm (Primary Presenter/Author), USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, altimm@fs.fed.us;


Valerie Ouellet (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Birmingham, v.ouellet@bham.ac.uk;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 151 ABC THERMAL RESTORATION IN A FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE.

5/20/2019  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  151 ABC

THERMAL RESTORATION IN A FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE. Understanding how riparian forest fragmentation affects stream thermal regimes is essential to inform effective land management programs aiming to achieve thermal restoration and/or resilience in the face of projected climate warming. Here we present the results from a landscape-level study to evaluate the effects of riparian forest buffer quality on the thermal regimes of headwater streams. At a landscape level, there was important diurnal variations and restored riparian buffer patches. Analysis of adjacent riparian patches revealed very rapid warming of stream water flowing from covered to exposed patch cover types. At the reach scale, pool thermal regimes surveys showed that significant differences exist not only in daily variations but also induce a strong thermal gradient in the downstream direction through the meadow reach. Forested pools presented a pronounced thermal structure compared to all the other pools surveyed. Our results showed the importance of riparian vegetation and in channel hydrogeomorphic features in controlling pool thermal regimes and longitudinal thermal gradients. Our results suggest that effective conservation and restoration efforts should focus on protecting, improving and connecting riparian forest buffers by looking at thermal regimes and thermal habitat structure at different scales.

Valerie Ouellet (Primary Presenter/Author,Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Birmingham, v.ouellet@bham.ac.uk;


Melinda Daniels (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Center, mdaniels@stroudcenter.org;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 151 ABC THERMAL RESPONSES TO RIPARIAN THINNING IN REDWOOD HEADWATER STREAMS AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL SCALES

5/20/2019  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  151 ABC

THERMAL RESPONSES TO RIPARIAN THINNING IN REDWOOD HEADWATER STREAMS AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL SCALES Land managers are actively thinning second-growth forests in the redwoods of coastal northern California in order to accelerate the recovery of old-growth forests. These restoration efforts have largely targeted upland forests to date, but now there is interest in applying them to riparian forests. In this study, we evaluated the effects of riparian thinning on riparian shade and light conditions and the influences on the thermal regimes of three redwood headwater stream networks in a watershed-scale field experiment. Preliminary results indicate that decreases in riparian shade and increases in solar radiation associated with experimental riparian thinning treatments resulted in local increases in stream temperature of 1.5 - 2 degrees C. These local increases in temperature extended further downstream between 100-600m and were evident at multiple spatial scales. These initial data suggest that more subtle changes in shade and light associated with riparian thinning treatments can affect thermal conditions of these headwater streams both locally and further downstream. However, the magnitude of these thermal responses and their spatial extent vary with the amount of shade lost. These data provide important information for managers considering riparian management activities in the redwoods.

David Roon (Primary Presenter/Author), Oregon State University, david.roon@oregonstate.edu;


Jason Dunham (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U. S. Geological Survey, jdunham@usgs.gov;


Bret Harvey (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USFS, bharvey@fs.fed.us;


J. Ryan Bellmore (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Juneau, AK, jbellmore@fs.fed.us;


Dede Olson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USFS, dolson@fs.fed.us;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 151 ABC A PROCESS-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR RESTORING THERMAL HETEROGENEITY IN REGULATED RIVERS

5/20/2019  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  151 ABC

A PROCESS-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR RESTORING THERMAL HETEROGENEITY IN REGULATED RIVERS The thermal regimes of streams and rivers, and associated thermal heterogeneity, influence the growth and distribution of aquatic organisms and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Climate change and anthropogenic habitat alterations affect riverine thermal regimes. Process-based restoration focuses on physical and ecological processes that maintain and create resilient ecosystems. We develop a process-based framework for restoring thermal heterogeneity in regulated rivers and examine three main premises: (1) thermal heterogeneity is constrained by the thermal regime of the river, (2) ecosystem processes driving thermal heterogeneity depend on the characteristics of thermal regimes, and (3) system-wide modifications of thermal regimes (e.g., dams, urbanization) determine the scope of thermal restoration. In this framework, we evaluate current conditions of the thermal regime, prioritize areas for protection, and focus on restoring processes that create and maintain thermal heterogeneity in riverine landscapes. We explore the utility of this framework with case studies in medium- and large-sized regulated rivers in the Pacific Northwest (USA).

Francine Mejia (Primary Presenter/Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, fmejia@usgs.gov;


Christian Torgersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, ctorgersen@usgs.gov ;


Eric Berntsen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kalispel Tribe, Natural Resources Department, eberntsen@knrd.org;


Todd Andersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kalispel Tribe, Natural Resources Department, tandersen@kalispeltribe.com;


Joseph Maroney (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kalispel Tribe, Natural Resources Department, jmaroney@kalispeltribe.com;


Barret Kurylyk (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dalhousie University, Centre for Water Resources Studies and Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, barret.kurylyk@dal.ca;


Aimee Fullerton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, aimee.fullerton@noaa.gov;


Joe Ebersole (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US EPA, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR, ebersole.joe@epa.gov;


Zacchary Johnson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, johnsonz@uw.edu;


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12:00 - 12:15: / 151 ABC STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF ATLANTIC SALMON THERMAL REFUGES IN THE RESTIGOUCHE RIVER WATERSHED

5/20/2019  |   12:00 - 12:15   |  151 ABC

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF ATLANTIC SALMON THERMAL REFUGES IN THE RESTIGOUCHE RIVER WATERSHED Extended low flow events resulting in warmer water temperatures are an emerging problem in eastern Canadian rivers. In the context of climate change, thermal refuges are increasingly becoming key habitats for resilient Atlantic salmon populations. Evidence-based decision-making is at the forefront of our collaborative partnerships with indigenous communities to protect Atlantic salmon habitat. Therefore, between 2011 and 2013, we acquired high resolution optical and thermal imagery on 862 km of river, creating a database of 1825 classified thermal refuges throughout the Restigouche River watershed. This comprehensive mapping enabled us to create a decision matrix tool based on refuge type to help managers prioritize efforts towards identifying, mapping, preserving and enhancing these critical habitats for Atlantic salmon. Our recent management efforts, to mitigate climate change-driven habitat loss, target thermal refuges types that can be protected under conservation agreements with land-owners. Detailed mapping of the drainage areas of these thermal refuges using LiDAR will allow us to identify catchment area and identify land-use practices that threaten cold-water persistence that Atlantic salmon rely upon. This project is a perfect example of how fundamental research on river thermal regimes can inform local management efforts.

Pascale Gosselin (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Gespe'gewaq Mi'gmaq Resource Council, pgosselin@gmrc.ca;


David Leblanc (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Restigouche River Watershed Management Council, restigouche@globetrotter.net;


Stephen J Dugdale (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Nottingham, Stephen.Dugdale@nottingham.ac.uk;


Carole-Anne Gillis (Primary Presenter/Author), Gespe'gewaq Mi'gmaq Resource Council, gilliscaroleann@hotmail.com;


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12:15 - 12:30: / 151 ABC MORE THAN COLD: TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE IDENTIFICATION OF COLD-WATER REFUGES AND CLIMATE REFUGIA FOR AQUATIC LIFE

5/20/2019  |   12:15 - 12:30   |  151 ABC

MORE THAN COLD: TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE IDENTIFICATION OF COLD-WATER REFUGES AND CLIMATE REFUGIA FOR AQUATIC LIFE Cold water refuges (CWR) – areas of cold water in which thermally-stressed individuals may seek temporary shelter – are increasingly invoked as a potentially mitigating feature within warming river systems. CWR use is often assumed to confer benefits to fishes by providing temporary shelter from adverse conditions. But CWR use and thermoregulation is not without costs. Increased risk of predation, lost opportunity for foraging, and increased isolation within thermally-fragmented river systems may offset potential benefits. To provide a framework for assessing CWR, we illustrate a conceptual model of CWR costs/benefits that recognizes that CWR provisioning ability is influenced by the suitabilities, capacities and characteristics of individual refuges, as well as the spatial and temporal context of the surrounding matrix and the suite of potentially connected neighboring refuges. Networks of CWR and their context in relation to extensive areas of cold water serving as core areas can also be understood to function as important elements of larger-scale climate refugia for highly-migratory species like salmon. This framework is intended to be useful as state and federal regulatory agencies continue to incorporate concepts of CWR into water temperature standards and TMDLs.

Joe Ebersole (Primary Presenter/Author), US EPA, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR, ebersole.joe@epa.gov;


Marcia Snyder (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Environmental Protection Agency, snyder.marcia@epa.gov;


Christian Torgersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, ctorgersen@usgs.gov ;


Matthew Keefer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Idaho, mkeefer@uidaho.edu;


Aimee Fullerton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, aimee.fullerton@noaa.gov;


Stan Gregory (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, stanley.gregory@oregonstate.edu;


Jonathan Armstrong (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, jonny5armstrong@gmail.com;


John Palmer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, palmer.john@epa.gov;


Dru Keenan (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Environmental Protection Agency, keenan.dru@epa.gov;


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