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SFS Annual Meeting

Monday, May 20, 2019
11:00 - 12:30

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11:00 - 11:15: / 251 AB ARE ECOLOGICAL THREATS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL POLLUTION CONTEXT DEPENDANT?

5/20/2019  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  251 AB

ARE ECOLOGICAL THREATS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL POLLUTION CONTEXT DEPENDANT? The relentless onslaught of pharmaceutical contaminants that streams and rivers are subjected to is fast becoming a serious global environmental problem because of the highly uncertain consequences for ecological and human health. Medications, such as antidepressants, beta-blockers, antibiotics and antihistamines are constantly dispersed into the environment largely by inadequacies in wastewater treatment processes or sewage infrastructure. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals are often greater in urban areas because of higher loads of wastewater effluent. Once in the environment, pharmaceuticals are frequently detected as complex mixtures of multiple compounds and numerous drugs are resistant to degradation. We conducted a replicated artificial stream experiment to test the effects of pharmaceuticals and other common urban chemical stressors such as salt and nutrients on stream ecosystem structure and function, including macroinvertebrate communities. Our results suggest that pharmaceutical effects are dependent on environmental context and that urban chemical stressors may increase the potency of pharmaceutical pollution.

Erinn Richmond (Primary Presenter/Author), Monash University , erinn.richmond@monash.edu;


Sylvia Lee (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, lee.sylvia@epa.gov;


Alexander Reisinger (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, reisingera@ufl.edu;


Emma Rosi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, rosie@caryinstitute.org;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 251 AB A BITTER PILL TO SWALLOW: EFFECTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN ON URBAN STREAM BIOFILMS

5/20/2019  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  251 AB

A BITTER PILL TO SWALLOW: EFFECTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN ON URBAN STREAM BIOFILMS Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including the commonly prescribed antibiotic ciprofloxacin, are commonly found in freshwaters. Despite their presence in surface waters, PPCP effects on aquatic ecosystem functions at environmentally-realistic concentrations are poorly understood. Stream biofilms perform important aquatic ecosystem functions like primary production and nutrient cycling, but their response to PPCPs is unclear. To better understand ciprofloxacin effects on stream biofilm functioning, we colonized biofilms in situ on tiles at four sites along an urban stream in Gainesville, FL, including two sites below a wastewater reclamation facility (WWRF). After a two-week colonization period, we exposed biofilms to a range (0-1.0 ug/L) of ciprofloxacin concentrations in the lab. Following a 6d lab exposure, we estimated biofilm gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and algal biomass (as chla). All responses differed across sites (p<0.01), and ciprofloxacin decreased GPP (p<0.05) regardless of concentration. In contrast, ciprofloxacin did not affect R, although there was a non-significant increase in R at the site immediately below the WWRF. These results suggest that chronic exposure to PPCPs through WWRF effluent can alter biofilm functions, with consequences for higher trophic levels and multiple stream functions.

Alexander Reisinger (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Florida, reisingera@ufl.edu;


Morgan Gallagher (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Tech, mtg3@vt.edu;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 251 AB BIOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN WASTEWATER TOXICITY TESTS AND POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF HIGHER AMBIENT TEMPERATURES AND EXTENDED WARM PERIODS

5/20/2019  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  251 AB

BIOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN WASTEWATER TOXICITY TESTS AND POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF HIGHER AMBIENT TEMPERATURES AND EXTENDED WARM PERIODS Facilities discharging treated wastewater must meet certain water quality limits as defined in their permit(s). Often the parameters include whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, which may be acute or short-term chronic (STC). Cases of significant WET failure with both Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in effluents have been traced to the presence of microorganisms in the effluent. To track down the suspect toxicant, Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods were modified by inclusion of manipulations effective in reducing or eliminating biological interference (e.g., UV, chlorination). Wastewater samples were cultured in an aerobic environment using, primarily, MacConkey, TSA, and Columbia agars. While several bacterial taxa have been identified in wastewater, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas are the prime suspects in causing significant biological interference. Significant effects to the test organisms were replicated by reintroduction of microorganisms into clean lab water. Biological interference in WET tests generally disappears once air temperatures drop in the autumn. Recent cases, however, have occurred later in the year when it is suspected that higher, sustained temperatures have allowed microorganisms to continue to flourish either in the discharged wastewater itself and/or on surfaces in the wastewater plant.

David Pillard (Primary Presenter/Author), TRE Environmental Strategies, pillardda.tre@gmail.com;


Rami Naddy (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), TRE Environmental Strategies, naddyrb.tre@gmail.com;


Rebecca Gagnon (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), TRE Environmental Strategies, jenschra.tre@gmail.com;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 251 AB COLLOIDAL AND TRULY-DISSOLVED METALS AND METALLOIDS IN WASTEWATER LAGOONS AND THEIR REMOVAL WITH FLOATING TREATMENT WETLANDS

5/20/2019  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  251 AB

COLLOIDAL AND TRULY-DISSOLVED METALS AND METALLOIDS IN WASTEWATER LAGOONS AND THEIR REMOVAL WITH FLOATING TREATMENT WETLANDS While the fraction of total wastewater metals and metalloids in “dissolved” forms (defined here as < 450 nm) likely drive their potential for negative effects on receiving waters, this broad operational definition lumps truly-dissolved solutes (<1 nm) with small colloids and nanomaterials (1-450 nm; hereafter colloids). This distinction may be important as colloids and truly-dissolved solutes differ in their interactions with aquatic organisms and likely would require different strategies for their removal from wastewater. In this study, we examined the distribution of metal(loid)s between truly-dissolved and small colloidal fractions in six wastewater lagoon systems. We also examined the efficacy of “floating treatment wetlands” (FTWs)—which use emergent macrophytes grown hydroponically in floating mats—in removing metal(loids) and influencing the distribution of contaminants among truly-dissolved and small colloidal size ranges. In our survey of lagoons, we found that cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc were most abundant as small colloids while aluminum, arsenic, chromium, and manganese were most abundant as truly-dissolved solutes. The FTWs were especially effective at removing those metal(loid)s that were abundant in colloidal forms, suggesting a potential role for FTWs in enhancing wastewater lagoon efficiency for some metal(loid) contaminants.

Benjamin Colman (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Montana, ben.colman@umontana.edu;


Lauren Sullivan (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, lauren.sullivan@umontana.edu;


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12:00 - 12:15: / 251 AB DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON LIMITATION IN FILAMENTOUS ALGAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT FLOWAYS IN NEW ZEALAND

5/20/2019  |   12:00 - 12:15   |  251 AB

DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON LIMITATION IN FILAMENTOUS ALGAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT FLOWAYS IN NEW ZEALAND Nutrient discharges can stimulate harmful algal blooms, cause fish kills, impair of wildlife habitat, restrict human recreation, and release harmful toxins into drinking water sources. However in the US only 30% of wastewater effluent is treated to remove nutrients. Thus, it is critical to develop and implement technologies to eliminate nutrient pollution from wastewater effluent. One promising approach uses filamentous algae to remove nutrients. Because these algae photosynthesize rapidly in wastewater floways, algal growth may become limited by the availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This hypothesis was tested in 3 experiments conducted in New Zealand using 15-m long, 1-cm deep floways. Experiments compared algal growth and nutrient removal with and without the addition of carbon dioxide. Primary treated wastewater infused with carbon dioxide stimulated 30% more algal biomass. However, DIC infused wastewater did not show enhanced nitrogen or phosphorus removal. These experiments are consistent with the hypothesis that DIC can become limiting in large-scale filamentous algal wastewater treatment systems. It is possible that DIC may limit algal production in other nutrient enriched streams exposed to full sun.

Troy Keller (Primary Presenter/Author), Columbus State Unviersity, keller_troy@columbusstate.edu;


Rupert Craggs (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd, Rupert.Craggs@niwa.co.nz;


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12:15 - 12:30: / 251 AB ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ALTER INSECT EMERGENCE AND RESULT IN FLUX OF METALS FROM AQUATIC TO TERRESTRIAL FOOD WEBS

5/20/2019  |   12:15 - 12:30   |  251 AB

ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ALTER INSECT EMERGENCE AND RESULT IN FLUX OF METALS FROM AQUATIC TO TERRESTRIAL FOOD WEBS Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to engineered nanoparticles through discharge from wastewater and agricultural runoff. We conducted an experiment to examine the combined effects of chronic dosing of nanoparticles and nutrients on insect emergence. Three levels of nanoparticles (control, gold, copper) were crossed by two levels of nutrients (ambient vs. enriched nutrient dosing) in 18 outdoor wetland mesocosms. We estimated emergent insect abundance, community structure and flux of copper and gold nanoparticles from aquatic ecosystems to adjacent terrestrial environments, monthly over a nine-month experiment. We detected significant decrease in insect emergence after exposure to nanoparticles in some months and a flux of nanoparticles from treated mesocosms. These results have implications for terrestrial subsidies and contaminations in insectivorous terrestrial and riparian food webs.

Marie Simonin (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Duke University, simonin.marie@gmail.com;


Benjamin Castellon (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, benjamin_castellon@baylor.edu;


Steve Anderson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Duke University & North Carolina State University , sa165@duke.edu;


Ethan Baruch (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arizona State University, ebaruch@asu.edu;


Cole Matson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Cole_Matson@baylor.edu;


Emily Bernhardt (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Duke University, ebernhar@duke.edu;


Ryan S. King (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Ryan_S_King@baylor.edu;


Brittany Perrotta (Primary Presenter/Author), Baylor University, Brittany_Perrotta@baylor.edu ;


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