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SFS Annual Meeting

Tuesday, May 21, 2019
11:00 - 12:30

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11:00 - 11:15: / 250 DE LIFE ON THE EDGE: EDGE EFFECTS OF A COASTAL NEOTROPICAL FOREST ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

5/21/2019  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  250 DE

LIFE ON THE EDGE: EDGE EFFECTS OF A COASTAL NEOTROPICAL FOREST ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES Edge effects are interactions that occur at the boundary of two adjacent ecosystems and have been described in the literature in terms of deforestation and fragmentation. Edge habitats experience environmental conditions different from those found in forest interiors, as external influences are felt strongest on edges of smaller remnants created through the removal of surrounding vegetation. However, a paucity of studies on edge effects in aquatic systems exists. The purpose of this study was to determine if edge effects influence macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams. Community dissimilarity was predicted between the two habitats, with greater abundance, taxa richness, and diversity predicted in the interior stream. Macroinvertebrate communities from streams in Campanario, Costa Rica were collected and assessed for differences in community structure between edge and interior habitats. The interior stream had significantly greater abundance, richness, and diversity than the edge stream. Moreover, community composition between habitats was significantly dissimilar. These results support previous research suggesting that edge habitats support unique communities in aquatic ecosystems. Further studies on the influence of edge effects on tropical ecosystems are needed as the tropics continue to suffer from the greatest loss of forest cover worldwide.

Jared Dyer (Primary Presenter/Author), Kent State University, jdyer15@kent.edu;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 250 DE HYPORHEIC SECONDARY PRODUCTION AND LIFE HISTORY OF A COMMON STONEFLY IN AN OZARK STREAM

5/21/2019  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  250 DE

HYPORHEIC SECONDARY PRODUCTION AND LIFE HISTORY OF A COMMON STONEFLY IN AN OZARK STREAM Hyporheic zones are ecologically important in part because they provide aquatic macroinvertebrates with unique habitat and refuge from flow extremes. Stoneflies are known hyporheic inhabitants. We collected hyporheic samples monthly (January to September 2018) from 30-45cm below the streambed from the mainstem and an ephemeral tributary of an Ozark stream. We tracked a population of common stoneflies, Leuctra tenuis, to describe their life history and estimate secondary production in the hyporheic zone per unit area of streambed. Secondary production of hyporheic L. tenuis was ~19 mg m-2yr-1 and development took about 8 months in the main channel with early instars appearing in February and adults emerging in September. We found differences in L. tenuis development rate between the thermally distinct mainstem and ephemeral tributary hyporheic habitats, indicating that L. tenuis development responds strongly to accumulated degree days. Mainstem nymphs reached maturity two weeks earlier, but mature nymphs appeared in both habitats after the same number of degree days accumulated since January (~4020 DD). Studying life histories of hyporheic insects will improve understanding of how the hyporheic zone affects whole-stream processes, such as energy availability for aquatic and riparian food webs.

Debra Finn (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Missouri State University, dfinn@missouristate.edu;


Nathan Dorff (Primary Presenter/Author), Missouri State University, natedorff@gmail.com;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 250 DE METABOLIC RESPONSES TO LONG-TERM FOOD DEPRIVATION IN SUBTERRANEAN AND SURFACE AMPHIPODS

5/21/2019  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  250 DE

METABOLIC RESPONSES TO LONG-TERM FOOD DEPRIVATION IN SUBTERRANEAN AND SURFACE AMPHIPODS A long-standing hypothesis in subterranean biology posits that organisms living in resource poor subsurface habitats can withstand long periods of resource shortages due to reduced metabolic rate (RMR) when compared to their epigean counterparts. However, previous studies have proposed that caves with ample energy resources may not evolve organisms with RMR. The equivocal nature of previous findings suggests that there is still a need to systematically compare starvation responses of subterranean and surface species in order to elucidate whether there are widespread adaptations to low energy systems in subterranean taxa. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of food deprivation in closely related subterranean- and surface- macroinvertebrates (amphipods), Stygobromus pecki and Synurella sp, from the adjacent Edwards and Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifers in Texas, USA. S. pecki and Synurella sp, were food deprived for a pre-determined time interval and changes in whole-body metabolites were measured throughout food deprivation experiments. Our results indicated that under fasting conditions, S. pecki, utilized metabolic reserves at much lower rates when compared to Synurella sp. Thus, it appears that S. pecki have evolved more efficient metabolic adaptations to survive prolonged periods of food deprivation.

Mar Huertas (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas State University, mhuertas@txstate.edu;


Weston Nowlin (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas State University, wnowlin@txstate.edu;


Parvathi Nair (Primary Presenter/Author), Texas State University, p_n22@txstate.edu;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 250 DE PARASITES EXPERIENCING PREDATION RISK ACCELERATE CONSUMPTION OF THEIR HOST

5/21/2019  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  250 DE

PARASITES EXPERIENCING PREDATION RISK ACCELERATE CONSUMPTION OF THEIR HOST Endoparasites consume energy first acquired by their hosts, and could be influenced by foraging changes of hosts responding to predation risk. We examined relationships between host foraging and parasite growth in the context of predation risk, using grazing mayflies (Baetis bicaudatus) infected by an endoparasitic nematode for which predation on the host is lethal. We used two microcosm experiments to test whether the threat of trout predation provided by chemical cues affected: 1) host foraging behavior (grazing on substrate surfaces and seeking food by drifting), 2) algae consumption by parasitized mayflies, and 3) subsequent resource sequestration and growth of parasites. Parasitized mayflies tended to increase foraging activity, albeit at safer (night) times. However, activity increases did not increase host food consumption or parasite growth. Instead, a net loss of host tissue occurred in parasitized mayflies exposed to trout cues, suggesting that risk of predation caused the parasite to sequester more available resources, thereby decreasing its host’s condition. Although predation risk did not exact a cost on parasite growth, predator-induced depletion of its host’s energy reserves could be costly to the parasite.

Kara Cromwell (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Wisconsin-Madison, kara.cromwell@gmail.com;


Barbara Peckarsky (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wisconsin, Madison, peckarsky@wisc.edu;


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12:00 - 12:15: / 250 DE DEVELOPMENT OF MACROINVERTEBRATES MULTIMETRIC INDEX FOR ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF A RIVER IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

5/21/2019  |   12:00 - 12:15   |  250 DE

DEVELOPMENT OF MACROINVERTEBRATES MULTIMETRIC INDEX FOR ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF A RIVER IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA Benthic macroinvertebrates based multimetric index was developed for River Chanchaga, North Central Nigeria. Our multimetric approach included four sampling stations along the river for 29 metrics representing 13 categories. Macroinvertebrates were sampled seasonally between March 2017 and February 2018. Assessment of water quality impacts on macroinvertebrates was based on the discriminatory ability of metrics between station 1 and the other three stations downstream and on their correlation with the physico-chemical variables. Four ecological category/river health conditions were outlined: very poor (E/F), poor (D), fair (C) and good (B). It was inferred that stations 2 and 3 were fair indicative of ecological category C while station 4 was poor indicative of D. Seasonal variation of the ecological integrity of the river revealed that station 2 was less perturbed in the dry season. Canonical correspodnce analysis (CCA) of 13 component metrics in the MMIchanchaga with physicochemical variables showed no significant correlation while the Bray-curtis similarity test revealed that stations 2 and 3 were more associated in the MMIchanchaga than any other station combined. The study revealed that the River is relatively perturbed by various degrees of pollution processes. note: article has been published.

Ovie Edegbene (Primary Presenter/Author), Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, ovieedes@gmail.com;


Luckey Elakhame (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, elakhame@yahoo.com;


Francis Arimoro (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, francisarimoro@gmail.com;


Eki Osimen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, eki4success@gmail.com;


Nelson Odume (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, nelskaro@yahoo.com;


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12:15 - 12:30: / 250 DE THE MICROBIOME OF A HELOBDELLA SPECIES

5/21/2019  |   12:15 - 12:30   |  250 DE

THE MICROBIOME OF A HELOBDELLA SPECIES Blood-feeding leeches are generally thought to rely on bacterial symbionts to aid in the digestion of blood, the synthesis of vitamins from this low-nutrient food source, and for protection against pathogens. Aeromonas and a Rikenella-like bacterium have been identified as symbionts in the digestive tracts of medicinal leeches of the genus Hirudo [Family: Hirudinidae]. Bacterial species closely related to well-described insect symbionts, including Buchnera and Wigglesworthia are commonly found in the blood-feeding leeches of the Haementeria and Placobdelloides genera [Family: Glossiphoniidae]. However, the microbiomes of non-sanguivorous leeches including Helobdella modesta [Family: Glossiphoniidae] are currently unknown. Characterizing the microbiome of Helobdella modesta will provide a better understanding of the ecological roles of Helobdella modesta and of the genus’ evolutionary descent from the blood-feed members of the Glossiphoniidae family. This report is the first to describe the isolation, characterization, and identification of bacteria within the microbiome of a Helobdella species.

Lauren Hardin (Primary Presenter/Author,Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, laurenhardin@suumail.net;


Micah Forbush (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, micahforbush@gmail.com;


Madeline Crossley (Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, madelinecrossley@suumail.net;


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