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1 - EXAMINING DIVERSITY INEQUITIES IN FISHERIES SCIENCE: A CALL TO ACTION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EXAMINING DIVERSITY INEQUITIES IN FISHERIES SCIENCE: A CALL TO ACTION A diverse workforce in science can bring about competitive advantages, innovation and new perspectives, skills, and experiences for understanding complex problems involving the science and management of natural resources. In particular, fisheries sciences confront exceptional challenges due to complicated societal-level problems from the overexploitation and degradation of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Here, we examine the status of gender and race/ethnicity that comprise the U.S. fisheries science workforce based on a survey of 498 faculty members from 56 institutions of higher education and 1,708 federal employees. Our findings show that minorities and underrepresented groups are still a small portion of tenure-track faculty and federal government professionals likely due to systematic biases and cultural barriers. This forum provides a starting point for discussions about how disparities of diversity in fisheries compares to other disciplines and what might be done to improve the climate and conditions for a successfully inclusion of diverse scientists.

Ivan Arismendi (Primary Presenter/Author), Oregon State University, Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, ivan.arismendi@oregonstate.edu;


Brooke Penaluna ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), PNW Research Station, US Forest Service, brooke.penaluna@oregonstate.edu;


2 - A THREE-YEAR SURVEY OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS IN BROWN COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA, USA, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WEST NILE VIRUS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A THREE-YEAR SURVEY OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS IN BROWN COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA, USA, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WEST NILE VIRUS West Nile virus (WNV), a serious mosquito-borne zoonotic disease, has been reported in all contiguous states. The prevalence of WNV is particularly high in South Dakota, with highest incidences in Brown County; this may be related to high occurrence of emergent wetlands and other aquatic habitats in rural areas. Prior to 2013, monitoring of mosquito populations in Brown County was restricted to the county’s largest city, Aberdeen. Here, we report results from 2013-2015 surveillance activities, utilizing carbon dioxide light traps, in eight rural areas within the James River Valley and two park or natural areas outside of Aberdeen. Mosquitoes were collected 4 days/week from June-September. Individuals were identified to species, and Culex tarsalis were tested for WNV; Minimum Infection Rates (MIR) were then calculated. Seven sites had MIR >0.3, expressing the need for increased vigilance and testing, with two sites exhibiting MIR approaching 4.0, implying evidence of high viral activity. This indicates that the rural localities sampled provide ideal breeding habitat for disease-carrying mosquito species and that increased efforts are needed to prevent WNV.

Tessa Durnin (Primary Presenter/Author), Northern State University, tessa.durnin@wolves.northern.edu;


Samantha Bahr ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, sam.bahr@wolves.northern.edu;


Alison Byrd ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, alison.byrd@wolves.northern.edu;


Larissa Kempf ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, larissa.kempf@wolves.northern.edu;


April Moeller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, april.moeller@wolves.northern.edu;


Ian Muirhead ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, ian.muirhead@wolves.northern.edu;


Miranda Ristau ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, miranda.ristau@wolves.northern.edu;


Nathan Roberts ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Penn State University, nathan.roberts@wolves.northern.edu;


Annika van Oosbree ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, annika.vanoosbree@wolves.northern.edu;


Alyssa Anderson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southwest Minnesota State University, alyssa.anderson@smsu.edu;


Jon Mitchell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern State University, jon.mitchell@northern.edu;


3 - EPIZOOIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES AND BRANCHIOBDELLIDS ON RUSTY CRAYFISH (ORONECTES RUSTICUS) IN A HEADWATER STREAM IN WEST CENTRAL OHIO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EPIZOOIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES AND BRANCHIOBDELLIDS ON RUSTY CRAYFISH (ORONECTES RUSTICUS) IN A HEADWATER STREAM IN WEST CENTRAL OHIO Crayfish are ecologically important in both their native and invasive ranges, but are often overlooked as suitable hosts to other organisms, including epizooic algae and ectosymbiotic branchiobdellid worms. The purpose of this study was to document variation in epizooic algal assemblages and branchiobdellid abundance on rusty crayfish (Oronectes rusticus) within its native range. One hundred crayfish were collected from Hog Creek (Hardin County, Ohio, USA) on October 15, 2015. Carapace length, sex and percent cover of a previously described epizooic chantransia stage (Thorea hispida) were recorded for each crayfish. A random crayfish subset (N=24) was scrubbed and the remaining algae and branchiobdellids preserved, while another subset (N=18) was examined for the presence of branchiobdellids only. Among males, branchiobdellid abundance was positively related to size, perhaps due to greater surface area and less frequent molting. Multivariate statistical analyses are currently being employed to examine the epizooic algal community. This study provides information regarding epizooic communities of rusty crayfish and provides a baseline dataset for comparison to rusty crayfish at other invasive and native range sites.

Heather Lochotzki (Primary Presenter/Author), Ohio Northern University, h-lochotzki@onu.edu;


Leslie Riley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, l-riley.1@onu.edu;


Robert Verb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, r-verb@onu.edu;


4 - INFLUENCES OF AN EASTERN HEMLOCK (TSUGA CANADENSIS [L.] CARRIERE) RIPARIAN HABITAT ON A LOTIC BENTHIC COMMUNITY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INFLUENCES OF AN EASTERN HEMLOCK (TSUGA CANADENSIS [L.] CARRIERE) RIPARIAN HABITAT ON A LOTIC BENTHIC COMMUNITY The riparian zone surrounding a stream plays a vital role in determining the organisms that will thrive within the stream's benthic community. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests are unique riparian zones providing dense canopy coverage, however increasing mortality due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is eliminating this dominant landscape component. Benthic algae and macroinvertebrate communities of an unnamed tributary of Sugar Creek were sampled within Beach City Wildlife Area (Ohio, USA) in April and September 2015. The stream flows through three riparian habitats: a beech-maple upland forest, hemlock ravine, and lowland forest dominated by silver maple, box elder and American sycamore. This study compared the benthic communities within these three habitat zones to determine if the hemlock ravine harbored a unique benthic community. Seasonality was more influential than habitat type on benthic community structure. In contrast to previous studies, the hemlock ravine benthic community was not distinctly different from upstream/downstream benthic communities. These results may be due to connectivity between stream sites and/or the abundance of sandstone bedrock substrate at many sample locations.

Paige Kleindl (Primary Presenter/Author), Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University, kleindlp@mail.gvsu.edu;


Fred Tucker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, f-tucker@onu.edu;


Robert Verb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, r-verb@onu.edu;


Leslie Riley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, l-riley.1@onu.edu;


Michael Commons ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, m-commons@onu.edu;


5 - A COMPARISON OF SPRING SYSTEMS IN JOHN BRYAN STATE PARK BASED ON THE INFLUENCE OF LONICERA MAACKII (RUPR.) HERDER

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A COMPARISON OF SPRING SYSTEMS IN JOHN BRYAN STATE PARK BASED ON THE INFLUENCE OF LONICERA MAACKII (RUPR.) HERDER In riparian habitats, Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) can influence terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, and nutrient availability, but effects on other aspects of aquatic ecosystems are unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether L. maackii density influenced benthic biomass and community structure in ten springs from a limestone gully within John Bryan State Park (Ohio, USA). At each spring, selected environmental parameters and honeysuckle density were measured and macroinvertebrate and periphyton samples were collected. Springs with high densities of L. maackii had lower in-spring levels of chlorophyll a and periphyton ash-free dry mass and lower densities of diatoms and macroinvertebrates. However, L. maackii density did not significantly influence algal or macroinvertebrate diversity. The combination of late L. maackii leaf senescence, the low quality of its leaf litter, and potential influence of allelopathic chemicals could contribute to lower benthic production in these systems, but requires additional investigation.

Janet Deardorff (Primary Presenter/Author), Ohio Northern University, j-deardorff@onu.edu;


Stephanie Estell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, s-estell@onu.edu;


Jonathan Stechschulte ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, j-stechschulte@onu.edu ;


Michael Commons ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, m-commons@onu.edu;


Robert Verb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, r-verb@onu.edu;


Leslie Riley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, l-riley.1@onu.edu;


6 - IMPACTS OF DREISSENID MUSSEL SHELLS ON A BENTHIC STREAM COMMUNITY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACTS OF DREISSENID MUSSEL SHELLS ON A BENTHIC STREAM COMMUNITY Dreissena invasion is often associated with major changes in benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The accumulation of dreissenid shells has been found to increase the diversity and abundance of lake benthic macroinvertebrates. However, little is known of their physical impacts on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of dreissenid mussel shells on benthic stream communities. This was accomplished by placing trays with four different treatments containing varying ratios of mussel shells and cobble in the Huron River, MI, and allowing macroinvertebrates to naturally colonize over 40 days. At the end of the experiment, macroinvertebrate diversity, abundance, and community composition were analyzed. No difference in the total abundance of invertebrates was observed (p=0.6), however community composition varied among the treatments. Higher shell concentrations contained lower species diversity, and lower relative abundances of diptera (p=0.04) and trichoptera (p=0.04) compared to the controls. Results from this study suggest that stream benthic communities dominated by dreissenids may experience shifts to less diverse benthic communities, indicating an overall decline in stream ecosystem health and complexity.

Andrew Camilleri (Primary Presenter/Author), Wayne State University, er0498@wayne.edu;


Donna Kashian ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Wayne State University, dkashian@wayne.edu;


Anna Boegehold ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Wayne State University, az1079@wayne.edu;


7 - SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF A COASTAL CALIFORNIA INTERMITTENT STREAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF A COASTAL CALIFORNIA INTERMITTENT STREAM Flow regimes of intermittent streams support a variety of invertebrates that increase regional biodiversity and are essential food sources for native fish species. Seasonal flow variation supports different communities and densities of invertebrates. Our objective was to determine how invertebrate communities in an intermittent stream, Coyote Creek, California, change over the course of a year, as this rainfall-dominated stream’s flow changes over time. Perennial pools and seeps were sampled in late summer of 2014, and intermittent riffles in flowing reaches were sampled every seven weeks following flow resumption in December 2014. To determine species composition and richness, we counted and sorted invertebrates down to the most practical taxonomic level, usually genus or species. Preliminary results show that perennial pools and seeps have the highest species richness as well as a unique community composition that differs significantly from intermittent reaches of the stream. As flow duration increased, species composition in intermittent reaches changed to more closely resemble perennial pools and seeps. Future studies should examine how these seasonal changes in invertebrate communities affect the growth and recruitment of California’s native fish.

Christopher Hernandez (Primary Presenter/Author), University of California, Berkeley, chrishernandezb@berkeley.edu;


Michael Bogan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), School of Natural Resources and the Environment, The University of Arizona, mbogan@email.arizona.edu;


Stephanie Carlson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, U.S., smcarlson@berkeley.edu;


8 - THE IMPACT OF TURBIDITY ON THE PREDATOR-PREY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RED SWAMP CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII) AND PACIFIC TREE FROG (PSEUDACRIS REGILLA) TADPOLES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE IMPACT OF TURBIDITY ON THE PREDATOR-PREY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RED SWAMP CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII) AND PACIFIC TREE FROG (PSEUDACRIS REGILLA) TADPOLES The freshwater streams of the Santa Monica Mountains (Los Angeles, CA) have been negatively affected due to increased land modification, fragmentation, and urbanization. These anthropogenic stressors are changing the landscape into a more turbid aquatic environment. The introduction of non-native species such as the Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) has also made it difficult for native species to survive, especially amphibians. This experiment tests the impact of turbidity on the predatory-prey relationships between P. clarkii and a non-declining native amphibian species, the Pacific Tree Frog (Pseudacris regilla). The survivorship and the ability for P. regilla tadpoles to find cover in the presence of crayfish was measured and compared between aquatic environments with clear and turbid water. Our results show that the effect of a more turbid environment causes tadpoles to have a lower survivorship (p=0.02) and a lower likelihood of using shelter (p=0.15). These results suggest that turbidity that may result from development and land alteration can alter predator prey interactions and benefit invasive species.

Daniel Suh (Primary Presenter/Author), Pepperdine University, daniel.c.suh@gmail.com;


9 - INFLUENCE OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA BEDS AS HABITAT MODIFIERS IN BEDROCK DOMINATED RIFFLE HABITATS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INFLUENCE OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA BEDS AS HABITAT MODIFIERS IN BEDROCK DOMINATED RIFFLE HABITATS The chlorophyte Cladophora glomerata is one of the most ubiquitous freshwater macroalgal taxa, being reported from a variety of habitats worldwide. In many freshwater systems C. glomerata will grow on rocks and hardened structures utilizing a holdfast. In the main channel of the Kokosing River (Ohio, USA) C. glomerata generates dense beds of streaming filaments where large expanses of sandstone bedrock dominate the benthos. The objective of this investigation was to determine if these C. glomerata beds serve as a benthic habitat modifier of the sandstone bedrock. From September to October 2015 a large sandstone riffle habitat within the Kokosing River was sampled biweekly for selected environmental parameters, macroinvertebrates and algal taxa. Samples were collected within the C. glomerata beds and from the empty sandstone above and below the beds. Preliminary results indicate that macroinvertebrate abundance is greater with in the C. glomerata beds compared to barren, adjacent bedrock habitats. Future analyses will employ multivariate techniques to determine if C. glomerata beds do host a significantly different benthic community composition and/or alter the physicochemical conditions within this riffle habitat.

Emily Henneman (Primary Presenter/Author), Ohio Northern University, e-henneman@onu.edu;


Janet Deardorff ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Miami University , j-deardorff@onu.edu;


Paige Kleindl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University, kleindlp@mail.gvsu.edu;


Nicole Berry ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, n-berry@onu.edu;


Leslie Riley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, l-riley.1@onu.edu;


Robert Verb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, r-verb@onu.edu;


10 - POPULATIONS OF THE MONTANE STONEFLY HESPEROPERLA PACIFICA EXHIBIT WIDESPREAD HAPLOTYPE SHARING

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

POPULATIONS OF THE MONTANE STONEFLY HESPEROPERLA PACIFICA EXHIBIT WIDESPREAD HAPLOTYPE SHARING We sequenced five nuclear loci to investigate the genetic structure of Hesperoperla pacifica in the Great Basin. Previous studies of other montane stonefly species have shown that populations separated by only a few kilometers exhibit high levels of genetic divergence. In contrast to those studies, we found widespread haplotype sharing among populations of H. pacifica. The presence of variant length alleles and missing data were a complicating factor in this analysis, and resolving this complexity may result in a powerful method for the determination of genetic structure and studying phylogeography.

Paul Petrowski (Primary Presenter/Author), Stetson University, ppetrows@stetson.edu;


Andrew Sheldon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, andylsheldon@comcast.net;


Alicia Slater ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stetson University , aslater@stetson.edu;


11 - THE ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND TOXIN PRODUCTION OF GLOEOTRICHIA ECHINULATA BLOOMS IN MAINE LAKES AND ITS IMPACT ON MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND TOXIN PRODUCTION OF GLOEOTRICHIA ECHINULATA BLOOMS IN MAINE LAKES AND ITS IMPACT ON MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN HEALTH Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater ecosystems are increasing in frequency and magnitude across North America. Many of these blooms consist of species that are known or suspected toxin producers. Gloeotrichia echinulata is one example that has been confirmed to produce microcystin-LR. Although cyanobacterial blooms typically occur in eutrophic lakes during periods of elevated temperature, G. echinulata has been thriving and consistently found in clear, low nutrient, oligotrophic lakes. The Belgrade Lakes, a chain of seven lakes ranging from oligo-mesotrophic to eutrophic, is one region in Maine that has recently developed continuous annual blooms of G. echinulata. Unfortunately, very little is known about the duration, distribution, toxicity, and impact on local ecosystems of these blooms. The ever-increasing use of freshwater resources in Maine is placing the public on a collision course with a potentially toxic cyanobacterium. Therefore, using genetic cloning techniques, we have sequenced the hypervariable ITS region of G. echinulata to develop a species-specific assay. The ‘TaqMan’ probe qPCR assay may allow us to quantify and map blooms in order to predict and provide warning for future potentially toxic blooms.

Brian Kim (Primary Presenter/Author), Colby College, stkim@colby.edu;


12 - BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF SCOTTS CREEK RESTORATION PHASE 2 UTILIZING BACI DESIGN BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE SURVEYS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF SCOTTS CREEK RESTORATION PHASE 2 UTILIZING BACI DESIGN BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE SURVEYS One of the increasingly popular options for salmonid recovery is to perform habitat restoration. Scotts Creek, located in Davenport California, acts as one of the southernmost salmonid supporting streams and has experienced significant population declines. In an effort to increase these populations, a stream restoration project was conducted during the summer of 2015, adding 9 large woody debris features and 4 off channel connections. The purpose of this study is to perform BACI design, baseline monitoring assessment of benthic macro invertebrates in a control and study reach of Scotts Creek. The two study reaches utilized are 100 m in length with the experimental (restoration) reach consisting of 60.4% pool habitat and 39.6% riffle habitat and the control reach consisting of 74.8% pool habitat and 20.2% riffle habitat. Results from this study will help to establish baseline conditions for two reaches on Scotts Creek and will eventually help to determine the effectiveness of a salmonid restoration project.

Tyler Davis (Primary Presenter/Author), Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, tdavis19@calpoly.edu;


13 - TROPHIC BEHAVIOR AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE EFFECTS OF BOYERIA SPP. (ODONATA:AESHNIDAE) IN WILDCAT CREEK, SOUTH CAROLINA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TROPHIC BEHAVIOR AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE EFFECTS OF BOYERIA SPP. (ODONATA:AESHNIDAE) IN WILDCAT CREEK, SOUTH CAROLINA Predation and resulting prey evolution has been the main topic of many studies. Dragonflies are known to be opportunistic, obligate predators, but little research has been done to identify the factors influencing prey selection or the effects of their predation on the prey community. This study was undertaken to determine whether the presence of Boyeria spp., the most abundant odonate in Wildcat Creek in the Clemson Experimental Forest, affected the surrounding prey species abundance, density, and diversity. We sampled 1 m2 transects using a kicknet to identify all macroinvertebrates to genus, and sorted whether or not each sample had Boyeria spp. present. Boyeria spp. appear to affect neither the prey abundance nor the taxon present. It is inconclusive whether Boyeria spp. affected the trophic guild:predator ratios, but it is apparent that predators, as a whole, do substantially affect the ratios, although there are a multitude of variables that can also be attributed to the ratio variation.

Nicholas Addison (Primary Presenter/Author), Clemson University, naddiso@g.clemson.edu;


14 - THE EFFECTS OF WARMING TEMPERATURES ON BIOMONITORING METRICS IN CALIFORNIA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE EFFECTS OF WARMING TEMPERATURES ON BIOMONITORING METRICS IN CALIFORNIA Climate change is predicted to negatively affect freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates as a result of their temperature preferences. Recent warming temperatures and a persistent drought threaten the habitats of these species, which may result in changes in distribution and range. Using 200 randomly-selected sites in MaxEnt and R, we modeled the distribution of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plectopera species in California from 2001 to 2020 using publicly-available biomonitoring data from California Environmental Data Exchange Network. Based on changes in population and richness from a sampled site, we calculated the difference in biomonitoring metrics of macroinvertebrate communities. Three different species distribution models were constructed to estimate ±10% variable fluctuations, for Cal-Adapt’s A2 emission climate change scenarios. Overall, the models displayed general trends of decreasing species diversity and northward shifting towards cooler temperatures. Biomonitoring metrics, in terms of EPT richness and abundance measures, also decreased in quality, reliability, and relevance. Despite the limitations and uncertainties involved in modeling, the projected changes in species distribution highlight the vulnerability of sensitive macroinvertebrates and the need to modify our biomonitoring metrics to account for future climate change.

Jo-an Chen (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Berkeley, jo-anchen@berkeley.edu;


Patina Mendez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Berkeley, patina.mendez@berkeley.edu;


15 - CLIMATE RESILIENCE IN THE HIMALAYAS OF NEPAL-A REVIEW OF GOOD PRACTICES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CLIMATE RESILIENCE IN THE HIMALAYAS OF NEPAL-A REVIEW OF GOOD PRACTICES Nepal has three distinct ecological regions with very diverse climatic conditions from alpine in north to the tropical in the south. In last 30 years, the country’s temperature has increased from 0.04 to0.060C annually from south to north. As a result of this glaciers are melting producing more water in the rivers. But the water supply systems mostly rely on spring sources, which have been paradoxically depleting. The cases of migration due to water scarcity are already recorded in some places. The conventional adaptation measures like rain water harvesting, and watershed management do not seem to be very effective. However there are some traditional water efficient practices. One of them is ‘Dry Toilet’, which is quite similar to modern ecosan toilets. The human faeces is fed to pig in some cases whereas, it is used as manure for potato growing in many other parts. Socially acceptable this adaptation practice needs to be promoted with consideration of hygiene as a climate change adaptation measure and prevent increasing river pollution in this remote part of the country.

Subodh Sharma (Primary Presenter/Author), KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY, prof.s.sharma@gmail.com;


Raja Ram Pote Shrestha ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), WHO Country Office for Nepal, poteshresthar@who.int;


16 - CANCELED

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CANCELED ALTITUDINAL TRENDS IN SELECT PHYSICOCHEMICAL VARIABLES IN TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE STREAMS

Covariance in temperature, atmospheric pressure, and altitude is well documented. However, altitudinal trends in oxygen availability, chemical characteristics and hydrological variance are less understood. Similarly, comparisons between altitudinal trends in physicochemical conditions between tropical and temperate settings are lacking. As part of a broader study, we quantified thermal and hydrological regimes along identical vertical ranges in Ecuador and Colorado. We also characterized oxygen and select solute concentrations along these gradients. The rate of temperature change with altitude was similar in both locations during midsummer but flattened during the spring and fall in Colorado. Patterns in flow differed considerably between Ecuador and Colorado as did the relationship between flow and elevation. Interestingly, temperature and atmospheric pressure effectively offset one another to maintain consistent oxygen concentrations with altitude all year in Ecuador and during the growing season in Colorado. This generated trends in the Oxygen Supply Index controlled by temperature’s influence on diffusivity. We conclude by discussing the implications of these patterns for invertebrate biodiversity and ecological function.

Steven Thomas (Primary Presenter/Author), School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, sthomas5@unl.edu;


Alexander Flecker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, asf3@cornell.edu;


Amanda Rugenski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, atrugenski@gmail.com;


Carla L. Atkinson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alabama, carlalatkinson@gmail.com;


Andrea C. Encalada ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Instituto BIOSFERA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Ecuador Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, aencalada@usfq.edu.ec;


LeRoy Poff ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Colorado State University, n.poff@rams.colostate.edu;


17 - OSMOTIC REGULATION AS A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN DISTRIBUTION OF AQUATIC NYMPHS IN GLACIER WATERSHEDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

OSMOTIC REGULATION AS A POTENTIAL FACTOR IN DISTRIBUTION OF AQUATIC NYMPHS IN GLACIER WATERSHEDS Aquatic nymphs dominating the metakryal zones of well-studied northern latitude alpine glacier-melt streams are Diamesa chironomids. In the subalpine metakryal zones (Tmax <2?) of southeastern Tibet, Plecoptera are the most abundant taxa, with Ephemeroptera, Tricoptera, and non-Chironomid Diptera also found close to the glacier snout during the peak discharge summer melt season. The specific conductivity of glacier streams fluctuates on a seasonal and diurnal basis depending on melt water source (englacial, supraglacial, or sub-glacial) and flow rate. The Mt. Kawagebo, Yunnan glacier mainstem average winter conductivity is almost double that of the summer conductivity (150±30 µs/cm and 81±37 µs/cm), and the turbidity is significantly higher during the melt season. It is hypothesized that nymphs living in the metakryal zones either have specialized chloride epithelia, or plesiomorphic osmobranchiae (stout, non-branched) covered with chloride cells to enable them to tolerate seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in the specific conductivity of the stream water. The physiological challenges of suspended sediment abrasion and shear stress on filamentous gill tissue may be met by single-finger osmobranchiae or lack thereof with chloride epithelia on soft tissues. A staining technique using silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used to identify the presence of actively regulating chloride cells, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the type, density, and external morphology of chloride cells. 96-hour LC50 toxicity bioassays with NaCl were conducted with Nemouridae, Taeniopterygidae, Diamesinae, Chloroperlidae, and Rhyacophlidae to examine the tolerance of nymphs to differing specific conductivities (distilled water, 0.01% NaCl, 0.10% NaCl, 0.25% NaCl, 0.95% NaCl, and 1.20% NaCl). Nymphs were selected from glacier streams at varying distances from the glacier snouts in Meilixueshan, Yunnan, and Mt. Gongga, Sichuan, and from spring streams in both mountain ranges in order to compare how water source may affect salinity tolerance. Results show a differential in the survival rates between the insect families, with a high survivorship at all NaCl concentrations exhibited by Chloroperlidae.

Heather Fair (Primary Presenter/Author), The Ohio State University, hebfair@yahoo.com;


18 - REVITALIZATION OF URBAN STREAMS: A BIOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OAK CREEK WATERSHED IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN, USA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

REVITALIZATION OF URBAN STREAMS: A BIOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OAK CREEK WATERSHED IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN, USA Storm-water retention structures influence hydrologic patterns, and the highest concentrations of retention structures occur in urban and suburban areas. The Oak Creek watershed covers ca. 70.5 km2 of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, which includes the highest concentration of urbanization statewide. Here, we use a comprehensive watershed study to identify stream reaches subject to hydrologic alteration based on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) assemblages. We examine the efficacy of BMI assemblage metrics to indicate water quality when influenced by storm-water retention structures and in-channel modifications by characterizing the number, size, and location of natural wetlands and anthropogenic storm-water retention structures in upstream subcatchments and riparian zones. A 3-min kick net procedure was used to sample BMIs at 12 sites in October 2015. Samples were processed according to state guidelines. Preliminary results indicate slight to severe impairment throughout the watershed. Further analysis will determine whether increased storm-water retention structure development in the watershed is associated with impairment. This research is essential to prioritize restoration and maintain aquatic habitats and water quality in Oak Creek.

Jordan Stepro (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Wisconsin Parkside, stepr001@rangers.uwp.edu;


Jessica Orlofske ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wisconsin-Parkside, orlofske@uwp.edu;


19 - IMPACTS OF TERRESTRIAL HABITAT TRANSFORMATION ON TEMPORARY WETLAND INVERTEBRATES IN A SCLEROPHYLLOUS LANDSCAPE (CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACTS OF TERRESTRIAL HABITAT TRANSFORMATION ON TEMPORARY WETLAND INVERTEBRATES IN A SCLEROPHYLLOUS LANDSCAPE (CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA) There has been recent debate about the extent to which human disturbance of the landscape affects wetland invertebrates given that the organisms are already adapted to high levels of natural disturbance. Using repeated sampling of a set of 12 temporary wetlands occurring in a differentially transformed Sand fynbos landscape in Cape Town (South Africa), we investigated patterns of macroinvertebrate and microcrustacean assemblage composition, richness and diversity in relation to a physico-chemical gradient resulting from variable habitat loss in the adjacent landscape. Both macroinvertebrates and microcrustaceans showed clear gradational changes in assemblage composition in relation to the surrounding cover of indigenous vegetation (as a proxy for habitat loss). Although the composition of assemblages appeared to be affected by this gradient of habitat transformation, no relationships were detected using various measures of species richness and diversity. Contrary to patterns observed in the Western Cape region at larger spatial scales, the influence of natural variation on invertebrate assemblages for our relatively small study landscape appears to have been overridden by that resulting from terrestrial habitat transformation.

Matthew Bird (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Johannesburg, matthew.bird@nmmu.ac.za;


20 - EXAMINING THE FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EXAMINING THE FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS Geographically isolated wetlands are essential ecosystems for a variety of species and enhance heterogeneity across landscapes. Our study will examine the role of larval anurans in nutrient cycling and productivity within five geographically isolated wetlands at the Jones Ecological Research Center in southwestern Georgia, USA. In the southeast, amphibian biomass can be high, yet the role of amphibian larvae as primary consumers in ecosystem-level processing is not well understood. We will address this gap by investigating the contribution of tadpole communities to nutrient regeneration and primary production in wetlands along the hydroperiod. We will measure water chemistry, basal resource quantity and chemistry (%C, %N, and %P), and assess nutrient limitation bi-monthly during the hydroperiod. We will measure nutrient excretion and tissue stoichiometry of the two dominant anurans. Wetland volume monitoring along with biomass estimates will allow for quantitative scaling of nutrient regeneration by tadpoles. We are also conducting manipulations (enclosures and exclosures) in an experimental wetland to estimate primary production without tadpoles. Collectively, these data will test whether tadpoles alter nutrient availability and stimulate primary production in wetlands.

Scott Mcleay (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Alabama, smcleay27@gmail.com;


Lora L. Smith ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center at Ichauway, lsmith@jonesctr.org;


Carla L. Atkinson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alabama, carlalatkinson@gmail.com;


21 - EXAMINATION OF TEMPORARY ROCK POOLS IN SOUTHERN UTAH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EXAMINATION OF TEMPORARY ROCK POOLS IN SOUTHERN UTAH Many wetlands in the arid southwest are temporary/ephemeral in nature. Climate change and increasing human populations have potential to impact these systems before their importance is fully appreciated. Utah is located in an arid desert environment, with many small isolated ephemeral or seasonal wetlands. These systems provide viable habitat for bacteria, algae, crustaceans, and insects and act as important water sources for many vertebrates, including reptiles, mammals, and birds. Climate change has the potential to greatly influence both the quantity and form of precipitation with more intense rainfall rather than snow, changing runoff and evapotranspiration rates. We have begun a multi-year study of a series of temporary rock pools of various sizes in southeastern Utah. These pools fill with rain or snow and then slowly evaporate until the next storm when they fill up. Preliminary work consists of assessing both biodiversity and physical and chemical aspects of these pools. Future work will include monitoring selected pools over an extended period of time to examine the effects of fluctuating water level, temperature, and other variables on the pond inhabitants over time.

Fredric Govedich ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, govedich@suu.edu;


Bonnie Bain (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dixie State University, bain@dixie.edu;


Nayla Rhein ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, nayla.rhein@gmail.com;


22 - HYDRO-REGIME, NUTRIENT, AND THATCH EFFECTS ON ENDANGERED VERNAL POOL CRUSTACEANS: RECRUITMENT AND LIFE CYCLE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

HYDRO-REGIME, NUTRIENT, AND THATCH EFFECTS ON ENDANGERED VERNAL POOL CRUSTACEANS: RECRUITMENT AND LIFE CYCLE Many ecological factors influence populations in freshwater ecosystems. California vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that are greatly reduced and support many endemic species. Endangered large branchiopods, the vernal pool tadpole shrimp, Lepidurus packardi, and vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, are found exclusively in California vernal pools, but few studies have addressed their ecology. Our mesocosm study focused on the testing the effects of inundation timing and frequency, nutrient addition, and plant thatch on recruitment and population size. Long hydroperiods increased recruitment of the tadpole shrimp and supported larger population sizes. Shorter hydroperiods and nutrient addition increased fairy shrimp recruitment and population sizes. Plant thatch suppressed the recruitment of both species. Tadpole shrimp showed lower recruitment and smaller population sizes during late inundation. To better manage endangered species, an understanding of how they interact with their environment is imperative. Both branchiopod species responded strongly to treatments, which highlights the importance of a changing climate, eutrophication, and invasive species on California vernal pool species.

Luis Rosas-Saenz (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU, Sacramento, luisrosas@csus.edu;


23 - TEMPORARY WOODLAND POOLS OF THE PENNYROYAL PLAIN: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TEMPORARY WOODLAND POOLS OF THE PENNYROYAL PLAIN: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES Temporary woodland pools are common throughout the Pennyroyal Plain north of Clarksville, Tennessee. We studied the effects of disturbance on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure in these wetlands. The karst geology and poorly drained, silt loam soils create abundant temporary woodland pools within a landscape surrounded by row crop agriculture, grazing, and timber cutting. Our objective was to determine correlations, if any, between community structure and landscape. We used canopy density, canopy height, and vegetative buffer as disturbance metrics. Macroinvertebrates were collected from ten sites using activity traps and substrate sampling. Linear regression models comparing community structure to canopy density and vegetative buffer explained very little of the variation seen in the data and were not statistically significant. However, linear regression models indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between Shannon-Weaver Index and canopy height. These results imply that these communities respond to the age of the canopy, which probably corresponds with the time since the last major disturbance.

Brandy Schnettler (Primary Presenter/Author), Austin Peay State University, bschnettler@my.apsu.edu;


Steven W. Hamilton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Austin Peay State University, hamiltonsw@apsu.edu;


Joseph R. Schiller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Austin Peay State University, schillerj@apsu.edu;


24 - INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN HYDROPERIOD AND THE ECOLOGY OF TEMPORARY PONDS IN A FLOODPLAIN (BLACK FORK WETLANDS, OHIO)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN HYDROPERIOD AND THE ECOLOGY OF TEMPORARY PONDS IN A FLOODPLAIN (BLACK FORK WETLANDS, OHIO) In relatively shallow floodplain ponds, we previously found that fall zooplankton abundances were highest in permanent ponds when they remained wet and highest for temporary ponds in years when they dried out in late summer/early fall. This study examined local precipitation and water level data to evaluate the conditions associated with “wet” years (ponds not fully drying out) and spring floods. The hydroperiod of these ponds differed in each of the first four years of this project and correlated approximately with total Jun-Nov precipitation. From 1949-2015, Jun-Nov precipitation showed a positive, highly variable trend (y = 0.2801x + 44.092; R² = 0.1387). However, three of four zooplankton project years (2012-2015) were relatively dry. Some amount of flooding of ponds occurred several times each year. Upstream gage heights above ~240 cm correlated with pond flooding, after ~half as much cumulative precipitation in Nov-Apr versus May-Oct. The hydroperiod of specific sites, and any long-term changes for this set of ponds, is expected to have direct effects on species adapted to the dry phase of temporary ponds and species diversity at this preserve.

Patricia A. Saunders (Primary Presenter/Author), Ashland University, psaunder@ashland.edu;


25 - CHARACTERIZING TWO NATURAL FLOW REGIMES OF THE OZARK AND BOSTON MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS, USA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CHARACTERIZING TWO NATURAL FLOW REGIMES OF THE OZARK AND BOSTON MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS, USA The natural flow regime exerts primacy over stream processes and functions. Recently, natural flow regimes have been modeled within the Ozark and Boston Mountains revealing distinct ecohydrological regions, but field measurements are needed to support predicted classifications, especially in headwater streams. Using field and gage measurements, we characterized the hydrology of six streams from January-December 2015 in minimally-impacted catchments (84-97% forest) within two dominant flow classes, runoff and groundwater flashy, in northern Arkansas. Field measurements revealed a mean flow of 0.55 (+/- 0.13 SE) m3/s in runoff flashy streams while groundwater flashy streams yielded 0.88 (+/- 0.32) m3/s. Flow regimes had similar numbers of days below the 25th percentile of mean daily flow (91-92 days); however, runoff streams dried 47 days on average, whereas groundwater streams dried for 3 days. Additionally, groundwater sites experienced more events (18 vs. 13) exceeding the 75th percentile of mean daily flow. We also present preliminary water quality and metabolism data. Ascertaining physical and biotic processes across systems within the context of flow regime will yield a greater understanding of ecosystem responses to flow alteration.

Allyn Dodd (Primary Presenter/Author), Lyon College, allyn.dodd@lyon.edu;


Doug Leasure ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, doug.leasure@gmail.com;


Daniel Magoulick ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arkansas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Arkansas, danmag@uark.edu;


Michelle Evans-White ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Arkansas, mevanswh@uark.edu;


26 - THE “HYPORHEIC REFUGE HYPOTHESIS” UNDER THE LENS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE “HYPORHEIC REFUGE HYPOTHESIS” UNDER THE LENS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change (CC) is increasing the frequency of extreme meteorological events such as drying, flooding and heat waves with severe consequences on surface water and groundwater ecosystems. The hyporheic zone can mitigate the consequences of CC on river communities by providing a refuge during adverse conditions, such as temperature increase and drying. However, the excessive extraction of groundwater may alter this refuge function by shifting the direction of surface-groundwater exchanges from up- to down-welling conditions. In this study we investigated the combined effects of increased temperatures and shifts from up- to down-welling conditions on the capacity of the hyporheic zone to provide a refuge for benthic organisms. Using laboratory mesocosms and Gammarus pulex as a biological model we manipulated surface water temperatures and the direction of surface-groundwater exchange in a full factorial design. Our results suggest that CC will profoundly alter the refuge capacity of the HZ.

Stefan Krause ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, U.K. , S.Krause@bham.ac.uk;


Silvia Folegot (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Birmingham, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UK, SXF356@student.bham.ac.uk;


Thibault Datry ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), IRSTEA/IRD, France, Thibault.datry@irstea.fr;


27 - MONITORING WETLAND PLANT DIVERSITY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DNA: IMPACT OF DNA MARKER SELECTION ON ASSESSMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MONITORING WETLAND PLANT DIVERSITY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DNA: IMPACT OF DNA MARKER SELECTION ON ASSESSMENTS Conventional aboveground vegetation surveys only capture a snapshot of the total plant biodiversity at a site and can miss ephemeral or dormant taxa. In contrast, environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained from soil is derived from any plant tissues including pollen, seeds, detritus, and both active and dormant roots. DNA metabarcoding of eDNA has the potential to provide a more integrated view of local plant diversity from a single assessment compared to aboveground surveys but there is a lack of consensus regarding which DNA marker(s) should be used for plant metabarcoding. We evaluated the relative performance of four established plant markers (matK, rbcL, ITS2, and trnL P6 loop) using soil samples collected in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and found rbcL and ITS2 together had the best sequence recovery, resolution, and annotation ability. Interestingly, we also found evidence for an interaction between DNA marker length and the temporal depth of the survey, introducing a new dimension to marker selection for molecular biodiversity assessments.

Nicole Fahner (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Guelph, nfahner@uoguelph.ca;


Shadi Shokralla ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Guelph, shadi.shokralla@gmail.com;


Donald Baird ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Environment and Climate Change Canada @ Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, djbaird@unb.ca;


Mehrdad Hajibabaei ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Centre for Biodiversity Genomics & Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada, mhajibab@uoguelph.ca;


28 - CONTRASTING LIFE CYCLES OF CRYPTIC LINEAGES OF THE ALPINE MAYFLY BAETIS ALPINUS (EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CONTRASTING LIFE CYCLES OF CRYPTIC LINEAGES OF THE ALPINE MAYFLY BAETIS ALPINUS (EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) Unrecognized species diversity challenges our understanding of species population dynamics and ecosystem functioning, especially in respect to environmental change. We tested for cryptic species presence in the common alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus across the Swiss Alps using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellites loci. Genetic analyses revealed two highly differentiated cryptic lineages that occur sympatrically over broad spatial scales. One lineage appeared to be more restricted to high elevation sites. Further, voltinism, life span and key life history traits of cryptic lineages were examined in two glacial headwater basins. The fine spatial and temporal data indicated contrasting life histories between cryptic lineages with differential developmental pathways. Cryptic species delineation along with life history information can provide insights into future demographic changes in species response to ongoing and rapid environmental changes in alpine landscapes.

Marie Leys (Primary Presenter/Author), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, ; Aquatic Ecology dpt., marie.leys@eawag.ch;


Irene Keller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Bern and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, irene.keller@dkf.unibe.ch;


Katja Räsänen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG; Aquatic Ecology dpt., katja.rasanen@eawag.ch;


Christopher Robinson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG ; Aquatic Ecology dpt., Christopher.robinson@eawag.ch;


29 - FERTILIZER NUTRIENT EXPORT AND UPTAKE IN SMALL STREAMS ALONG BRAZIL’S AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

FERTILIZER NUTRIENT EXPORT AND UPTAKE IN SMALL STREAMS ALONG BRAZIL’S AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER Deforestation and agricultural intensification are rapidly changing watersheds globally, and present unique threats to tropical freshwater conservation. Brazilian farmers in the Amazon Basin have faced pressure to reduce deforestation, and recently intensified to soybean-maize double cropping, which requires the addition of N and P fertilizers to watersheds. Yet, little information on the implications for stream nutrient export and uptake is available in Amazonia and the tropics in general. Using monitoring and pulse additions of NO3 and PO4 to nine watersheds draining forest, soybeans, and soybean-maize agriculture in the Xingu Basin, we asked 1) Has the annual export of inorganic N or P increased in watersheds draining soybean or soybean-maize agriculture?, and 2) How far will fertilizer N and P travel downstream? While the annual export of N and P increased 4-fold in cropped watersheds, this resulted mainly from a 4-fold increase in discharge. However, pulse nutrient additions demonstrated that N has the potential to travel long distances in these streams. Downstream implications are unknown but important to consider given the reliance of downstream indigenous communities on streams for their livelihoods.

KathiJo Jankowski (Primary Presenter/Author), US Geological Survey, kjankowski@usgs.gov ;


30 - YOLO/CACHE SLOUGH SURFACE WATER QUALITY EVALUATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

YOLO/CACHE SLOUGH SURFACE WATER QUALITY EVALUATION The Yolo/Cache Slough Complex municipal water quality program evaluates water quality conditions from ten discrete sampling locations in an existing tidal marsh habitat surrounding ecologically driven restoration projects such as the breaching of Prospect Island in northern California. The sampling locations were selected to monitor potential impacts to water quality from the planned construction and are scheduled to continue indefinitely. The analysis evaluated the interactions of seven analytes using multivariate statistics to characterize the spatial variations from station to station, and then assessed seasonal changes for temporal variations in the watershed potentially due to natural systems or point source discharges. Tidal wetland restoration in the Yolo/Cache Slough Complex has the potential to increase dissolved organic matter, increasing disinfection by-products in municipally treated surface water. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the baseline water quality conditions, and provide a sound basis for post-restoration comparisons.

Otome Lindsey (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Water Resources Division of Environmental Science Office of Water Quality, otome.lindsey@water.ca.gov;


31 - VULNERABILITY OF VERMONT STREAM COMMUNITIES TO HEAVY PRECIPITATION EVENTS AND FLOODING

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

VULNERABILITY OF VERMONT STREAM COMMUNITIES TO HEAVY PRECIPITATION EVENTS AND FLOODING In August 2011, Vermont streams experienced major flooding from Tropical Storm Irene. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation collected biomonitoring data before and after Irene at 11 high quality, long-term stream sites. We compare pre- and post-Irene data at these sites, exploring questions such as ‘which stream communities were most and least impacted by Irene, and why? Which taxa bounced back most quickly? Which ones were slowest to recover?’ This research takes on added importance in light of climate change and potential changes in the frequency of extreme events. Understanding stream community responses can help inform adaptation strategies and conservation planning.

Jennifer Stamp (POC,Primary Presenter), Tetra Tech Center for Ecological Sciences, Jen.Stamp@tetratech.com;


Aaron Moore ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), VT DEC, Aaron.Moore@vermont.gov;


Steve Fiske ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), VT DEC, Steve.Fiske@vermont.gov;


Britta Bierwagen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US EPA, bierwagen.britta@epa.gov;


Anna Hamilton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Tetra Tech Center for Ecological Sciences, Anna.Hamilton@tetratech.com;


32 - IMPACT OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD ON FRESHWATER MUSSEL ASSEMBLAGES: A COMPARISON OF TWO MINNESOTA WATERSHEDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD ON FRESHWATER MUSSEL ASSEMBLAGES: A COMPARISON OF TWO MINNESOTA WATERSHEDS High suspended sediment loads are known to negatively impact mussels. The Minnesota River Basin (MRB) was historically home to dense and diverse assemblages of freshwater mussels. Of the 37 species that occurred there, 46% have been extirpated since 1908, likely due to low oxygen and changes in water flows, and increased fine sediment loads. The St. Croix Watershed (SCW), in contrast, has maintained a dense and diverse mussel community, likely due to the maintenance of intact high quality ecosystems. Following MN Department of Natural Resources (DNR) protocol, we conducted timed searches at 7-9 locations in each of 3 subbasins of the MRB, and 13 locations in 1 subbasin in the SCW in 2015. These locations had been sampled earlier by the DNR. We found negligible changes in mussel density in the SCW, while densities declined 17-83% in the MRB. The rates of decline were correlated with increased levels of annual sediment loads. Future research objectives include measuring physiological stress (glycogen content) of mussels from these watersheds, and studying the response of mussels exposed to varying sediment loads in the laboratory.

Dan Hornbach (Primary Presenter/Author), Macalester College, hornbach@macalester.edu;


Mark Hove ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota, mark_hove@umn.edu;


Kelly MacGregor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Macalester College, macgregor@macalester.edu;


Maya Agata ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Macalester College, magata@macalester.edu;


Clara Friedman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Macalester College, cfriedm1@macalester.edu;


Molly Guiney ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Macalester College, mguiney@macalester.edu;


Brooke Hunter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Macalester College, bhunter1@macalester.edu;


Jessica Kozarek ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, jkozarek@umn.edu;


33 - USING SIX MICROSATELLITE LOCI TO ANALYZE POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PATERNITY OF THE THREERIDGE MUSSEL (AMBLEMA PLICATA) IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING SIX MICROSATELLITE LOCI TO ANALYZE POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PATERNITY OF THE THREERIDGE MUSSEL (AMBLEMA PLICATA) IN SOUTHEAST OKLAHOMA North America’s freshwater mussel populations have substantially declined in the last century due to a variety of anthropogenic causes. A greater understanding of mussel ecology is imperative to improve conservation strategies. Here we used six microsatellite loci to evaluate population structure and paternity of a common mussel species (Amblema plicata) in the Little River in southeast Oklahoma. A total of 270 individuals from nine mussel beds distributed throughout the Little River were genotyped. Results from this study will provide a better understanding of the dispersal capabilities of host-generalist mussel species and the number of males contributing to broods, both of which have important conservation implications.

Patrick Olson (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Oklahoma, olso7823@ou.edu;


Caryn C. Vaughn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Oklahoma, cvaughn@ou.edu;


Richard Broughton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Oklahoma, rbroughton@ou.edu;


34 - PATTERNS OF MUSSEL SPECIES CO-OCCURRENCE WITHIN MUSSEL BEDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PATTERNS OF MUSSEL SPECIES CO-OCCURRENCE WITHIN MUSSEL BEDS Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae) are globally imperiled, with upwards of 40% of species in danger of becoming extinct. Mussels frequently occur in multispecies aggregations called mussel beds. To conserve mussels we need a better understanding of mussel bed formation and composition. Facilitation is often an important mechanism underlying the organization of sessile organisms. We hypothesized that facilitation between sessile mussel species may be an underlying mechanism of mussel bed formation. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively surveyed mussel beds in the Little River in southeastern Oklahoma. We analyzed these data to look for patterns of co-occurrence, including checkerboard patterns, that might indicate underlying facilitative interactions.

Kathryn Murphy (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Oklahoma, Kathrynmurphy@ou.edu;


Caryn C. Vaughn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Oklahoma, cvaughn@ou.edu;


35 - ARE STANDARDIZED MUSSEL SURVEY PROTOCOLS EFFECTIVE? AN EVALUATION OF PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION IN 80 SURVEYS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ARE STANDARDIZED MUSSEL SURVEY PROTOCOLS EFFECTIVE? AN EVALUATION OF PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION IN 80 SURVEYS Using standardized protocols in conducting mussel surveys promotes uniform data collection and reporting among different surveyors. Recently, regulatory agencies have implemented standardized mussel survey protocols, which are applied across varying stream types and under project-specific conditions. Professionals conducting surveys rely on regulatory agencies for guidance regarding minimum levels of effort based on project-specific conditions. This report focuses on an evaluation of 80 streams wherein survey methods were required to follow a standardized protocol. Factors such as stream drainage size, species composition, stream morphology, and effort required to meet survey objectives were compared against expected and actual outcomes. In all 80 surveys, protocol application was effective in meeting the overall project objectives. Ineffectiveness was observed in several instances where mussel resources were overlooked due to protocol constraints. The efficacy of standardized protocols for the conservation of freshwater mussels is a key factor in mussel surveys, especially when faced with the future implications of climate change and freshwater resources. Pros, cons, and challenges in application of standardized protocols are discussed.

Rebecca Winterringer (Primary Presenter/Author), TRC Environmental Corporation , rwinterringer@trcsolutions.com;


Lindsey Moss ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), TRC Environmental Corporation, LMoss@trcsolutions.com;


36 - IMPACT OF UNIONID NICHE PARTITIONING ON RIVERINE SESTON DYNAMICS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

Impact of Unionid Niche Partitioning on Riverine Seston Dynamics Bivalves are known to shift the makeup of seston through selective filter-feeding. Historically, freshwater mussels were commonly found in dense, species-rich communities, containing up to 80 species at densities >100/m2. Currently, freshwater mussel populations are drastically declining. Previous studies have shown that mussel declines have major implications for nutrient cycling and food web structure, yet little is known about how this decline influences suspended particulate availability. Given that mussels typically occur in speciose assemblages, we predict that species partition food resources to minimize competition. Therefore, we hypothesize that the recorded reductions in mussel densities and loss of species has resulted in decreased water clearance, enhanced seston concentrations, and an alteration of seston composition. We plan to examine the diet preferences of several mussel species to quantify diet selectivity and determine the amount of trophic partitioning occurring across populations. We will then test if trophic partitioning has the capacity to significantly alter to seston composition. These shifts in seston represent changes in the movement of materials from pelagic to benthic food webs, potentially having major implications for energy and nutrient budgets.

Brian van Ee (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Alabama, bcvanee@gmail.com;


Carla L. Atkinson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alabama, carlalatkinson@gmail.com;


37 - BENTHIC CYANOBACTERIAL DIVERSITY AND TOXIN PRODUCTION IN A CALIFORNIA WATERSHED

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

BENTHIC CYANOBACTERIAL DIVERSITY AND TOXIN PRODUCTION IN A CALIFORNIA WATERSHED In sunlit Mediterranean rivers, non-toxic benthic algae are foundational to summertime aquatic food webs. However, extensive cyanobacterial proliferations can negatively impact these trophic interactions and threaten water quality. In Northern California’s Eel River watershed, 12 dogs have died from cyanotoxins in the last decade. During the summers of 2014 and 2015, we collected cyanobacterial mat samples throughout the Eel River watershed to resolve the species diversity, toxin production, and spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacteria in the watershed. Using microscopy and 16s rDNA sequencing, we identified several species of Anabaena and Phormidium responsible for toxin production. The cyanotoxins, anatoxin-a and microcystins, were detected across all 4 major forks of the watershed, with anatoxin-a occurring more frequently in samples than microcystins. Additionally, cyanotoxins produced from benthic mats were found in collected water column samples, suggesting downstream impacts from localized toxin production. Under certain conditions, toxic cyanobacteria can proliferate in rivers and streams, as well as in lakes and estuaries. Understanding the diversity, distribution, and ecology of toxic riverine cyanobacteria will help us predict and manage their growths.

Arianna Tabibzadeh Nuri (Primary Presenter/Author), University of California, Berkeley, arianna.nuri@berkeley.edu;


Keith Bouma-Gregson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Berkeley, kbg@berkeley.edu;
Dr. Mary E. Power is Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. She was awarded an honorary doctorate by Umea University, the Kempe Medal for distinguished ecologists, and the Hutchinson Award from the American Society of Limnologists and Oceanographers. She is a member of the California Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and National Academy of Sciences, USA. She has served on the Editorial Board of PNAS (2014 to present) and Science (2006-2009). Mary also served as President of the American Society of Naturalists, and of the Ecological Society of America. Since 1988, she has been the Faculty Director of the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, (one of the UC Natural Reserve System sites, a 3500 ha reserve protected for university teaching and research). She has studied food webs in temperate and tropical rivers, as well as linkages of rivers, watersheds and near-shore environments. Focal organisms include cyanobacteria, algae, invertebrates, fish, estuarine crustaceans and terrestrial grasshoppers, spiders, lizards, birds and bats. By studying how key ecological interactions depend on landscape and temporal contexts, her group hopes to learn how river-structured ecosystems will respond to changes over space and time in climate, land use, and biota. Her group also collaborates closely with Earth and atmospheric scientists in site-based research to investigate linkages among riverine, upland, and near-shore ocean ecosystems.

Mary Power ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Berkeley, mepower@berkeley.edu;
Dr. Mary E. Power is Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. She was awarded an honorary doctorate by Umea University, the Kempe Medal for distinguished ecologists, and the Hutchinson Award from the American Society of Limnologists and Oceanographers. She is a member of the California Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and National Academy of Sciences, USA. She has served on the Editorial Board of PNAS (2014 to present) and Science (2006-2009). Mary also served as President of the American Society of Naturalists, and of the Ecological Society of America. Since 1988, she has been the Faculty Director of the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, (one of the UC Natural Reserve System sites, a 3500 ha reserve protected for university teaching and research). She has studied food webs in temperate and tropical rivers, as well as linkages of rivers, watersheds and near-shore environments. Focal organisms include cyanobacteria, algae, invertebrates, fish, estuarine crustaceans and terrestrial grasshoppers, spiders, lizards, birds and bats. By studying how key ecological interactions depend on landscape and temporal contexts, her group hopes to learn how river-structured ecosystems will respond to changes over space and time in climate, land use, and biota. Her group also collaborates closely with Earth and atmospheric scientists in site-based research to investigate linkages among riverine, upland, and near-shore ocean ecosystems.

38 - IMPACTS OF SMALL, SURFACE-RELEASE DAMS ON STREAM TEMPERATURE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACTS OF SMALL, SURFACE-RELEASE DAMS ON STREAM TEMPERATURE Dams have provided fresh water to human societies for centuries, but this service has negative consequences for stream ecosystems. Dams can increase water temperatures, which can affect aquatic biota that rely on temperature as a cue (e.g., for migration, spawning, and egg hatching) or have narrow thermal tolerance ranges. While dams have been shown to increase downstream temperatures over many kilometers, some studies observed no effect. We sought to understand how landscape factors (e.g., basin slope, impervious cover, road density, dam height, reservoir area, and total watershed impounded area) may influence how dams alter downstream temperatures. For the 16 dam sites (of 31 total) where we had upstream temperatures, 75% had higher downstream temperatures (0.07–4.67oC increase) compared to upstream temperature. Twenty-four sites showed declines in temperature for 45–1765 m downstream of the dam, with the rate of decline varying among sites. Identifying the factors influencing temperature below dams may help guide dam management or prioritize dam removal as a means of increasing ecosystem resiliency, particularly in the face of a changing climate.

Peter Zaidel (Primary Presenter/Author), Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Massachusetts Amherst, pzaidel@umass.edu;


Allison Roy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Massachusetts Amherst, aroy@eco.umass.edu;


Keith Nislow ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Research Station, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, University of Massachusetts Amherst, knislow@fs.fed.us;


Christopher Smith ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1, chris.r.smi@gmail.com;


Ben Letcher ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, bletcher@usgs.gov;


39 - INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC LITTER ON ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES IN URBAN STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC LITTER ON ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES IN URBAN STREAMS The abundance of anthropogenic litter (AL; trash) in the environment is increasing and will persist for centuries. Recent evidence shows AL in urban streams reaches similar densities as well-studied marine sites, and includes a suite of materials spanning size gradients from large, immobile items to microplastic (<5 mm). However, the effects of AL on fundamental ecosystem processes in urban streams are unknown. We examined the role of AL in 3 studies by separating it according to size classes and applying fundamental stream ecology tools. First, we assessed the potential of large AL items to support organic matter retention and diversity of stream biota. Next, we determined whether AL surfaces select for unique biofilm constituents via surface texture and chemical composition. Finally, we measured AL movement to quantify downstream flux of particulate and dissolved compounds, including hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants, which we expect preferentially adsorb to plastic surfaces. Initial results show AL in streams is diverse, abundant, mobile, and well-colonized by biofilms. Results from these analyses will illustrate the capacity for AL to drive critical ecosystem processes in urban streams.

Timothy Hoellein (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University Chicago, thoellein@luc.edu;


40 - GBS PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF GREAT BASIN STONEFLIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

GBS PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF GREAT BASIN STONEFLIES The rich history of the Great Basin makes for an ideal laboratory for studying stonefly phylogeography. Previous studies based on a few loci have found deep divergence between clades separated by only a few km. However relationships among clades were not resolved. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) resulted in thousands of loci and can improve tree support and narrow divergence time estimates. However, the method results in significant amounts of missing data that complicate use of traditional analytical approaches. Here we describe a method for handling missing data and using GBS data for phylogeographic analysis.

Alicia Slater (Primary Presenter/Author), Stetson University , aslater@stetson.edu;


Michael Branton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stetson University , mbranton@stetson.edu;


Hailey Hernandez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stetson University , hhernand@stetson.edu;


Andrew Sheldon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, andylsheldon@comcast.net;


41 - THE EFFECTS OF HARVESTING AN INVASIVE HYBRID CATTAIL ON ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC WETLAND PROPERTIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE EFFECTS OF HARVESTING AN INVASIVE HYBRID CATTAIL ON ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC WETLAND PROPERTIES Great Lakes coastal wetlands are susceptible to invasion by the hybrid cattail Typha x glauca, which can spread rapidly and generates a high amount of litter. Cattail invasions have been linked to alterations in taxonomic composition and activity of wetland bacterial communities, resulting in changes in soil nutrient concentrations that may favor cattail invasion. To assess the potential for restoration to influence wetland bacterial community composition and activity, we conducted a field study at a T. glauca invaded wetland in Northern Michigan. T. glauca stems and litter were manually removed down to the sediment-water interface in 6 treatment plots (4m x 4m), and 6 control plots were left unrestored. Five years after restoration, restored plots contained significantly less litter, but T. glauca stem density in the restored plots was not significantly different than the control plots. There were also no significant differences between treatment and control plots in nutrient levels, pH, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, or flux of carbon dioxide or methane. Bacterial community composition in the plots is being assessed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes.

Samantha Keyport (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University Chicago, smkeyport@gmail.com;


John Kelly ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, Jkelly7@luc.edu;


Nancy Tuchman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, ntuchma@luc.edu;


Brendan Carson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, bcarson1@luc.edu;


Beth Lawrence ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Connecticut, balawrence2@gmail.com;


Olivia Johnson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), DePaul University, ojohns10@mail.depaul.edu;


Shane Lishawa ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, slishawa@luc.edu;


42 - NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TO HIGHLIGHT COMMUNITY CHANGES IN RIVER BIOFILMS LINKED TO PHARMACEUTICAL LOADS FROM A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TO HIGHLIGHT COMMUNITY CHANGES IN RIVER BIOFILMS LINKED TO PHARMACEUTICAL LOADS FROM A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT. Hospital wastewaters contain wider spectrum and higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals than urban ones. Their treated effluents, released into the aquatic environment, may still contain residues of pharmaceuticals and might cause environmental risk. Biofilms microbial communities respond rapidly to physical, chemical and biological fluctuations by changes in their structure and composition. NGS allowing a deeper and more accurate characterization of these changes is helpful to describe impact of pharmaceuticals and disentangle multiple stress effects. Biofilms were colonized at the output of a wastewater treatment plant in 1/ separately treated effluents from urban and hospital wastewaters and 2/ the recipient river up- and downstream from the WWTP output. Environmental conditions and pharmaceuticals were monitored. NGS (Ion Torrent) was used for in-depth characterization of diatoms and bacterial communities. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals were higher in hospital than urban effluents, and downstream than upstream the WWTP output. NGS highlighted differences between communities developed in all sites, together with a seasonal effect, revealing the strong effluent impact in shaping environmental communities. The integrated measurement of pharmaceuticals coupled to NGS highlighted their disturbing effect on environmental communities.

Teofana Chonova ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, teofana.chonova@gmail.com;


Agnès Bouchez (Primary Presenter/Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr;


Cecile Chardon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, cecile.chardon@thonon.inra.fr;


François Keck ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, francois.keck@thonon.inra.fr;


Jérôme Labanowski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Université de Poitiers, ENSIP, UMR CNRS 7285, Poitiers, France, jerome.labanowski@univ-poitiers.fr;


Leslie Mondamert ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Université de Poitiers, ENSIP, UMR CNRS 7285, Poitiers, France, leslie.mondamert@univ-poitiers.fr;


Bernard Montuelle ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, bernard.montuelle@thonon.inra.fr;


Frédéric Rimet ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, frederic.rimet@thonon.inra.fr;


Valentin Vasselon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), INRA, UMR CARRTEL, Thonon, France, valentin.vasselon@thonon.inra.fr;


43 - TEMPORAL PATTERNS AND DRIVERS OF CONDUCTIVITY IN URBAN PIEDMONT STREAMS OF GEORGIA, USA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TEMPORAL PATTERNS AND DRIVERS OF CONDUCTIVITY IN URBAN PIEDMONT STREAMS OF GEORGIA, USA Increased conductivity of streams is a common symptom of watershed urbanization and is often highly correlated with impaired biotic assemblages. However, we lack an understanding of the mechanisms behind these relationships, or even which solutes are responsible for high conductivity in urban streams. We identified the primary constituents and characterized the temporal pattern of conductivity in 12 piedmont streams in Athens, GA. Specific conductance (SpC) was measured every 5 minutes in 7 streams and bi-weekly in 5 additional streams; nutrient and ion concentrations were measured every 6-12 weeks. Calcium and magnesium were the primary drivers of SpC, suggesting increased weathering associated with urbanization drives conductivity in this region. However, the best model explaining SpC also included nitrate and sodium concentrations (R2 = 0.97), indicating that human sources such as wastewater and runoff are also important drivers. SpC was relatively stable over time and was diluted during rain events, with little evidence of “first flush” phenomena, suggesting chronic rather than acute sources of ions. Ongoing work will examine relationships between macroinvertebrate assemblage characteristics and drivers of conductivity.

Phillip Bumpers ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, bumpersp@gmail.com;


Seth Wenger ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, sethwenger@fastmail.fm;


Amy Rosemond ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, rosemond@uga.edu;


44 - THE INFLUENCE OF STORMWATER DRAINS AND LAND USE ON PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN AN URBAN WATERSHED

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE INFLUENCE OF STORMWATER DRAINS AND LAND USE ON PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN AN URBAN WATERSHED Approximately 70% of the U.S. population is centered in urban environments. Urbanization leads to altered land-use, modified drainages, and excess pollutants providing detrimental effects on the surrounding ecosystem. Eutrophication is a prevalent issue in Oswego Lake, so it is important to identify the primary sources of phosphorus, its limiting nutrient. Located south of Portland, Oregon, the Oswego Lake Watershed is 7 square miles, consisting primarily of urban infrastructure. Two large creeks tributaries and 70 flow stormwater drains flow into Oswego Lake. Oswego Lake Watershed was delineated smaller basins based on their physical characteristics (percent imperviousness, percent developed open-space, gradient, and percent vegetated) yielding six sub-watersheds that were used to characterize the Watershed. Water quality samples took place over a 6-month period in 2015, with samples consisting of both storm and baseflow conditions. Statistical models are used to show 1) the influence of stormwater drains on overall phosphorus loading within an urban watershed and 2) how phosphorus loading varies both spatially and temporally across all sites, providing an empirical definition of the anthropogenic influence on phosphorus loading to Oswego Lake.

Madeline Rubenson (Primary Presenter/Author), Portland State University, mrub2@pdx.edu;


45 - URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS WITHIN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS WITHIN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED Urbanization and associated human activities negatively affect stream algal and invertebrate assemblages, likely altering food webs. Our goal was to determine if urbanization affects food web essential fatty acids (EFAs) and if EFAs could be useful ecological indicators in monitoring efforts. Streams along a gradient of urbanization in the Narragansett Bay Watershed (USA) were sampled for water chemistry, benthic algae, and invertebrates. Metabolically important EFA compounds >18 carbons (C) were measured. Total algal EFA content increased from 0.63 mg/m2 in rural streams to 1.09 mg/m2 in urbanized streams. Groups of biologically important omega-3 compounds increased 0.22 mg/m2, and omega-6 compounds decreased 0.10 mg/m2 from rural to urban streams. However, these differences were not significantly different (ANOVA: Total EFA, P = 0.46; omega-3, P = 0.24; omega-6, P = 0.40). For invertebrate functional feeding groups, total EFA content increased for collectors (0.83 mg/g), omnivores (0.49 mg/g), and predators (0.32 mg/g) with increasing urbanization, but decreased for shredders (1.07 mg/g). These results indicate that urbanization likely affects nutritional qualities of different trophic positions in stream food webs.

Sarah Whorley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Daemen College, swhorley@daemen.edu;


Nathan Smucker (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, smucker.nathan@epa.gov;


Anne Kuhn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Environmental Protection Agency, kuhn.anne@epa.gov;


John Wehr ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Louis Calder Center - Fordham University, wehr@fordham.edu;


46 - DETERMINING HOW STREAMS 'WORK' IN CITIES: NUTRIENTS ASSOCIATED WITH WATERSHED URBANIZATION STIMULATE MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF C

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DETERMINING HOW STREAMS 'WORK' IN CITIES: NUTRIENTS ASSOCIATED WITH WATERSHED URBANIZATION STIMULATE MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF C Healthy streams and the ecosystem services they provide depend on energy to fuel food web production and pollutant uptake. Carbon from terrestrial landscapes is a vital source of energy for headwater streams where sunlight is limited and biofilms are comprised largely of heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi. Stream water nutrients associated with urbanization can stimulate, while other contaminants can suppress, microbial metabolic rates. Respiration and breakdown rates of wood and cellulose were measured in 9 streams in Athens-Clarke County, GA over 4 weeks to assess the effects of watershed urbanization on metabolic processes. Wood and cellulose samples were used to determine how these streams ‘work’ recalcitrant and labile carbon. Respiration and breakdown rate were measured in addition to surface water chemistry (dissolved nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (SRP), conductivity). Results showed streams with higher levels of phosphorus exhibited higher respiration and breakdown rates on both substrates. This increased microbial metabolism could potentially impact the retention and transport of energy sources in streams. An additional field study is underway to see if wood substrate breakdown over 3 months correlates with surface water chemistry.

Rachel Usher (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Georgia, rlusher2@gmail.com;


James Wood ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, wood@uga.edu;


Amy Rosemond ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, rosemond@uga.edu;


Phillip Bumpers ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, bumpersp@gmail.com;


47 - FORGING LINKS BETWEEN ECOLOGICAL FIELD STATIONS, RESEARCHERS, AND COLLEGE EDUCATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

FORGING LINKS BETWEEN ECOLOGICAL FIELD STATIONS, RESEARCHERS, AND COLLEGE EDUCATION Professor Vince Resh has pursued aquatic ecology in systems as far as the French Polynesian islands, as close as the stream visible from his office window, and as unique as the geothermal Sylvan springs of Yellowstone. In each case, he built strong links between his aquatic insect research and the subjects he taught. In particular, Professor Resh’s research and teaching strengthened the bonds between field stations and the education of budding field ecologists. At the Flathead Lake Biological Station in Montana, Professor contributed to a book on the field methods of stream ecology and developed instructional videos. At University of California, Berkeley Forestry Camp in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Professor Resh led a stream ecology portion of the Forestry summer field course in order to connect forestry to stream biology. Finally, Professor Resh championed a semester-long field course in Moorea, French Polynesia. By seeking out field stations and field courses as venues for his research and teaching to flourish, Professor Resh demonstrated the unique ability of field stations to raise the level of our teaching, research, and collaborations.

Michael Peterson (Primary Presenter/Author), University of California, Berkeley, petersmg@berkeley.edu;


48 - CLADOPHORA PHENOLOGY DRIVES STREAM PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS IN SUMMER LOW FLOW PERIOD

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CLADOPHORA PHENOLOGY DRIVES STREAM PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS IN SUMMER LOW FLOW PERIOD A summertime bloom of Cladophora algae in the Upper Clark Fork River(UCFR), MT., may owe its magnitude and persistence to a synergistic effect of physicochemical phenomena occurring in the benthos. To assess how the bloom is altering stream ecosystem structure and function, we investigated reach scale, spatio-temporal dynamics of benthic algal density and aspects of its physicochemical setting. Changes in the abundance of attached benthic Cladophora appear related to sloughing; modest summer flows entrain and transport large quantities of metabolically active algal-OM downstream to uncertain fates. Drift density nets employed to collect drifting algal detritus, coupled with in situ discharge measurements provide an initial estimate to a suspended, coarse-OM flux for a stream reach. Average peak benthic standing stocks occurred in early July ~54 g/m² AFDM; average minimum values of ~ 11 g/m² occurred in October. Peak drift density (~0.55 mg/L as AFDM) and mass-transport rates (~890.2 mg/m³/hr) occurring later in July at downstream sites suggest a spatial lag effect. Senesced algal-OM remains biogeochemically active; future investigation into the transport, fate and influence on stream-benthic metabolism are warranted.

Nick Banish (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Montana, Division Biological Sciences, nicholasbanish@hotmail.com;


Marc Peipoch ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Center, mpeipoch@stroudcenter.org;


H. Maurice Valett ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences, maury.valett@umontana.edu;


49 - VARIABILITY IN ANALYTICAL APPROACH AFFECTS COMPARABILITY AND INTERPRETATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

VARIABILITY IN ANALYTICAL APPROACH AFFECTS COMPARABILITY AND INTERPRETATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENTS Anthropogenic stressors such as development, invasives, fire, and climate change can alter aquatic ecosystems in profound ways. These impacts have primarily been assessed at local scales (e.g., reaches), but there is growing need to conduct assessments across entire landscapes. We reviewed the comparability and interpretability of analytical approaches used in landscape-scale assessments published in the primary literature, implemented by NGOs, or conducted by consultants for federal agencies. We identified seven areas in which approaches differed: 1) geographic extent (e.g., continental, ecoregion, species range, local population); 2) selection of working and reporting units (e.g., fine-scale grids, HUC watersheds); 3) quantification of stressor impacts (e.g., reliance on expert opinion, empirically-derived, linkage to published studies, incorporation of distance-weighting); 4) aggregation of stressor scores (e.g., additive or multiplicative, weighted, use of arithmetic operators); 5) the degree to which final scores could be deconstructed into component parts; 6) whether independent analyses were conducted for different conservation targets (e.g., ecosystem types, species); and 7) validation of scores. Differences in approach compromise comparability, but may be needed to facilitate region- or species-specific interpretation of results.

Christian Perry (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA, christian.perry@usu.edu;


Scott Miller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), BLM/USU National Aquatic Monitoring Center, Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, scott.miller@usu.edu;


Charles Hawkins ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Watershed Sciences, National Aquatic Monitoring Center, and Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan Utah 84322-5210, chuck.hawkins@usu.edu;


50 - EVALUATING MULTIPLE STRESSORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF VANADIUM AND WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EVALUATING MULTIPLE STRESSORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF VANADIUM AND WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS Aquatic ecosystems in human dominated landscapes are exposed to multiple stressors, and the response of the biotic community is likely dependent on the combination of stressors present. Stressor exposures also vary spatially and temporally in natural systems. Regulatory approaches and methods, however, focus on single chemical standard exceedances in waters and sediments. These standards are not realistic and do not allow for effective management decisions. We assessed two stressors, vanadium in sediments and water level fluctuations, to assess effects of exposure to two invertebrates, Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna. Additional effects on benthic macroinvertebrate communities were also analyzed. Results showed it is critical to clearly characterize exposures through time and space, and vanadium effects are influenced by water level fluctuations. This suggests each stressor’s risk must be evaluated within the context of the site, given the potential for differing fate and bioavailability based on spatial and temporal site context.

Anna Harrison (Primary Presenter/Author), Institute for Great Lakes Research, Central Michigan University, harri25a@cmich.edu;


Sara Nedrich ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Michigan, snedrich@umich.edu;


Michelle Hudson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Michigan, shellhud@umich.edu;


G. Allen Burton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Michigan, burtonal@umich.edu;


51 - USING THE PROQUEST ASFA DATABASE FOR ALL OF YOUR LITERATURE NEEDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING THE PROQUEST ASFA DATABASE FOR ALL OF YOUR LITERATURE NEEDS The ASFA (Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts) database is the only source needed for background, literature and evidence-based research for all topics aquatic. By utilizing the FAO, aquatic libraries, fishery organizations, and research institutes all around the world, ASFA represents the best resource. In addition to ProQuest content, ASFA incorporates unique grey literature, data sets, access to literature commons and hot off the press publications not available anywhere else. The database will be explained with searches, tools and hints. Ample examples and the most current searches for topics will be highlighted. While the vastness of scientific research can be overwhelming to consolidate and use, why not use Proquest to help synthesize and collect the pertinent literature?

Natalie Abram (Primary Presenter/Author), ProQuest, natalieabram@yahoo.com;


52 - A TEST OF ISLAND BIOGEOGRPHAY THEORY USING DIATOMS ON SANTA CATALINA ISLAND AND HAWAII

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A TEST OF ISLAND BIOGEOGRPHAY THEORY USING DIATOMS ON SANTA CATALINA ISLAND AND HAWAII The theory of island biogeography predicts that islands closer to a species source (mainland) should equilibrate with higher species richness than islands further from a source. This theory appears to hold true for relatively large organisms like bugs and birds. We are testing whether or not freshwater diatoms support this theory as well. We collected six samples of diatoms from Santa Catalina Island and six from the big island of Hawaii in January 2016. As Catalina is closer to the mainland, it should have higher species richness than Hawaii. However, because diatoms have a rapid rate of reproduction and, potentially a rapid rate of evolution and speciation, in situ speciation events on islands may dwarf species additions via dispersal events from the mainland. Moreover, if speciation events are more important than dispersal events, we should see evidence of adaptive radiation with some genera being represented by unusually high species numbers and high levels of endemism.

Sabrina Kamae Kamae (Primary Presenter/Author), California State University Long Beach, sabrina.kamae@csulb.edu;


Sergio Mendoza ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University Long Beach, y3kserge@aol.com;


53 - ALGAL COMMUNITY ATTRIBUTES IN ESTABLISHING NUTRIENT CRITERIA FOR GEORGIA STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ALGAL COMMUNITY ATTRIBUTES IN ESTABLISHING NUTRIENT CRITERIA FOR GEORGIA STREAMS Algal species composition is subject to a number of anthropogenic alterations to aquatic environments. Georgia’s water quality criteria state that all waters shall protect human health, fish, wildlife, and other beneficial aquatic life including algae. Wadeable streams and rivers in the State of Georgia were sampled following standard protocols by Environmental Protection Division biologists. Within a 100m reach algal coverage and thickness was visually assessed at ten points across each of five transects and 40mL composite periphyton samples were collected from ten epibenthic substrates. Algal community composition and physicochemical characteristics were assessed and compared. Stream collection sites were separated by class: 1-Least impacted, 2-Impacted, or 3-Highly impacted. Classes were based on both land use and the number of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits in the watershed upstream of the site. Filamentous cyanobacteria and green algae were common, but diatoms dominated within algal communities. Algal weighted averages are reported and compared with algal species ecology reported for the southeast. Stream classification based on algal species composition was complementary to the classification based on land use and nutrients.

Kalina Manoylov (Primary Presenter/Author), Georgia College and State University, kalina.manoylov@gcsu.edu;


Michele Brossett ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Michele.Brossett@dnr.ga.gov;


Cody Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Cody.Jones@dnr.ga.gov;


54 - ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF FOREST DISTURBANCE ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THROUGH PREDICTIVE MODELING OF BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND HYDROLOGIC INDICATORS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF FOREST DISTURBANCE ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THROUGH PREDICTIVE MODELING OF BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND HYDROLOGIC INDICATORS Our present understanding of the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance in forested landscapes is largely based on watershed physical, chemical and biological indicators but these have rarely been considered in the context of aquatic ecosystem services (AES). In this study, we use a combination of field measurements and multivariate modeling to develop predictive relationships between physical, chemical, and hydrological characteristics and benthic invertebrate community composition (BICC) of forest streams, as indicators of provisioning AES. The study was conducted in the Batchawana watershed (Ontario, Canada), which contains catchments with varying degrees of commercial forest harvest and a history of research focusing on ecohydrological questions that has generated ecohydrological models. Early results indicate that water chemistry and extent of forest harvest will be strong indicators of BICC, but will be scale dependent. By defining relationships between physicochemical and biological indicators of AES, we hope to provide forest managers and policy makers with information that will facilitate effective monitoring and forest management decisions aimed at ensuring sustainability in the context of forest-based provisioning AES.

Kristin Daoust (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Guelph , kdaoust@uoguelph.ca;


Paul Sibley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Guelph, psibley@uoguelph.ca ;


David Kreutzweiser ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, dave.kreutzweiser@canada.ca;


Irena Creed ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Western University, icreed@uwo.ca;
Irena Frances Creed is a Professor and Canada Research Chair in Watershed Sciences at Western University in Canada. Her research leadership and activity have improved our understanding of watershed hydrological and biogeochemical functions under present and predicted climate scenarios. By coupling this understanding with innovative techniques in geographic information systems, remote sensing and modeling to characterize these functions, she has enabled governments to develop planning and regulatory tools in support of innovative policies designed to ensure the sustainability of watershed systems.

Junting Guo ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Western Ontario , jguo245@uwo.ca;


55 - EARLY TRAJECTORY OF CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE BY FOREST HARVESTING IN THE NORTHERN COAST RANGE OF OREGON

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EARLY TRAJECTORY OF CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE BY FOREST HARVESTING IN THE NORTHERN COAST RANGE OF OREGON Forest disturbances due to logging activities have been shown to impact hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in headwater catchments by increasing mobility and delivery of dissolved and particulate-bound forms of nutrients to streams. Increases in the supply of limiting nutrients, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), have the potential to cause adverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. As such, improved understanding of the processes governing these nutrients may be used to improve best practices in land management. In order to evaluate the natural variability of N and P and the effects of forest harvest on water quality, hydrology and water chemistry data were collected from the Trask River Watershed Study in coastal Oregon from 2006-2016; forest harvesting occurred in 8 of 15 headwater catchments in 2012. The early trajectory (first year) of response to harvesting indicates small responses in nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, total dissolved nitrogen, and organic phosphorus. Total dissolved phosphorus increased during the study period in reference and treated catchments while total dissolved nitrogen increased in some of the treated streams but not in the reference catchments after harvest.

Casey Steadman (Primary Presenter/Author), Oregon State University, casey.steadman@oregonstate.edu;


Kevin Bladon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, bladonk@oregonstate.edu;


Alba Argerich ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Missouri, alba.argerich@oregonstate.edu;


Sherri Johnson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, sherrijohnson@fs.fed.us;


56 - DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT PERCEPTION OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT PERCEPTION OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH Urbanized landscapes are expanding and over fifty-percent of the world’s population now lives in cities. Urbanization impacts ecosystem health but interest in mediating these impacts depends on understanding the impacts of urbanization. Using pre- and post-questionnaires, I surveyed students in a traditional ecology course and students in a service-learning urban ecology course to investigate student perceptions of the environment. Students usually take the traditional ecology course as a science requirement, while the urban ecology course provides a comparison between the general science students and those with an expressed interest in urban ecology. The questionnaire was organized into categories evaluating students’ perceptions of the health of the environment, ecological impacts of urbanization, the value of service-learning, and who’s responsibility it is to improve the environment. Interestingly, general science students viewed service-learning as an important component of their educational experience but their perception of ecosystem health did not change. Preliminary data indicates that students in the urban ecology course began with a different perception of ecosystem health and also felt that service-learning courses can increase their ability to comprehend course content.

James Wood (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Georgia, wood@uga.edu;


57 - MUSKEGON LAKE LONG-TERM MONITORING AND STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MUSKEGON LAKE LONG-TERM MONITORING AND STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION Muskegon Lake is listed as an Area of Concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes region because of years of environmental abuse. The drowned river mouth lake connects the Muskegon River watershed to Lake Michigan. Due to a lack of information on this ecosystem, the Annis Water Resources Institute (AWRI) initiated a long-term Muskegon Lake monitoring program in 2003, with support from donors in the Muskegon region. Through this monitoring program, we inform the community at large on the lake’s status and have used this information to leverage over $10 million in additional funding. Since 2003, AWRI has annually measured physical, chemical, and biological parameters in three seasons at six Muskegon Lake sites. We have developed a water quality dashboard using total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, secchi disk depth, and dissolved oxygen to communicate the lake’s status to stakeholders. The dashboard is available online, designed to be readily interpretable, and allows viewers to compare conditions over time. An endowment fund at the local Community Foundation provides a revenue stream that ensures monitoring will continue into the future.

Michael Hassett (Primary Presenter/Author), Annis Water Resources Institute - Grand Valley State University, hassetmi@gvsu.edu;


Maggie Oudsema ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, oudsemam@gvsu.edu;


Mary Ogdahl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Michigan - Cooperative Institute for Limnology & Ecosystems Research, ogdahlm@umich.edu;


Alan Steinman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, steinmaa@gvsu.edu;


58 - COMBINING INDIGENOUS CULTURE AND ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE: A FOODWEB STUDY ON THE SNAKE RIVER FLOODPLAIN IN SHOSHONI LANGUAGE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

COMBINING INDIGENOUS CULTURE AND ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE: A FOODWEB STUDY ON THE SNAKE RIVER FLOODPLAIN IN SHOSHONI LANGUAGE American Indian Tribes in the United States manage their cultural property and their natural resources. Tribes developed cultures and languages that tie to their environments. Science has utility in the course of maintaining indigenous cultures and languages. Along the Snake River floodplain in Idaho, the Fort Hall Indian Reservation includes an area known as “the Bottoms” or in Shoshoni language, “BaaNgewaga.” The area is important to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes for many cultural and ecological reasons, including a floodplain replete with extensive cottonwood gallery forest, springbrooks, and diverse native freshwater and terrestrial biota. University and tribal scientists are collaborating in a food web study, and to make this more complete and useful to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, we are including presentation of the foodweb with Shoshoni names, scientific names, and common names. Fluent, knowledgeable speakers informed the Shoshoni names, written in ISU Shoshoni orthography in consultation with Shoshoni language experts. We plan to use this foodweb lexicon as a tool for communicating combined science and traditional knowledge to the Tribal community.

Nolan Brown (Primary Presenter/Author), Idaho State Universtiy, brownola@isu.edu;


Colden Baxter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, baxtcold@isu.edu;


James Paris ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stream Ecology Center, Dept. Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, parijame@isu.edu;


Hunter Osborne ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Resident Fisheries Project, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department., hosborne@sbtribes.com;


Chris Loether ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State Universtiy, loetchri@isu.edu;


Drusilla Gould ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State Universtiy, goldrus@isu.edu;


Doyle Punkin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), member of Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Shoshoni language speaker, ndb555@msn.com;


59 - WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM FRASS INPUTS AFFECT HETEROTROPHIC METABOLISM OF A HEADWATER CONIFEROUS STREAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM FRASS INPUTS AFFECT HETEROTROPHIC METABOLISM OF A HEADWATER CONIFEROUS STREAM Western spruce budworms are the dominant defoliator in North American coniferous forests, and their herbivory may alter the quantity and/or quality of organic matter inputs to streams. We used nutrient diffusing substrata amended with nitrogen, phosphorus, and either glucose or budworm frass leachate to measure how biofilm metabolism responds to budworm inputs. Neither nutrient amendment affected production on glass disks, but respiration increased significantly in both carbon treatments (factorial ANOVA, p=0.0137 frass leachate, p=0.0039 glucose) indicating that frass leachate had similar lability to glucose. We also tested the effect of frass and conifer litter leachates on ecosystem metabolism using a chamber experiment in the same stream. Frass increased community respiration (one-way ANOVA, p=0.0002) but litter had no effect, indicating that frass leachate is more labile than litter leachate. Neither leachate affected production, suggesting limited leaching of inorganic nitrogen or phosphorus that could stimulate autotrophic activity. Together, these results show that spruce budworm frass provides high quality organic matter inputs that can stimulate heterotrophic metabolism, which could alter food web dynamics by increasing microbial production in headwater coniferous streams.

Natalie Levesque (Primary Presenter/Author), Central Washington University, levesquen@cwu.edu;


Clay Arango ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Central Washington University, arangoc@cwu.edu;


60 - CHARACTERIZING SHORT-TERM LIGHT DYNAMICS IN FORESTED HEADWATER STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CHARACTERIZING SHORT-TERM LIGHT DYNAMICS IN FORESTED HEADWATER STREAMS Light is an important factor controlling local- and reach-scale primary production in forested headwater streams. Previous research in terrestrial ecosystems has demonstrated that short periods of elevated light beneath canopies (sunflecks) are instrumental in maintaining higher understory autotrophic production; however sunflecks remain largely unexplored and uncharacterized in stream systems. This study quantifies sunfleck characteristics in five forested headwater streams at HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains. In over half of the 51 individual light assessment locations, patterns of daily available light in streams differed from an open canopy system. In addition in-stream peak temperature was offset by three hours or more from peak light in an open system, but between 29% and 57% of sunfleck events occurred within two hours of peak stream temperature. Shorter duration sunflecks were more common - a result consistent with earlier terrestrial studies from HJ Andrews. However, do to canopy gaps caused by stream channels substantially affecting light regimes, streams had longer periods of elevated light (longer duration sunflecks) than those documented in upland forests.

Emily Heaston (Primary Presenter/Author), Oregon State University, emily.heaston@oregonstate.edu;


61 - THE EFFECTS OF AN IN-STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT ON MOBILE RIPARIAN CONSUMERS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE EFFECTS OF AN IN-STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT ON MOBILE RIPARIAN CONSUMERS Stream and riparian ecosystems are linked by movements of organisms and flow of materials. For example, riparian food web dynamics can be influenced by subsidies from streams, particularly aquatic insect emergences. Alterations to in-stream habitat, such as river restoration projects, may affect aquatic insect emergence dynamics. The Cache River in southern Illinois has undergone multiple channel alterations, such as dredging, channel clearing, and most recently installation of rock weirs to control channel incision. We collected spiders from plots in restored and unrestored areas and compared spider diversity, biomass, and abundance between sites. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes were also compared between restored and unrestored areas and water samples. There were no significant differences in spider diversity, biomass and abundance. However, there was a significant difference in the isotopic signatures of spiders from restored and unrestored sites (p < 0.05). Spiders at restored sites also had signatures closer to that of the water, suggesting they depended more upon the river for food. Results suggest these restoration projects are benefitting terrestrial consumers in riparian zones via enhanced insect emergence production.

Jacey Brooks (Primary Presenter/Author), Oklahoma State University, jacey.l.brooks@okstate.edu;


Kelley Fritz ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Murray State University, k.a.fritz24@gmail.com;


Jessica Fulgoni ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, jfulgoni@siu.edu;


Kerry McLeran ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, kmcleran@siu.edu;


Regina Goldkuhl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, rgoldkuhl@siu.edu;


Matt Whiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


62 - EXPORT OF INVERTEBRATE DRIFT FROM FISHLESS HEADWATER STREAMS IN THE LOWER KLAMATH RIVER BASIN, CALIFORNIA AND ITS USE BY TROUT

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EXPORT OF INVERTEBRATE DRIFT FROM FISHLESS HEADWATER STREAMS IN THE LOWER KLAMATH RIVER BASIN, CALIFORNIA AND ITS USE BY TROUT Fishless headwater streams are important components of a river network, serving as a source of sediments, water, woody debris, nutrients, and invertebrates to downstream waters. However, the contribution of invertebrate subsidies from fishless headwater streams is rarely recognized in riparian zone management of headwater forests. A greater understanding of how these subsidies are used by fish and contribute to biological production in downstream reaches is needed to enhance management practices. To address this issue, we are assessing the role of fishless headwater streams as contributors to downstream food supplies for coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) in headwater systems of the lower Klamath River. From June 2015 through April 2016 we sampled invertebrate drift from six fishless headwaters located in the sub-basins of Tectah Creek, Ah Pah Creek, and Tarup Creek. We are quantifying the magnitude, taxonomic composition, energy content, and seasonal variation of the export of invertebrate drift at these sites. Comparisons to drift samples and trout diet samples collected from downstream reaches will be made. Here we present our preliminary results.

Jonathan Hollis (Primary Presenter/Author), Humboldt State University, jh2775@humboldt.edu;


Peggy Wilzbach ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Humboldt State University, wilzbach@humboldt.edu;


63 - WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM HERBIVORY INFLUENCES MACROINVERTEBRATE STREAM FOOD WEBS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM HERBIVORY INFLUENCES MACROINVERTEBRATE STREAM FOOD WEBS Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks are predicted to increase within Douglas-fir riparian zones as climate changes. Intense, extensive herbivory could alter stream resource and habitat availability through increased defoliation, decreased canopy cover, and frass addition. Douglas-fir dominates coniferous forests in Washington State where fir needles provide organic nutrients to oligotrophic headwater streams. Microbial and macroinvertebrate consumers break down needles slowly; however, WSB herbivory accelerates breakdown. We predicted WSB herbivory would change macroinvertebrate communities via increased light availability to stimulate primary production and scraper abundance, increased nutrients from frass-leaching to stimulate heterotrophic biofilms and increase shredder abundance, and increased frass-derived particulate organic matter to increase gatherer abundance. We compared macroinvertebrate communities in one stream with and another without WSB herbivory and estimated food source contributions using natural abundance of stable isotopes. Preliminary data show no difference in macroinvertebrate community composition. Both streams supported predominantly collector-gatherer, predator, and shredder taxa. However, the dominant predator and two collector taxa show frass signatures in the WSB stream. Frass may be an important resource for gatherers that support higher trophic levels in these streams.

Elise Coffelt (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Central Arkansas, ecoffelt1@cub.uca.edu;


Garrett Frandson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Central Arkansas, gfrandson1@cub.uca.edu;


Clay Arango ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Central Washington University, arangoc@cwu.edu;


Sally Entrekin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Tech, sallye@vt.edu;


64 - AQUATIC TO TERRESTRIAL LINKAGES: EFFECTS OF WATER CHEMISTRY AND HYDROLOGY ON THE MOVEMENT OF HG TO LAND VIA EMERGING STREAM INSECT SUBSIDIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

AQUATIC TO TERRESTRIAL LINKAGES: EFFECTS OF WATER CHEMISTRY AND HYDROLOGY ON THE MOVEMENT OF HG TO LAND VIA EMERGING STREAM INSECT SUBSIDIES While understanding the fate and transport of Methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxin and contaminant, continues to expand in aquatic ecosystems, the linkages and trophic transfers from aquatic to terrestrial food webs are less clear. There is growing evidence that MeHg bioacccumulation is not directly related to water concentrations, and is mediated by landscape characteristics, water chemistry and food web dynamics. MeHg body burden within aquatic organisms increases and decreases as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increase. We examine the in-stream water chemistry and hydrology influences on MeHg export via emergent invertebrates in tributaries of Lake Sunapee, NH. DOC concentrations ranged from 1.93-16.0 mg/L with the stream water total mercury (THg) spanning 20-1700 pg/L and MeHg from 20-1700 pg/L. Using emergent traps in ten streams in 2012, 77,000 aquatic emerging invertebrates were collected. Average number of invertebrates emerging ranged from 271.97/m2 to 2806.81/m2 and had a significant correlation with stream discharge (p = 0.02). Emergence production varied from 19.9 mg/m2 to 131.88mg/m2. Analyses to date show a range in MeHg export from 41.62 ng/m2 to 288.24 ng/m2.

Nick Baer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Colby-Sawyer College, nbaer@colby-sawyer.edu;


Jenisha Shrestha (Primary Presenter/Author), Colby-Sawyer College, jenisha.shrestha@colby-sawyer.edu;


Hannah Broadley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Massachusetts Amherst, hbroadley@cns.umass.edu;


Ramsa Chaves-Ulloa ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dartmouth College, ramsonica@gmail.com;


Kathleen Weathers ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, weathersk@caryinstitute.org;


Holly Ewing ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Bates College, hewing@bates.edu;


Kathryn Cottingham ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), National Science Foundation, kcotting@nsf.gov;


Celia Chen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dartmouth College, celia.y.chen@dartmouth.edu;


65 - EFFECT OF HABITAT DEGRADTION ON STREAM INSECT EMERGENCE AND RIPARIAN BIRD COMMUNITIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECT OF HABITAT DEGRADTION ON STREAM INSECT EMERGENCE AND RIPARIAN BIRD COMMUNITIES Emergent aquatic insects are an important flux of energy and nutrients to riparian consumers. However, increased disturbance of headwater streams due to land-use practices and climate change may negatively alter this dynamic. In order to evaluate the progress of an extensive in-stream restoration, we monitored insect emergence and riparian bird communities during the breeding season along a degraded stream in western Colorado (USA) prior to restoration activities. We compared communities between highly disturbed (Degraded) and less disturbed (Reference) reaches representing both riffle/run and pool habitats (beaver complexes). Total insect abundance and biomass was highly variable among stream reaches. Reference reaches supported more diverse insect and insectivorous bird communities than Degraded reaches. Dipterans, along with occasional odonates, were most dominant in the pool habitats while larger-bodied EPT taxa contributed most to biomass in riffle/run habitats, particularly at the Reference reach. Although emergent insect abundance was comparable between Reference and Degraded reaches, insectivorous bird diversity was lower in the Degraded reaches. Availability of larger emergent insects may enhance foraging efficiency of insectivorous birds, thus increasing avian diversity in riparian areas.

Scot Peterson (Primary Presenter/Author), Illinois Natural History Survey- Lake Michigan Biological Station, scotpete@illinois.edu;


Howard Whiteman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Watershed Studies Institute, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Murray State University, hwhiteman@murraystate.edu;


66 - LINKING PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND GENE EXPRESSION TO THERMALLY DRIVEN LIFE HISTORY OUTCOMES IN THE MAYFLY NEOCLOEON TRIANGULIFER

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LINKING PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND GENE EXPRESSION TO THERMALLY DRIVEN LIFE HISTORY OUTCOMES IN THE MAYFLY NEOCLOEON TRIANGULIFER Temperature drives the life histories and performance of aquatic insects. To better understand how physiological processes underlie the expression of life history patterns and thermal performance, we are using several lines of inquiry. Newly hatched eggs from the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer were reared at the Stroud water Research Center at 8 different temperatures (in 2°C increments) ranging from 14-30°C. Larvae held at 30°C did not survive to the subimago stage, establishing a chronic thermal limit. We are comparing oxygen consumption rates, metabolomics profiling and mRNA expression in several genes to better understand the processes that contribute to performance differences across temperatures and ultimately the physiological basis for thermal limits. Initial studies examined gene expression patterns of mature larvae using rt-qPCR in several gene categories including those associated with heat shock, oxidative stress, sugar metabolism and hypoxia/oxygen sensing. We are in the process of correlating these gene expression patterns with life history metrics (survivorship, growth rates, development times, etc.). We will also compare gene expression patterns resulting from chronic rearing exposures versus acute thermal ramping (1°C per hour increases).

Hsuan Chou ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, hchou2@ncsu.edu;


David Funk ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Centrer, dfunk@stoudcenter.org;


David Buchwalter (POC,Primary Presenter), North Carolina State University, david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu;


67 - ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM IN THREE STREAMS WITH CONTRASTING LAND USE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM IN THREE STREAMS WITH CONTRASTING LAND USE The health of aquatic ecosystems has traditionally been assessed using structural measures. Functional measures such as productivity, respiration, and nutrient uptake may provide insightful community-integrated metrics of ecological condition when considered together. Better in-situ sensor technologies may enable us to continuously track these functional criteria for extended periods of time at a high temporal resolution; giving us insight into the short and long term response of aquatic ecosystems to anthropogenic and natural disturbance. Using a multi-parameter sonde and an in-situ uv-vis spectrophotometer, we monitored three streams of contrasting land use in Vermont during the spring, summer, and fall of 2015. Using these data, we 1) modelled ecosystem metabolism and compared streams 2) investigated GEP model dependency on the local source of PAR data 3) investigated non-conservative solute dynamics for emergent ecological properties. We found 1) significant differences in metabolism between the three streams 2) no significant difference in GEP when using an open or sub-canopy source of PAR data 3) sub-daily patterns and relationships in DOC, SUVA, and NO3-N which might indicate ecosystem uptake and stimulated consumer excretion.

Ryan Sleeper (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Vermont, rsleeper@uvm.edu;


William Breck Bowden ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, breck.bowden@uvm.edu;


Andrew Schroth ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, aschroth@uvm.edu;


Matthew Vaughan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, matthew.vaughan@uvm.edu;


68 - DETERMINING THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF WATERSHED AND IN-STREAM PREDICTORS OF STREAM METABOLISM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DETERMINING THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF WATERSHED AND IN-STREAM PREDICTORS OF STREAM METABOLISM Metabolic rates in stream ecosystems are spatially and temporally variable partly because of interactions between indirect, watershed (e.g. hydrology, canopy, permafrost) and direct, in-stream (e.g. chemistry, light, biota) factors. Observations from Caribou Creek, in the boreal forest of interior Alaska, indicate that gross primary production and ecosystem respiration range over two and three orders of magnitude. Potential in-stream predictors also vary (DOC: 1-7 mg/L; DON: 3-1505 µg/L; DIN: 118-926 µg/L; PAR: 14-46 mmol m-2 day-1), largely due to the distribution of discontinuous permafrost, which influences vegetation, hydrology, and import of nutrients. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the strength of pathways by which indirect and direct predictors interact to affect metabolism throughout the Caribou Creek network, in streams ranging from first to third order, and in high and normal flow years. Understanding pathways creating variability in metabolism is critical for scaling limited measurements to entire stream networks.

Christina Baker (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, clbaker5@alaska.edu;


Jeremy Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, jbjonesjr@alaska.edu;


Tamara Harms ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, tamara.harms@alaska.edu;


Janine Ruegg ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, jrueegg@GMAIL.COM;


Claire Ruffing ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of British Columbia, ruffing.cathcart@ubc.ca;


69 - TEMPORAL BETA DIVERSITY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES DECLINES ALONG A STREAM PHOSPHORUS GRADIENT

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TEMPORAL BETA DIVERSITY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES DECLINES ALONG A STREAM PHOSPHORUS GRADIENT We studied benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 35 streams in Oklahoma and Arkansas, USA that spanned a steep gradient of phosphorus (P) enrichment to test the hypothesis that P enrichment suppresses temporal beta diversity (βt). We collected quantitative benthic samples and measured physical and chemical variables from riffle habitats bimonthly for 18 months. We computed several measures of βt to estimate the number of effective communities through time. We utilized generalized linear modeling (GLM) of βt within an iterative information-theoretic framework to examine the effect of P and other contributing or confounding factors that influenced trends in βt. Model selection indicated that total P was the best predictor of βt using both classical metrics and multivariate measures of diversity. Specifically, the number and range of effective communities declined with increasing concentrations of total P. These results imply that nutrient enrichment may dampen temporal patterns of succession in stream benthic communities.

Stephen C. Cook (Primary Presenter/Author), Baylor University, Stephen_Cook@baylor.edu;


Ryan S. King ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Ryan_S_King@baylor.edu;


Lauren Housley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Lauren_Housley@baylor.edu;


Jeffrey A. Back ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Jeff_Back@baylor.edu;


Morgan W. Bettcher ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Morgan_Bettcher@baylor.edu;


Stephen R. Elser ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Stephen_Elser@baylor.edu;


Katherine V. Hooker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Katherine_Hooker@baylor.edu;


Caleb J. Robbins ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Kansas, Caleb_Robbins@ku.edu;


70 - SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING OF 12 TRICHOPTERA GENERA IN CALIFORNIA USING BIOMONITORING DATASETS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING OF 12 TRICHOPTERA GENERA IN CALIFORNIA USING BIOMONITORING DATASETS Caddisflies have some of the widest diversity in ecological strategies of the freshwater insect taxa and occur worldwide within a broad range of habitats. We constructed species distribution models with Maxent for 12 genera of caddisfly using multiple biomonitoring datasets from the California Environmental Data Exchange Network. We selected caddisflies with different feeding ecology and habitat preferences (e.g., shredders, scrapers, filter-feeders, predators, and piercers) to determine if feeding ecology was associated with model variables. We used climatic, soils, geology, and ecoregion data and selected the most influential variables for each genera to run the models. 9 of the 12 species had greater than 400 unique observations. Although climatic variables were significant contributors to the models, the high percent contribution of soil and ecoregion type as the key variables supporting local habitat factors as key drivers of species distribution in California. Temperature seasonality and precipitation of the wettest month were also important distribution factors for many of the genera. In addition, we used detailed life history studies to interpret significant variables determined by models.

Christina Lew (Primary Presenter/Author), UC Berkeley, Lew_christina@berkeley.edu;


Patina Mendez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Berkeley, patina.mendez@berkeley.edu;


71 - CANCELED.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CANCELED. INTEGRATED PROTOCOL TO PREDICT THE ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF RIVERS AND FOR ADAPTING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT TO GLOBE CHANGE

The Pesquería River (located north Mexico) is considered as a priority for watershed management resource to Monterrey City and for the agriculture in this zone. It is classified by the National Diversity Council (CONABIO) as a highly impacted river by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, CONABIO recommends the evaluation of water quantity and quality including ecological status. The objective of this study is integrate the assessment of its current ecological status, using macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, indexes to assess the riparian forest and fluvial habitat quality. In addition the modelling of water availability (supply-demand) and the physicochemical parameters using the WEAP model (Water Evaluation and Planning System) to create an overall evaluation protocol. Our study provides integrated information for the prediction future scenarios of the ecological quality of the basin, and assists the watershed management policies to integrate the restoration and conservation plans to improve the ecological status of the river.

Daniel Castro (Primary Presenter/Author), Universitat de Barcelona, 8danke8@gmail.com;


Narcis Prat ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universitat de Barcelona, nprat@ub.edu;


Victor Guerra ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, cobian64@hotmail.com;


72 - EXAMINING METHANE PROCESSES AND METHANE DERIVED CARBON IN FOOD WEBS IN NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EXAMINING METHANE PROCESSES AND METHANE DERIVED CARBON IN FOOD WEBS IN NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT STREAMS When methane oxidizers are consumed by higher trophic level organisms, methane-derived carbon is routed into the food web. The purpose of this study is to explore methane cycling and food web dynamics in Piedmont streams within or near Greensboro, North Carolina. Twelve Piedmont streams of varying land uses were sampled during base flow in the summer of 2014 and winter of 2015. Representative invertebrate consumers, surface sediment, seston, and water samples were collected for methane concentration and stable isotope analysis. Preliminary data analysis has demonstrated that pore water had significantly higher methane concentration than surface water during the summer and winter and significantly lower methane del 13C values than surface water during the summer. Furthermore, del 13C values of Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) and hydropsychid caddisflies were lower than those of sediment and seston during the summer, but only Corbicula had lower del 13C values than sediment and seston during the winter. SIAR mixing models suggested that methane–derived carbon was important to the diets of hydropsychid caddisflies and Corbicula during both seasons.

Joshua Brigham (Primary Presenter/Author), University of North Carolina Greensboro, jsbrigha@uncg.edu;


Anne Hershey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, aehershe@uncg.edu;


73 - VARIABLITY IN BLACKFLY, MIDGE, AND CADDISFLY RESOURCE UTILIZATION DOWNSTREAM OF A LARGE DAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

VARIABLITY IN BLACKFLY, MIDGE, AND CADDISFLY RESOURCE UTILIZATION DOWNSTREAM OF A LARGE DAM Aquatic insects incorporate some combination of autochthonous (algae) and allochthonous (detritus) resources in their diets. This ratio segregates many taxa across functional feeding groups. However, the extent to which invertebrates consume either of these resources is dynamic and variable depending on availability. Resource utilization in such taxa can thus be a useful tool for understanding the availability of basal resources through space and time. Using collaboration with citizen scientists, we were able to deploy light traps throughout the Colorado River, below Glen Canyon Dam, to study the adult life stages of aquatic insects. We conducted carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of adult aquatic insects captured in light traps to describe whether the carbon-basis of insect production changes along the downstream gradient. Three taxa were evaluated, Chironomidae, Simuliidae, and Hydroptilidae, for each of three years (2012-2014) with around 30 isotope samples for each taxa and year combination spread throughout the 400 kilometer long river segment (i.e. one sample about every 15 kilometers). These results will be compared to prior studies of insect feeding habitats downstream of Glen Canyon Dam.

Moriah Evans (Primary Presenter/Author), Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, Southwest Biological Science Center, US Geological Survey, mevans@usgs.gov;


74 - SPECIES TRAITS AND METAL RISKS: LINKAGES BETWEEN DIETARY EXPOSURE AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SPECIES TRAITS AND METAL RISKS: LINKAGES BETWEEN DIETARY EXPOSURE AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT Linking metal bioaccumulation patterns in benthic macroinvertebrates to changes in environmental exposure requires an understanding of how these organisms are influenced by antecedent and existing conditions. Relationships between whole-body metal concentrations and species traits (e.g., feeding ecology, habitat preference, generations per year) were examined using discriminant function analysis for 40 invertebrate taxa collected in the Clark Fork River (CFR), a mine-impacted river in Western MT. Feeding behavior was the strongest predictor of metal uptake among the traits examined. Tissue metal concentrations were higher for suspension feeders, which feed primarily on suspended POM, than for predators, whose food source is more locally dependent. The downstream transport of particulate-bound contaminants in mine-impacted rivers may increase exposure risk for suspension feeders during periods of high flow. In the CFR, high tissue metal concentrations in filter-feeding caddisflies were strongly related to periods of high discharge, suggesting that hydrologic processes may confound interpretations of recovery in metal-contaminated rivers.

Michelle Hornberger (Primary Presenter/Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, mhornber@usgs.gov;


Terry Short ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, tmshort@usgs.gov;


75 - CADDISFLY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CADDISFLY Caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera, Allogamus auricollis) were used to study long-term trends of metal load in an Austrian river contaminated by industrial waste water discharges. Metal concentrations in pooled samples of caddisfly larvae from an unpolluted reference site and a site influenced by lead (Pb)-contaminated industrial waste water effluents were investigated from 1990 onwards to study short-term and long-term effects of the installation of a “state of the art” water purification plant by the industrial plant. Before waste water treatment was implemented, concentrations of Pb in caddisfly larvae from a sampling site downstream close to the pollution source were approximately 50 times higher than at an upstream reference site.

Günter Köck (POC,Primary Presenter), , guenter.koeck@uibk.ac.at;


76 - EFFECTS OF SEWAGE EFFLUENTS ON BENTHIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES IN TROPICAL STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF SEWAGE EFFLUENTS ON BENTHIC ALGAL COMMUNITIES IN TROPICAL STREAMS Benthic algae are dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and are commonly used to monitor water quality. Very little is known about the effects of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on benthic algal communities in tropical streams. Benthic algal communities’ structure and the effects of sewage input on algal populations were examined upstream and below WWTP effluents in several streams in Puerto Rico. At each stream, composite samples were collected upstream and downstream of the WWTP effluent for benthic algal analyses. Physicochemical parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen) and concentrations of different ions were measured upstream and downstream of the sewage input. Cyanobacteria and green algae dominated below WWTP effluents and the type of algae found within these groups is associated with high nutrient conditions. Most streams showed an increase in diversity and evenness below the WWTP input. Community similarity was low between upstream and below the WWTP effluent. Results from this study demonstrate that inputs from WWTP not only affect water chemistry of receiving streams but contribute substantially to changes in benthic algal community composition and structure.

Debora Figueroa-Nieves ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, debora.figueroa@gmail.com;


Kalina Manoylov (Primary Presenter/Author), Georgia College and State University, kalina.manoylov@gcsu.edu;


William H. McDowell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, bill.mcdowell@unh.edu;


77 - EFFECTS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DIATOM VALVE MORPHOLOGIES FROM A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CREEK

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DIATOM VALVE MORPHOLOGIES FROM A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CREEK Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known pollutants formed after the incomplete combustion of oil. These pollutants were detected in Cold Creek, CA, a small creek near Angelus Oaks, after a fuel spill occurred in April of 2013 where over 5,000 gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel entered the stream. Diatoms were used to assess the ecological health of the stream. Preliminary data demonstrates teratological forms of at least ten species of diatoms found down stream of the spill site. These species are from four different morphological types: araphids (Diatoma moniliformis and D. vulgaris, Fragilaria vaucheriae, and Synedra ulna), monoraphids (Cocconeis placentula, Planothidium frequentissimum, and P. lanceolatum), symmetrical biraphids (Navicula antonii), and nitzschoids (Nitzschia archibaldii and N. dissipata). Species composition is expected to be significantly different between the down stream sites and the upstream sites.

Eilleen Salas (Primary Presenter/Author), California State University Long Beach, Eilleensalas@hotmail.com;


Dessie Underwood ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University Long Beach, dessie.underwood@csulb.edu;


78 - DIATOM ASSEMBLAGE RESPONSES TO WILDFIRE IN WILDERNESS STREAMS OF CENTRAL IDAHO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DIATOM ASSEMBLAGE RESPONSES TO WILDFIRE IN WILDERNESS STREAMS OF CENTRAL IDAHO We conducted a comparative study investigating the effects of wildfire on algal biomass and diatom community composition in two wilderness streams of Idaho, USA. These streams are similar in most respects and both burned in 2000. After wildfire, one stream retained an open-canopy, the other regrew a closed canopy. We hypothesized that the greater input of photosynthetically active radiation to the former would support greater standing crop biomass of chlorophyll-a and higher primary production. We found that the open-canopy stream received ~2.9× greater photosynthetically active radiation, had ~2.4× greater standing crop biomass of chlorophyll-a, and ~2.7× higher primary production than the closed-canopy stream. Observations suggest the open-canopy stream has a more diverse diatom assemblage, and appears to have a higher proportion of diatoms possessing endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria. Primary producers are often limited by nitrogen in streams like these, and nitrogen fixation by these organisms may be an important driver of in-stream production, particularly where canopies have been opened by wildfire. This may help explain mid to long-term responses by higher trophic levels.

Adam Eckersell (Primary Presenter/Author), Idaho State University, eckeadam@isu.edu;


Matthew Schenk ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, schematt@isu.edu;


Colden Baxter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, baxtcold@isu.edu;


79 - MONITORING FOR DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA IN TENNESSEE: AN ENVIRONMENTAL DNA APPROACH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MONITORING FOR DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA IN TENNESSEE: AN ENVIRONMENTAL DNA APPROACH Didymosphenia geminata is a nuisance diatom that can form thick mats that blanket the bottom of streams. This species is of regional concern since mats occur in streams with high recreational and ecological value. Understanding its current regional distribution and factors that correlate to its presence and abundance are needed to predict where future mats may develop in Tennessee and surrounding regions. In August and September 2015, we sampled 31 streams in middle and east Tennessee, western North Carolina, southwest Virginia, and southeastern Kentucky with paired drift nets for suspended D. geminata cell abundance and environmental DNA (eDNA). We also collected water quality and basic stream morphology. Discriminant Function Analysis was used to assess stream potential to support D. geminata. We also compared the benefits of using eDNA to detect cells versus standard microscopy. Currently, we have confirmed D. geminata presence in seven rivers. It is important to identify the current regional distribution and habitat characteristics of D. geminata since an accurate timeline and map of new mat observations will provide insight into potential mechanisms of its spread.

Andrea Engle (Primary Presenter/Author), Tennessee Tech University, anengle42@students.tntech.edu;


Justin Murdock ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Tennessee Tech University, jnmurdock@tntech.edu;


Gregory Moyer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Mansfield University, gmoyer@mansfield.edu;


80 - BENTHIC ALGAE NUTRIENT LIMITATION ALONG AN ELEVATION GRADIENT IN THE POUDRE WATERSHED, COLORADO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

BENTHIC ALGAE NUTRIENT LIMITATION ALONG AN ELEVATION GRADIENT IN THE POUDRE WATERSHED, COLORADO Benthic algae are important primary producers in lotic ecosystems, but excess algae can harm aquatic communities. Identifying factors that modulate algal nutrient limitation is critical for effective stream management. In summer 2015, vials filled with nutrient-diffusing agar (N, P, N+P, Control) were deployed in seven Colorado mountain streams, spanning an elevation gradient of 2000 to 3200 meters. In two streams, treatments were deployed in both slow and fast current velocities. Algal biomass was measured after 21 days, and nutrient limitation of each stream was assessed using ANOVAs. One stream was N-limited (p < 0.01 ), and two streams were N+P-limited (p = 0.01 and 0.04). Nitrogen effect size was associated with stream elevation (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.02), but no other factors were significantly associated with treatment responses. Slow velocities had higher treatment responses than fast velocities in the two streams with duplicate treatments. Future work will continue investigating the role of current velocity in nutrient limitation, as well as determine mechanisms behind elevational control of algal biomass and nutrient limitation.

Whitney Beck (Primary Presenter/Author), Colorado State University, whitney.beck@colostate.edu;


Amanda Rugenski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, atrugenski@gmail.com;


Alexander Flecker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, asf3@cornell.edu;


LeRoy Poff ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Colorado State University, n.poff@rams.colostate.edu;


81 - VARIABLE HYDROLOGY ALTERS THE AQUATIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF A BOREAL PEATLAND

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

VARIABLE HYDROLOGY ALTERS THE AQUATIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF A BOREAL PEATLAND We examined patterns of heterotrophic bacteria and macroinvertebrate biomass in relation to nutrient concentration and algal community dynamics in an Alaskan peatland. Sampling was conducted during a natural flooding event at sites where water-table position had been previously manipulated to simulate drought (lowered) and flooding (raised) conditions relative to a control (no manipulation), to evaluate how past disturbance regimes influence a peatland food web. Algal production increased with nutrient concentrations across all water-table treatments and was most elevated following the rewetting of previously dried sediments in the lowered treatment. Bacterial and macroinvertebrate biomass increased with algal production and were significantly greater in the lowered treatment compared to the raised and control treatments. Bacterial and macroinvertebrate abundance decreased with time and remained at low levels when algal production was constrained by reduced nutrient availability. Nutrients and aquatic community structure were similar between the raised treatment and the control throughout the study. Our data indicate increased frequency of drought and re-flooding associated with climate change may alter food-web dynamics in northern peatlands by releasing nutrient constraints on microalgae on the peat surface.

Kevin Wyatt (Primary Presenter/Author), Ball State University, khwyatt@bsu.edu;


Dawn DeColibus ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ball State University, dtdecolibus@bsu.edu;


Merritt Turetsky ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Guelph, mrt@uguelph.ca;


Allison Rober ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ball State University, arrober@bsu.edu;


82 - THE CHANGING DYNAMICS OF MICROCYSTIN: FRESHWATER CYANOTOXINS IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE CHANGING DYNAMICS OF MICROCYSTIN: FRESHWATER CYANOTOXINS IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are a persistent, worldwide environmental problem in marine, estuarine and fresh waters. Climate change and expanding human populations are expected to exacerbate the frequency, intensity and distribution of HABs. In freshwater environments, cyanobacteria are the most prolific HAB producers. The most common and dangerous cyanotoxin is microcystin (MC). Acute and chronic MC exposures can cause death or permanent liver damage and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. Until recently MCs in marine environments have been largely ignored. However, it is suspected that MC contaminated freshwater is polluting the land-sea interface in many areas throughout the world. Recently, we documented the transport and accumulation of MC from freshwater lakes to Puget Sound shellfish. A handful of other studies have also found freshwater derived MCs are polluting nearshore marine environments. The freshwater origin of MC contamination reinforces the importance of freshwater nutrient reduction and management efforts. It also highlights the connectivity of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. This review highlights our original research and discusses how a changing climate is expected to intensify this ecological and human health threat.

Ellen Preece (Primary Presenter/Author), Robertson-Bryan Inc., ellen@robertson-bryan.com;


83 - TIPULA (NIPPOTIPULA) ABDOMINALIS (DIPTERA: TIPULIDAE) , A COMMON EASTERN NEARCTIC SHREDDER CRANE FLY, IS ACTUALLY THREE SPECIES.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TIPULA (NIPPOTIPULA) ABDOMINALIS (DIPTERA: TIPULIDAE) , A COMMON EASTERN NEARCTIC SHREDDER CRANE FLY, IS ACTUALLY THREE SPECIES. Tipula (Nippotipula) abdominalis (Say 1823) is found throughout the eastern Nearctic region in streams with a forested riparian zone, and its larva is a shredder in leafpacks. It is probably the most commonly encountered aquatic crane fly larva in eastern US streams and has been the focus of a variety of benthic studies. Although a similar species, T. metacomet Alexander was described in 1965 the brief description and lack of illustrations of critical taxonomic features has led it to be unrecognized throughout its range, which is broadly sympatric in distribution and habitat with T. abdominalis. In addition we have found an undescribed species at several sites along the Appalachian corridor in similar stream habitat and we suspect that a number of studies have confused these three species. We will present the adult features for distinguishing these three species using morphology and DNA barcoding, map their known geographic distributions, and outline our efforts to distinguish the larvae of the three species and analyze their ecological preferences.

Jon Gelhaus (Primary Presenter/Author), The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, gelhaus@gmail.com;


Vaughn Shirey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dept. Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, vms44@drexel.edu;


Yan Li ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Shenyang Agricultural University, China, ylfly228@gmail.com;


84 - MODELING STREAM FISH BIOGEOGRAPHY TO ASSESS WATER QUALITY IN A SPECIES-RICH REGION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MODELING STREAM FISH BIOGEOGRAPHY TO ASSESS WATER QUALITY IN A SPECIES-RICH REGION Natural resource managers commonly monitor fishes to assess the water quality condition of streams. We evaluated a biological assessment metric, based on observed and expected fish species richness, for application in regions with high fish diversity. We used samples collected in a state-wide monitoring program in Georgia, US. A multivariate species distribution model was built using least-disturbed sites, by applying a Random Forest algorithm to predict expected fish taxa based on a stream’s environmental characteristics, such as elevation, slope, and flow. The ratio of observed to expected taxa was then used to estimate whether a stream was close to, or far from, a least-disturbed condition. The model was useful in the species-rich northern half of the state above the Fall Line, but inadequate in steams with relatively few common species. Our work utilized machine-learning and multivariate procedures which are rarely applied to fish bioassessment and complemented the state’s current multimetric index. The results demonstrated a tradeoff when including rare species in bioassessment, exhibited the sensitivity of fluvial taxa to human disturbance, and provided insight into the biogeography of Georgia’s fishes.

Stephen Maurano (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Georgia, smaurano@uga.edu;


Mary Freeman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, mcfreeman@usgs.gov;


85 - CAN STREAM INSECT THRESHOLD ELEMENTAL RATIOS INFORM WADEABLE STREAM NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CAN STREAM INSECT THRESHOLD ELEMENTAL RATIOS INFORM WADEABLE STREAM NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT? Stream nutrient enrichment can cause predictable declines in leaf litter detritus C:P, possibly below the C:P threshold elemental ratio (TERC:P ) for many detritivorous species, and may contribute to associated declines in shredding insect biodiversity seen with enrichment of wadeable streams. We examined the effect of changes in detrital C:P (mean C:P range = 1034-4009 by mole; food quantity was never limiting) on insect instantaneous growth for a variety of detritivorous taxa (Pycnopsyche, Lepidostoma, Allocapnia, Amphinemura, Strophopteryx, Tipula, Chironomus, Polypedilum, and Micropsectra) to address this hypothesis. Lepidostoma was the only taxa out of nine whose growth did not have a marginally significant (p<0.1) or a significant (p<0.05) statistical linear or polynomial relationship with litter C:P. TERC:P estimated from polynomial relationships between growth and litter C:P ranged from 1784-2653, which corresponded to concentrations less than 50 micrograms TP/L based on an existing published relationship between TP and litter C:P in Ozark streams. The relationships between streamwater P and litter C:P and between litter C:P and insect growth essentially represent dose-response relationships that might inform stream management.

Michelle Evans-White (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Arkansas, mevanswh@uark.edu;


Stephanie Stoughton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Central Arkansas, stoughton54@gmail.com;


Chris Fuller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Central Arkansas, cfuller008@gmail.com;


Halvor Halvorson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Southern Mississippi, halvor.halvorson@usm.edu;


Andrew Sanders ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University Dept. of Applied Ecology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, ajsande5@ncsu.edu;


Thad Scott ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Thad_Scott@baylor.edu ;


Erin Scott ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Arkansas, erins@uark.edu;


Ayla Smartt ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Arkansas, asmartt@uark.edu;


86 - EFFECTS OF PYRIMETHANIL FUNGICIDE IN COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF CHIRONOMIDAE (INSECTA: DIPTERA): A MESOCOSMS APPROACH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF PYRIMETHANIL FUNGICIDE IN COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF CHIRONOMIDAE (INSECTA: DIPTERA): A MESOCOSMS APPROACH The constant application of agrochemicals and fertilizers, has promoted several impacts in the aquatic ecosystems and in the associate biota, especially in non-target organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates community, mainly in Chironomidae (Diptera), monitored in mesocosms, after an experimental contamination with the Pyrimethanil fungicide. The mesocosms were built with six tanks of 1500 liters. The contamination with Pyrimethanil was performed by spraying on water’s surface with a fungicide concentration of 0.1 mg.L-1. The mesocosms were divided into three contaminated replicas and three controls without contamination. The water monitoring and sampling of benthic macroinvertebrates were performed monthly during the period of one year. The water variables showed no significant differences between controls and treated mesocosms. Controls showed great abundance of individuals when compared to treated mesocosms. In the fifth month of monitoring, after total degradation of the contaminant, there was a significant increase in the values of the Margalef richness and Shannon-Wiener Index (H’) of benthic community in treated mesocosms.

José Mello (Primary Presenter/Author), University of São Paulo, josemello@sc.usp.br;


Juliano Corbi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of São Paulo, julianocorbi@usp.br;


Guilherme Gorni ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), São Paulo University - USP, grgorni@gmail.com;


Daniel Abrahão ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of São Paulo, danielshs@usp.br;


87 - USING REFERENCE CONDITION MODELS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS OF ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING REFERENCE CONDITION MODELS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS OF ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA Parks Canada Agency is responsible for protecting and presenting nationally significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural heritage, and for fostering public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. Parks Canada is the custodian and manages the largest amount of federal crown lands including substantial surface water resources in Canada. Maintaining the ecological integrity of Canada’s network of National Parks requires monitoring programs that are capable of identifying shifts in the structure of biotic communities beyond reference conditions and subsequent evaluations of cause and solution. Over the last decade our Agency has developed and applied two reference condition approach models for Nahanni National Park Reserve (NNPR) and Nááts’ichch’oh National Park Reserve, in the Northwest Territories, and encompassing seven Mountain Parks in Alberta and British Columbia. Collectively, they provide opportunities to assess the ecological integrity of 53,000 km2 of protected areas. Here I describe the development and application of two reference models and document their impact on ecological reporting and resource management decisions.

Gary Scrimgeour (Primary Presenter/Author), Office of the Chief Ecosystem Scientist, Protected Areas Establishment and Conservation, Parks Canada Agency, garry.scrimgeour@pc.gc.ca;


88 - PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA, FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL PROGRAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA, FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL PROGRAM In 2014, Pinellas County established a freshwater biological monitoring program in order to provide macroinvertebrate data to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s (FDEP) Watershed Assessment program. The stream sampling employs the Stream Condition Index (SCI) and Habitat Assessment (HA) methodology developed by FDEP. A failing SCI score can put a stream segment on the TMDL planning list for biological impairment; two consecutive failing scores may place it on the TMDL impaired list. There are two TMDL basins in Pinellas County: Springs Coast and Tampa Bay. Pinellas County plans to alternate sampling between the basins, collecting SCI and HA in each stream water body ID (WBID) twice a year in each basin. The Impaired Water Rule requires at least two bioassessments for each stream WBID per a 5 year TMDL assessment period. Data from the first year’s sampling season indicates the majority of Pinellas County streams in the Spring Coast basin are either impaired or inconclusive for SCI. Probable stressors related to stream biological impairment will be discussed.

Peggy Morgan (Primary Presenter/Author), Pinellas County Government, Natural Resources, mmorgan@pinellascounty.org;


Robin Barnes ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Pinellas County Government, Natural Resources, rbarnes@pinellascounty.org;


89 - TESTING IF OHIO RAPID ASSESSMENT METHOD PREDICTS WETLAND MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TESTING IF OHIO RAPID ASSESSMENT METHOD PREDICTS WETLAND MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES The Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM) is used to categorize wetland habitat quality based on its physical structure. ORAM scores range from 0 to 100, and wetlands are classified as either poor (0-30), good (31-60), or excellent (61-100). In freshwater wetlands, aquatic macroinvertebrates are abundant and ecologically important; different habitat types have different invertebrate communities which are affected by ecosystem integrity. Little is known if ORAM scores predict macroinvertebrate communities. We sampled aquatic invertebrates in scrub-shrub dominated wetlands in Northeastern Ohio and compared invertebrate communities to ORAM scores. Invertebrate biodiversity was high in the scrub-shrub wetlands we sampled. However, invertebrate richness was very similar among all ORAM categories. Invertebrates were somewhat more abundant in category 1 wetlands, but this difference was not significant. ORAM was not correlated with either invertebrate richness or abundance. Total ORAM score was unable to predict macroinvertebrate community composition in wetlands. However, two subtopic metrics (buffers and plant communities) did predict invertebrate communities. This suggests future research might be used to develop an invertebrate based index of biotic integrity of wetland quality.

Bethany Vazquez (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras Campus, bethani.vazquez@gmail.com;


DeShawn Johnson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kent State University , djohns28@kent.edu;


Ferenc de Szalay ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kent State University, fdeszala@kent.edu;


90 - EFFECT OF STREAM HYDROLOGY ON PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE IN A COLD WATER STREAM IN WESTERN WISCONSIN

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECT OF STREAM HYDROLOGY ON PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE IN A COLD WATER STREAM IN WESTERN WISCONSIN Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus often limit production in aquatic ecosystems, but high levels of these nutrients lead to system degradation. Stream ecosystems in the Driftless Area of the Upper Midwest are especially vulnerable to nutrient pollution because of the high nutrient inputs to the region and because many of the streams have very high connectivity to the landscape through karst topography. Once in a stream ecosystem, downstream transport of nutrients is primarily a function of hydrology and biotic processes. In this study we measured the rate of phosphorus uptake in several reaches of Spring Coulee Creek in western Wisconsin using slug releases of phosphorus and a conservative tracer. We compared these rates to various hydrological (e.g., transient storage) and geomorphological characteristics (e.g., gradient, sinuosity) of the reach.

Eric Strauss (Primary Presenter/Author), River Studies Center and Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, estrauss@uwlax.edu;


Katherine Bohrman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, bohrman.kati@uwlax.edu;


Alisha Saley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, saley.alis@uwlax.edu;


91 - DOC, CH4, AND CO2 DYNAMICS IN TWO AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS IN NORTHERN INDIANA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DOC, CH4, AND CO2 DYNAMICS IN TWO AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS IN NORTHERN INDIANA Agricultural soils contain large pools of organic carbon, which can be transported to stream networks as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Dynamics of DOC in managed ecosystems, such as the agricultural Midwestern U.S., are less understood than those of forested ecosystems. In particular, relationships between DOC and greenhouse gas production are in need of study. We analyzed bi-weekly DOC samples from tile drains and streams in two intensively farmed watersheds in northern Indiana beginning in June 2015. Dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored at the same sites. Difference in DOC concentrations occurred seasonally, as well as between stream (mean = approximately 3 mg/L) and tile samples (mean = approximately 1.5 mg/L). Instantaneous DOC loads were used to examine the allochthonous (tile) contribution to total steam load over the course of the year. For both carbon dioxide and methane, concentrations in the streams was several fold greater than in water from tile drains. The relationships between DOC dynamics and concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide provide a more thorough picture of the agro-ecosystem carbon cycle.

Kara Prior (POC,Primary Presenter), Indiana University, kprior@indiana.edu;


Todd V. Royer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Indiana University Bloomington, troyer@indiana.edu;


Jennifer L. Tank ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, tank.1@nd.edu;


Matt T. Trentman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, mtrentma@nd.edu;


Brittany Hanrahan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USDA Agricultural Research Service, br.hanrahan@gmail.com;


Sheila Christopher ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, sheila.christopher@nd.edu;


Ursula H. Mahl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, umahl@nd.edu;


92 - USE OF ARGON AS TRACER GAS IN STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USE OF ARGON AS TRACER GAS IN STREAMS Accurately measuring gas exchange rates is needed for estimates of metabolism and gas emissions from streams to the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates vary depending on stream size, depth, turbulence, and temperature. Use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to measure gas exchange is not ideal because of its uncertainty in scaling to other gases and its potent greenhouse gas properties. We used argon (Ar), an inert gas sharing similar physical properties with oxygen, as a potential substitute for measuring gas exchange. We added Ar to 3 headwater streams in Wyoming and measured dissolved gas concentrations at set increments downstream of the injection point. Using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer, we examined the decrease in the argon to nitrogen ratio (Ar:N2). Turnover rate, the time the gas remains in the stream before evading out, of the 3 streams include: 52/day, 59/day, 118/day. The Ar:N2 showed an exponential decay with increasing distance downstream, similar to previous methods using SF6, but without adverse effects.

Ina Goodman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wyoming, inagoodman@gmail.com;


Hilary Madinger ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wyoming, hilary.madinger@gmail.com;


Robert Hall (Primary Presenter/Author), Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, bob.hall@flbs.umt.edu;


93 - COMPOUND-SPECIFIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON UPTAKE IN PRAIRIE STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

COMPOUND-SPECIFIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON UPTAKE IN PRAIRIE STREAMS Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important source of carbon for stream heterotrophs. Furthermore, DOC levels can affect the availability and uptake of other nutrients in some streams. While tracer additions and elevated concentrations have been used to estimate uptake of specific compounds, no study that we know of has examined the uptake kinetics of compound-specific DOC in streams. We used a pulse tracer release and an enzymatic assay for glucose to measure uptake dynamics of glucose in two reaches of a prairie stream. We detected ambient levels of glucose between 150 and 500 µg L-1 which is between 10 and 20 percent of total DOC. We calculated an ambient gross uptake rate of 330 µg m-2 min-1 and did not find a Michaelis Menten response in dynamic uptake rates. In a reach with two distinct flow paths with travel times differing by more than three hours, we calculated similar uptake lengths for both paths, indicating that uptake rates were much lower along the slower flow path.

Sophie A. Higgs (Primary Presenter/Author), Kansas State University, sahiggs@ksu.edu;


Walter Dodds ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, wkdodds@ksu.edu;


94 - USING MESOCOSMS TO ASSESS CONTROLS OF FLOCCULANT ORGANIC RICH SEDIMENTS ON ORGANIC CARBON AND NITRATE CHEMISTRY AT THE STREAM-GROUNDWATER INTERFACE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING MESOCOSMS TO ASSESS CONTROLS OF FLOCCULANT ORGANIC RICH SEDIMENTS ON ORGANIC CARBON AND NITRATE CHEMISTRY AT THE STREAM-GROUNDWATER INTERFACE Flocculant, organic-rich sediment (floc) deposits are ubiquitous throughout low land streams. We hypothesize that floc deposits are a significant control on stream-groundwater interface (i.e., hyporheic zone) chemistry, because they function as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace elements. To test this, a hyporheic floc manipulation experiment was conducted using in situ streambed flow-through mesocosms. Mesocosms were inserted into groundwater upwelling sites along a second-order reach of Augusta Creek (Michigan, USA). There were three floc addition treatments, each using unique floc sources with the Augusta Creek watershed, and one control. Hyporheic porewater samples, along with surface water and groundwater samples, were collected twelve days after the floc addition at four discrete depths in each mesocosm using MINIPOINT samplers. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate, and various ion concentrations, as well as DOC optical properties, to infer DOC qualities. Results indicate that the floc treatments had no persistent effects on hyporheic DOC quantity or qualities, likely due to the rapid flushing of hyporheic porewaters from upwelling groundwater.

Stephen Plont (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, plontste@msu.edu;


Jay Zarnetske ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, jpz@msu.edu;


Joseph Lee-Cullin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, cullinjo@msu.edu;


Sydney Ruhala ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, ruhalasy@msu.edu;


Evan Wiewiora ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, wiewiora@msu.edu;


95 - INSTREAM ATTENUATION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS IN THE PUGET SOUND BASIN

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INSTREAM ATTENUATION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS IN THE PUGET SOUND BASIN Multiple modeling approaches for estimating nutrient attenuation in streams and rivers were used to estimate potential instream nutrient attenuation for the major river basins in Puget Sound. Instream nutrient attenuation was explained in terms of four primary factors: sinuosity, channel slope, specific discharge, and uptake velocity. A scoring procedure based on these factors showed that reaches where attenuation scores were high, we saw higher attenuation of nutrients. From a management perspective, maximizing nutrient attenuation should focus on two goals: increasing the travel time through a given stream reach, and lowering nutrient concentrations (loads) to stream reaches to avoid saturation of instream attenuation. These goals can be reached by maintaining and restoring channel-floodplain connectivity; maintaining and restoring healthy riparian zones; managing point and nonpoint nutrient loads to streams and rivers; and restoration of channel features which promote groundwater-surface water interactions. Fortunately, many of these management approaches are already being undertaken to restore quality salmon habitat. Therefore a dual benefit to these projects is they may also lead to enhanced potential for nitrogen and phosphorus attenuation.

Rich Sheibley (Primary Presenter/Author), USGS Washington Water Science Center, Sheibley@usgs.gov;


Christopher Konrad ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, cpkonrad@usgs.gov;


Robert Black ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, rwblack@usgs.gov;


96 - ORGANIC MATTER SUPRESSES NITRIFICATION IN A NITROGEN-LIMITED STREAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ORGANIC MATTER SUPRESSES NITRIFICATION IN A NITROGEN-LIMITED STREAM Decomposition of organic matter can stimulate benthic nitrification through nitrogen (N) re-mineralization, or suppress nitrification through oxygen consumption. Nitrification can also vary by redox conditions in upwelling and downwelling zones. In a nitrogen-limited stream, we buried sediment microcosms supplemented with leaf litter to increase organic matter content by 2x and 4x compared to an unaltered (0x) and ambient control using native stream sediment. After one month of burial in upwelling and downwelling zones, we measured sediment respiration in the field and found higher respiration in 2x and 4x compared to the 0x and ambient treatments (two-way ANOVA, p<<0.001), but we found no difference in upwelling or downwelling zones (two-way ANOVA, p=0.052). We performed nitrapyrin-block assays in the lab and found generally low nitrification rates (all <10 μg N m-2 h-1). Ambient sediment had higher nitrification rates than the 4x organic matter treatment (two-way ANOVA, p=0.009), but we found no differences between upwelling and downwelling zones. Decomposition suppressed nitrification in this nitrogen-limited stream where assimilatory uptake and release likely dominate N cycling processes.

Sarah Clark (Primary Presenter/Author), Central Washington University, clarksara@cwu.edu;


Clay Arango ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Central Washington University, arangoc@cwu.edu;


97 - DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON CONDITIONS ACROSS THE STREAM-GROUNDWATER INTERFACE OF A THIRD-ORDER RIVER NETWORK

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON CONDITIONS ACROSS THE STREAM-GROUNDWATER INTERFACE OF A THIRD-ORDER RIVER NETWORK Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) processing in river networks controls the DOC quantity and quality (i.e. bioavailability) delivered to downstream ecosystems. The stream-groundwater interface (hyporheic zone, HZ) may be a significant processor of stream DOC due to its rich biological, chemical, and hydrological diversity. If true, we hypothesize that the variance in DOC quantity and quality will be greatest in the HZ when compared to surface water and groundwater at a site. To test this, a HZ synoptic sampling campaign was conducted across the third-order watershed of Augusta Creek, Michigan, USA. Samples of porewater from 6 depths across a 20 cm HZ interface, along with surface water and groundwater samples, were collected at 16 locations across the 3 river orders using MINIPOINT samplers. Samples were analyzed for DOC concentration and multiple optical properties used to infer DOC quality. Results show that DOC concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm decrease with depth through the HZ, suggestive of microbially-driven DOC transformations, and that the greatest variance in DOC occurs at intermediate HZ depths across all sites.

Sydney Ruhala (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, ruhalasy@msu.edu;


Jay Zarnetske ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, jpz@msu.edu;


Joseph Lee-Cullin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, cullinjo@msu.edu;


Stephen Plont ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, plontste@msu.edu;


Evan Wiewiora ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, USA, wiewiora@msu.edu;


98 - DEVELOPMENT OF DENITRIFYING BACTERIA IN NEWLY CREATED BIOFILMS IN URBAN STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DEVELOPMENT OF DENITRIFYING BACTERIA IN NEWLY CREATED BIOFILMS IN URBAN STREAMS Biofilms play a pivotal role on nutrient cycling in streams: They ultimately dictate the export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. The extent to which biofilms influence the concentration of dissolved nutrients may be determined by the composition and activity of the microbial assemblages. Evidence of biological interactions among bacteria and algae is well documented. Their relative abundance can dictate the fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in streams: Development and succession of denitrifying bacteria remain poorly understood. We conducted an in situ colonization experiment in a stream receiving WWTP effluent so as to examine how this input influences development of denitrifying bacteria. Artificial substrata were placed upstream and downstream of the WWTP and sampled over time. Developed biofilm (in terms of biomass content), algae, and abundance of denitrifiers were characterized. The results of this study contribute to better understanding of the temporal dynamics of denitrifiers in relation to developed organic matter, dissolved oxygen, and biomass accrual in stream biofilms under influence of WWTP effluent input. The results provide insights into potential roles of denitrifiers on N-removal in WWTP effluent receiving streams.

Timothy Vaessen (Primary Presenter/Author), Integrated Freshwater Ecology Group, Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Girona, Spain, t.n.vaessen@ceab.csic.es;


Gilles Pinay ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CNRS-OSUR, Rennes, France, gilles.pinay@univ-rennes1.fr;


Miquel Ribot ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), mribot@ceab.csic.es;


Stephanie N. Merbt ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), EAWAG, stephanie.merbt@eawag.ch;


Emilio Casamayor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Integrated Freshwater Ecology Group, Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Girona, Spain, casamayor@ceab.csic.es;


Eugènia Martí ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Integrated Freshwater Ecology Group, Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Girona, Spain, eugenia@ceab.csic.es;


99 - THE IMPACT OF CORBICULA FLUMINEA ON METHANE CYCLING IN STREAM SEDIMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE IMPACT OF CORBICULA FLUMINEA ON METHANE CYCLING IN STREAM SEDIMENTS The Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, can affect biogeochemical cycles in stream sediments, but the impact of this invader on methane dynamics has not been investigated. In December 2015, we addressed this question using a laboratory experiment. C. fluminea, sediment and water were collected from an urban stream in Greensboro, NC, and used in mason jar microcosms to evaluate the effect of presence of C. fluminea on methane efflux. After 8 days, jars were sealed, and methane concentration was measured in the water. Methane concentration was approximately 17% lower in jars with C. fluminea, suggesting that C. fluminea altered the balance of methanogenesis and methane oxidation. Future experiments will use methyl fluoride as an oxidation inhibitor in order to better resolve the effect C. fluminea on CH4 cycle processes in stream sediments.

Robert Brown (Primary Presenter/Author), Tennessee Technological University, brownrs1991@gmail.com;


Anne Hershey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, aehershe@uncg.edu;


100 - CHANGES IN SEDIMENT POREWATER CHEMISTRY AND WILD RICE GROWTH AS A RESULT OF REDUCED HYPORHEIC FLOW

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CHANGES IN SEDIMENT POREWATER CHEMISTRY AND WILD RICE GROWTH AS A RESULT OF REDUCED HYPORHEIC FLOW Wild rice (Zizania palustris and Z. aquatica) is economically and culturally important to Native Americans and there is increasing interest in restoration efforts, but the factors that influence its distribution are not well known. Recent work suggests that sulfide, a byproduct of bacterial decomposition in anaerobic sediments containing sulfate, can be toxic to plants. We investigated whether the reduction of hyporheic (sub-surface) flow would negatively impact wild rice growth by (1) decreasing nutrient replenishment in the sediments and/or (2) allowing the buildup of natural stressors, such as ammonia and sulfide. To test these hypotheses, we manipulated hyporheic flow at several locations in a stand of wild rice in Michigan and sampled the changes in porewater chemistry and wild rice growth over 5.5 weeks. To evaluate rice growth, we measured root biomass and length before and after the manipulation, and measured plant heights every two weeks during the experiment. Our results suggest that while there was no difference in sediment porewater chemistry between control and manipulated plots, reducing hyporheic flow may negatively affect the growth of wild rice.

Adamaris Muñiz Tirado (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, adamaris.muniz@upr.edu;


Dustin Kincaid ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), W.K. Kellogg Biological Station and Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, kincai32@msu.edu;


Stephen K. Hamilton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Michigan State University, hamilton@kbs.msu.edu;


101 - USING OXYGEN SENSORS TO UNDERSTAND WETLAND GREENHOUSE GAS HOT SPOTS AND HOT MOMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING OXYGEN SENSORS TO UNDERSTAND WETLAND GREENHOUSE GAS HOT SPOTS AND HOT MOMENTS Hot spots and hot moments of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes occur when dynamic hydrology triggers shifts in biogeochemical and physical processes that control GHG emissions. Soil oxygen (O2), a direct control on biogenic GHG production may serve as both an important proxy for determining sudden shifts in subsurface biogenic GHG production, as well as the physical transport of GHGs to the atmosphere. We asked: Do soil O2 dynamics correspond to changes in soil GHG concentrations and GHG surface fluxes? We addressed this question using precipitation event-based and weekly sampling (19 months) data sets from a restored riparian wetland. Changes in subsurface (10 and 20 cm) CO2 and N2O concentrations were inversely related to short-term (< 48 h) changes in O2 concentrations. Subsurface CH4 concentrations changes, however, did not change in response to O2 dynamics. Changing subsurface GHG concentrations did not necessarily translate into altered surface GHG fluxes. Our study suggests that monitoring near-continuous soil O2 concentration under dynamic soil hydrology may lead to greater understanding of GHG emissions and incorporation of hot spots and hot moments into GHG modeling efforts.

Amy J. Burgin (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Kansas, burginam@ku.edu;


Karla Jarecke ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, jareckek@gmail.com;


Terrance D. Loecke ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Kansas, loeckete@gmail.com;


102 - COMPARING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPRINGS AND SEEPS TO NITRATE FLUX IN A STREAM NETWORK IN CENTRAL WISCONSIN

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

COMPARING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPRINGS AND SEEPS TO NITRATE FLUX IN A STREAM NETWORK IN CENTRAL WISCONSIN Evaluating the flow paths that contribute to solute flux can lead to greater understanding of the linkages between biogeochemistry and hydrology. We compared the contributions of groundwater in spring brooks and in seepage through the stream bed to nitrate flux in the Emmons Creek network. We predicted that spring brooks would contribute disproportionately to nitrate flux due to the presumed higher advection rates in springs and less opportunity for nitrate removal. Nitrate flux from springs was measured in 15 spring brooks that entered Emmons Creek. Nitrate flux from seepage was measured based on Darcy’s Law and by a reach-scale injection of Rhodamine WT (RWT). When seepage discharge was estimated from the RWT release groundwater inputs from springs and seepage accounted for the discharge gain in the channel. Springs brooks and seepage contributed about 35% and 65% to nitrate inputs in the study reach. Contrary to our prediction, seeps contributed disproportionately to nitrate flux. Relatively high rates of seepage discharge and higher than anticipated nitrate concentrations in the shallow pore water at seepage locations contributed to the unanticipated result.

Robert Stelzer (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, stelzer@uwosh.edu;


Eric Strauss ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), River Studies Center and Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, estrauss@uwlax.edu;


103 - LONG TERM TRENDS OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION IN A TALLGRASS PRAIRIE STREAM NETWORK

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LONG TERM TRENDS OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION IN A TALLGRASS PRAIRIE STREAM NETWORK Long-term data (1983 – 2013) on concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate, and ammonium from Konza Prairie Biological Station allow evaluation of multi-decade responses to watershed management, woody vegetation expansion, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Headwater reaches of Kings Creek are characterized by pristine tallgrass prairie watersheds with varying regimes of grazing and prescribed burning, while downstream reaches are influenced by groundwater input from agricultural fields. Long-term sampling at numerous stream reaches on Konza provides an opportunity to examine temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen concentration over time. Decreasing concentration of nitrate at the site most heavily affected by agricultural inputs could be related to conversion of agricultural fields to restored prairie. In contrast, concentration of ammonium exhibits a positive trend at all sampling locations, which is consistent with long-term increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition and woody vegetation expansion. Short-term variability would have masked the trend of increasing ammonium, thus demonstrating the value of long-term monitoring efforts.

James Guinnip (Primary Presenter/Author), Kansas State University, jguinnip@ksu.edu;


Walter Dodds ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, wkdodds@ksu.edu;


104 - NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WETLAND CONDITION: EVALUATING THE OHIO RAPID ASSESSMENT METHOD

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WETLAND CONDITION: EVALUATING THE OHIO RAPID ASSESSMENT METHOD Wetlands are habitats found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that act as buffers, filtering polluting nutrients from inflowing waters. Wetlands have been drained and removing these buffers threatens water quality. The Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM) is used to rapidly assess wetland quality for regulatory purposes in the state of Ohio. We aimed to determine if ORAM scores are related to ecosystem function, as indicated by ion concentrations and sediment phosphorus (P) sorption characteristics. We predicted that nutrient concentrations will be higher in wetlands with lower ORAM scores (indicating poor quality) and that phosphate sorption capacity will be higher in wetlands with higher scores. Nine palustrine scrub-shrub wetlands owned by Kent State University were assigned an ORAM score: two wetlands as category one (lowest quality), six category twos, and one category three (highest quality). Wetlands near roads had higher concentrations of chloride than those with wider forest buffers. Indicators of P sorption varied across wetlands and were not related to ORAM score. Our data suggest that ORAM assessments do not reflect water quality function.

Jaynell Nicholson (Primary Presenter/Author), Kent State University, jnicho52@kent.edu;


105 - DOES AN ON-CAMPUS STORMWATER RETENTION WETLAND IMPROVE WATER QUALITY?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DOES AN ON-CAMPUS STORMWATER RETENTION WETLAND IMPROVE WATER QUALITY? Urban stormwater runoff carries many pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients (i.e., nitrate and phosphate). Many stormwater wetlands function primarily as retention ponds, rather than provide multiple ecosystem services including flood prevention and water quality improvement. To determine an on-campus wetland’s influence on water quality, we compared samples collected during storm events using automatic water samplers (ISCO, Teledyne) installed in storm drains upstream and downstream of the wetland. We measured a suite of water chemistry parameters including chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate to indicate road salt and fertilizer pollution. Due to the wetland and stormwater drainage system design, most stormwater bypasses the wetland, suggesting the wetland does not influence water quality. Overall, stormwater was high in chloride (average=220 ppm) and sulfate (average=48 ppm). Generally, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were moderate (average=0.05 and 0.91 ppm, respectively). Preliminary data suggests that inflow and outflow concentrations differ substantially. During the same storm, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate were higher in concentration downstream of the existing wetland than upstream, likely reflecting chemical changes occurring in storm drains.

Taylor Michael (Primary Presenter/Author), Kent State University, tmichae9@kent.edu;


Lauren Kinsman-Costello ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kent State University, lkinsman@kent.edu;


Suresh Rao ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Purdue University, sureshrao@purdue.edu;


106 - INCREASING WATER TEMPERATURES MAY REDUCE HATCHING SUCCESS OF DAPHNIA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INCREASING WATER TEMPERATURES MAY REDUCE HATCHING SUCCESS OF DAPHNIA Environmental change can trigger some zooplankton, such as Daphnia spp., to sexually reproduce resulting in genetic recombination and the production of dormant (diapause) eggs. As primary consumers, Daphnia are of trophic importance in freshwater systems. Increasing surface water temperatures in the Great Lakes may alter hatching success of diapausing eggs, thereby altering subsequent species composition. Temperature is a primary cue for hatching diapausing eggs; however, physical factors such as pH may also play a role. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and pH on Daphnia diapause egg hatching. Using diapausing eggs collected from Daphnia pulex clones, we compared three levels of temperature and pH on the hatching success of diapause eggs through a factorial design analysis. Hatching success decreased with increasing temperatures (p=0.018), with similar trends occurring at neutral pH (p=0.238) and neutral pH/high temperature interaction (p=0.066). Results indicate that increasing temperatures may compromise hatching of zooplankton diapausing eggs. This could inhibit repopulation and genetic recombination, thereby causing population level changes that could threaten trophic stability in aquatic ecosystems.

Darrin Hunt (Primary Presenter/Author), Wayne State University, eb5832@wayne.edu;


Donna Kashian ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Wayne State University, dkashian@wayne.edu;


107 - USING SPECIES-SPECIFIC RATES OF NUTRIENT REGENERATION BY DETRITIVORES TO PREDICT HOW DISTRIBUTIONAL SHIFTS RELATED TO CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

USING SPECIES-SPECIFIC RATES OF NUTRIENT REGENERATION BY DETRITIVORES TO PREDICT HOW DISTRIBUTIONAL SHIFTS RELATED TO CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION The hydrology of high elevation ponds and wetlands is sensitive to changes in precipitation and temperature, which in turn affects the distribution of aquatic invertebrates. We have observed shifts in the ranges of several species of detritivorous caddisfly larvae across elevations and along permanence gradients within elevations. Previous research suggests that these caddisfly larvae play a key role in ecosystem function in that they are (1) the biomass-dominant detritivores, (2) a dominant prey resource for vertebrate predators, and (3) mobilizing nutrients from detrital-microbial substrates. Using an incubation technique conducted in closed microcosms, we quantified biomass-specific excretion rates of ammonium-nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus for different species to determine the degree to which nutrient regeneration varies (1) among species at the same time and place, (2) at different times of day within a species, and (3) at different elevations within a species. We then parameterized linear models using the results of these experiments and data on life history (days in the pond) and area-specific biomass from natural populations to predict how newly formed species combinations should affect overall nutrient regeneration.

Jared Balik (Primary Presenter/Author), Allegheny College, balikj@allegheny.edu;


Scott Wissinger ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Allegheny College, swissing@allegheny.edu;


Brad Taylor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University Dept. of Applied Ecology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, bwtaylo3@ncsu.edu ;


Susan Washko ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Allegheny College, washkos@allegheny.edu;


108 - THERMAL TOLERANCE VARIABILITY IN A WARM-WATER CHEUMATOPSYCHE CADDISFLY.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THERMAL TOLERANCE VARIABILITY IN A WARM-WATER CHEUMATOPSYCHE CADDISFLY. Climate change models predict both a general increase in temperatures, which can have a negative effect on stream ecosystems, and also increases in severe climatic events. We tested the effects of short periods of increased or decreased temperatures on the ability of a warm-water adapted caddisfly, Cheumatopsyche, to tolerate temperature increases. We seasonally collected larvae from small, subtropical streams in southeast Texas. The larvae were divided into 3 groups and acclimated to the recorded stream temperature and temperatures 8 degrees Celsius above and below stream temperature to replicate hot and cold extreme temperature events. Larvae were acclimated for 1.5 to 3 weeks and thermal ramping experiments were performed to determine critical thermal maximum (CTMax). The larvae had high temperature tolerances between 34 and 41 degrees Celsius. We found that CTMax had a small, but significant, increase with acclimation temperature, regardless of larval size or the time of acclimation. The ability to adjust thermal tolerances indicates that this caddisfly may be able to adapt to increased temperatures, but may also increase vulnerability after extreme cold-temperature climate events.

Jami Brown (Primary Presenter/Author), Lamar University, jbrown44@my.lamar.edu;


Matthew Pyne ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Lamar University, mattpyne@hotmail.com;


109 - LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT IN A CENTRAL CALIFORNIA WATERSHED

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT IN A CENTRAL CALIFORNIA WATERSHED A stream restoration project was completed on Scott’s Creek near Davenport, California in the summer of 2015. The goal of restoration was to improve habitat for threatened steelhead trout and Central California coho salmon, especially at low and high flows. The project included floodplain connections and in-stream structures. In-stream structures were composed of redwood logs, granite boulders, downed red alders and rootwads. A life cycle analysis (LCA) is underway, to quantify the environmental impacts associated with the raw material acquisition, material transportation and project installation. A before-after-control-impact design will be used to quantify changes in habitat volumes associated with restoration. Channel morphologic changes are being assessed by topographic surveys using a total station. Survey data has been used to create digital terrain models in AutoCad Civil 3D. Habitat volume changes will define the functional unit of study for the life cycle analysis. Preliminary LCA data will be presented on the installation phase of the stream restoration along with habitat volume changes from the phase one of the Lower Scott’s Creek Salmonid Habitat Improvement Project.

Cody Morse (POC,Primary Presenter), California Polytechnic State University, codymorse32@gmail.com;


110 - CIRCUMPOLAR ASSESSMENT OF TRENDS IN ARCTIC FRESHWATER BIODIVERSITY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CIRCUMPOLAR ASSESSMENT OF TRENDS IN ARCTIC FRESHWATER BIODIVERSITY The freshwater group of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (Arctic Council: Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) has begun circumpolar assessments of freshwater flora and fauna to determine the state of Arctic freshwaters. This evaluation includes examination of data from both historical (1850-1950) and contemporary time scales (post-1950), as well as traditional ecological knowledge of Arctic peoples. We highlight multiple-stressor scenarios that act on the biodiversity and biogeochemistry of Arctic freshwaters, and that cause change in biological communities of lakes and streams. Assessments compare and contrast the regional state of Arctic freshwater ecosystems in North America, Iceland, Greenland and Fenno-Scandia. In addition, circumpolar assessments for specific focal ecosystem components, namely fish, benthic invertebrates, benthic algae, macrophytes and plankton, provide novel analyses of how climate change and associated environmental drivers affect these biological components. For example, we explore driver-response relationships across latitudinal and longitudinal spatial scales to determine whether similar patterns are evident throughout the sub-, low-, and high-Arctic. This study represents the first circumpolar assessment of trends in Arctic freshwater biodiversity.

Jennifer Lento ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, jlento@gmail.com;


Joseph M. Culp (Primary Presenter/Author), Environment Canada & Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunwsick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3, jculp@unb.ca;


Willem Goedkoop ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Dept Aquatic Sciences & Assessment, Swedish Univ Agricultural Sciences, Willem.Goedkoop@slu.se;


111 - PHYSICAL HABITAT, MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND STREAM METABOLISM IN THE HEADWATERS OF AN ECUADORIAN CLOUD FOREST STREAM NETWORK

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PHYSICAL HABITAT, MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND STREAM METABOLISM IN THE HEADWATERS OF AN ECUADORIAN CLOUD FOREST STREAM NETWORK We explored the relationship between physical habitat and functional attributes in cloud forest streams using ecosystem metabolism and macroinvertebrate community metrics. The physical habitat template in a first, second and third order stream dictated an increase in primary production and ecosystem respiration, respectively, although all streams were heterotrophic confirming results obtained with macroinvertebrate functional feeding group guilds. The relatively high gradient in all three streams was problematic for open system methodology and ongoing research employing both chamber and open-system techniques has yielded more reliable results. No significant impact of upstream grazing was detected, and ongoing research seeks to understand reciprocal subsidies and food web dynamics between streams and endemic glass frogs (F. Centrolenidae) using stable isotope analyses. This project is part of an ongoing biennial study-abroad class and is a useful tool for evaluating potential grazing impacts by establishing and tracking baseline conditions at Reserva Las Gralarias on the Western front of the Andes Mountains, Mindo, Ecuador.

Eric Snyder (Primary Presenter/Author), Grand Valley State University, snydeeri@gvsu.edu;


Anna Harris ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Canadian Organization for Tropical Education & Rainforest Conservation, a.harrianna@gmail.com;


Jane Lyons ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Reserva las Gralarias, jalyons593@gmail.com;


112 - RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAMS TO MAYFLY, STONEFLY, AND CADDISFLY SPECIES RICHNESS IN THE KASKASKIA RIVER BASIN OF ILLINOIS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAMS TO MAYFLY, STONEFLY, AND CADDISFLY SPECIES RICHNESS IN THE KASKASKIA RIVER BASIN OF ILLINOIS This study investigates the efficacy of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) lands to support assemblages of three environmentally sensitive orders, Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies) (EPT) in the Kaskaskia River basin, a heavily impacted, predominantly agricultural watershed in central and southern Illinois. A total of 10,522 EPT specimens were examined from 84 sites across the basin during May and June of 2013-2015. Analysis of continuous data represented by 79 independent variables from geographic information system (GIS) and on-site assessment revealed five important variables associated with EPT richness: Link (number of first order tributaries), WT_Perm (soil permeability at the total catchment level), WT_Urban (urban land use at the total catchment level), Silt, and DO (dissolved oxygen). According to Akaike information criterion (AIC) importance values, Link and WT_Perm ranked the highest (1.00), followed by WT_Urban (0.99), and Silt (0.83). Individual percent contribution (% I) as determined by hierarchical partitioning placed DO third among the top five variables. The proportion of CRP/CREP lands ranked unexpectedly low in relative importance and % I contribution.

Eric South (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ejsouth@illinois.edu;


R. Edward DeWalt ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, dewalt@iilinois.edu;


Yong Cao ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, University of illinois, yongcao@illinois.edu;


113 - ECOLOGICAL REORGANIZATION AFTER PLACER MINING RESTORATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ECOLOGICAL REORGANIZATION AFTER PLACER MINING RESTORATION There are 1,314 placer mining claims in the state of Montana which create simplified stream systems. The ecological restoration of these systems requires the construction of a new channel and floodplain, which are ecological blank canvases. Placer mining damaged nearly ten kilometers of Ninemile Creek in western Montana and a 14-year, multiphase restoration project is currently underway. Ninemile Creek is being used to evaluate the recovery trajectory of placer mined systems and to observe how restoration stimulates a cascade of effects through the physical, chemical, and biological components over time. Initial investigation into Ninemile Creek’s thermal response to restoration monitored temperature at 25 locations over three years. Before restoration, temperatures ranged from 7.52 to 16.27 °C during the critical months of June and July; after restoration maximum and minimum temperatures (8.32 to 18.65 °C, respectively) were 2°C greater during the same time period and similar hydrologic conditions. Continuing work on this project will focus on how rapid responses, such as temperature, substrate composition, and hyporheic exchange, serve as inputs to the gradual temporal reorganization of the entire stream system.

Jacob Dyste (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Montana, Systems Ecology, jdyste@gmail.com;


H. Maurice Valett ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences, maury.valett@umontana.edu;


114 - EVALUATION OF RESTORATION MEASURES FOR AN INDUSTRIAL URBAN STREAM IN SUDBURY, ONTARIO, CANADA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EVALUATION OF RESTORATION MEASURES FOR AN INDUSTRIAL URBAN STREAM IN SUDBURY, ONTARIO, CANADA Junction Creek was historically acidified and heavily contaminated with multiple metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe, etc.) by more than a century of mining and smelting activity in Sudbury, Ontario, the site of one of the largest metal mining complexes on earth. Major reductions (>95%) in Sudbury smelter emissions in the 1970s and 1990s were accompanied by a variety of restoration measures for the creek, including tree-planting, construction of lime dosing plants, water treatment facilities, acid mine discharge diversion, bank erosion control, creosote removal and settling pond construction. To evaluate the relative effectiveness and cumulative effect of these restoration measures, eleven sites were chosen based on geographic relationship to tributaries and restoration locations. Water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate, microbial, fish, and periphyton were sampled at each site during the fall of 2015. These data were compared to historical data to assess spatial and temporal differences in water quality and indicator biota to quantify the effectiveness and cumulative effect of the restoration measures.

Amanda Wittmann (Primary Presenter/Author), Laurentian University, awittmann@laurentian.ca;


John Gunn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Laurentian University, jgunn@laurentian.ca;


John L Bailey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, jbailey@laurentian.ca;


115 - FISH ENDEMISM PATTERNS IN COLOMBIAN ANDEAN ORINOCO REGION FROM SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR CONSERVATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

FISH ENDEMISM PATTERNS IN COLOMBIAN ANDEAN ORINOCO REGION FROM SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR CONSERVATION Andean Orinoco has been identified as special interest region for fish conservation in Orinoco river basin, due its potential to harbor a high number of endemics species and because is the most threatened for freshwater ecosystems within all basin. Additionally, still exists large gaps regarding fish taxonomy and distribution, especially in Colombia, which is a need to carry out suitable conservation plans for them. The main goal of this study was evaluate current expert criteria conservation proposals in Colombian Andean Orinoco, with a better understanding of freshwater fish endemism patterns. Here we developed species distribution models for endemic fish species using MaxEnt, with the most updated information about their taxonomy and distribution due an extensive revision of specimens deposited in ichthyological collections and literature. From overlapping individual models, we found that areas of high endemic assemblages are established at mid-elevations in piedmont region, some of them areas don’t have representativeness of current protected areas system and weren’t previously took in account for conservation. Emerging tools from conservation biogeography constitute an objective resource to revaluated conservation priorities in freshwater ecosystems.

Guido A Herrera-R (Primary Presenter/Author), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, guido.herrera@javeriana.edu.co;


Javier A Maldonado-Ocampo ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, maldonadoj@javeriana.edu.co;


116 - REMOTE SENSING & SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF RIVERSCAPE DIVERSITY AND VARIABILITY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

REMOTE SENSING & SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF RIVERSCAPE DIVERSITY AND VARIABILITY Riverscapes are comprised of main-channel and off-channel habitats, and can be described as biologically diverse and dynamic systems shaped by seasonal variation, natural disturbance, and anthropogenic influences. To address the relationship between landscape complexity and biotic diversity, we couple microbial community composition to habitat variation within the Bitterroot River in Montana. Specifically, we compared main-channel riverscape habitats (riffles, runs, pools, confluence zones, and shallow shorelines) to off-channel habitats (backwaters, parafluvial springs, orthofluvials springs, flow channels, and ponds) over a 10-km river reach. Main-channel habitats were more thermally similar (surface water temperatures ranged from 17.4 – 23.3°C) compared to variation among off-channel habitats (temperature ranged from 13.6 – 24.9°C). Using 16S rRNA amplification, we identified over 4600 operational taxonomic units in Bitterroot aquatic habitats. The Shannon Weiner index suggested higher diversity in off-channel vs. main-channel habitats (H' = 4.69 vs. 5.11, respectively). Remote sensing provides the opportunity for spatial analysis by examining multitemporal change in the riverscape and the resulting potential for ecological simplification, relationships between biotic and landscape diversity, and comparison of production between main-channel and off-channel habitats.

Peter Davis (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Montana- Division of Biological Sciences, Systems Ecology Graduate Program, petedavis327@gmail.com;


Marc Peipoch ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Center, mpeipoch@stroudcenter.org;


H. Maurice Valett ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences, maury.valett@umontana.edu;


117 - THE HYPOXIA TASK FORCE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE HYPOXIA TASK FORCE Nutrient pollution, a widespread and costly challenge, is a major cause of water quality problems, including hypoxia, fish kills, and dead zones; impacts include drinking water toxin contamination from harmful algal blooms and challenges to industries that rely on clean water. Reducing nutrient pollution is a high priority of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with a strong focus in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). Given the problem’s magnitude and consequences, many stakeholders and people must coordinate on the solution. The Hypoxia Task Force (HTF) is a state/tribal/federal partnership working collaboratively to reduce nutrient pollution in the MARB and the extent of the Gulf of Mexico’s hypoxic zone. The HTF supports implementation of state nutrient reduction strategies and management activities in the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico watershed. The HTF is expanding partnerships with stakeholders with similar goals and has formed a partnership with12 land grant universities to reduce gaps in MARB research, outreach, and extension needs. In October 2015, the HTF submitted a Report to Congress, describing significant actions taken by HTF members and summarizing keys to success and lessons learned.

Megan Wiitala (Primary Presenter/Author), US EPA, wiitala.megan@epa.gov;


Kyra Reumann-Moore ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), ORISE, reumann-moore.kyra@epa.gov;


Hazel Groman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. EPA, groman.hazel@epa.gov;


Katie Flahive ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. EPA, flahive.katie@epa.gov;


118 - IMPACTS OF HYDROELECTRIC DAMS ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATE LIFE HISTORY STRATEGIES: THE ROLE OF DESICCATION

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACTS OF HYDROELECTRIC DAMS ON AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATE LIFE HISTORY STRATEGIES: THE ROLE OF DESICCATION Hydroelectric power production often results in hourly discharge changes to meet daily energy consumption patterns (i.e., hydropeaking). Consequently, water levels below dams can fluctuate by more than one meter, creating an artificial varial zone, where river edge habitat cycles between wet and dry phases. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are thought to preferentially lay eggs (i.e., oviposit) on partially exposed substrates located within this zone. To determine the potential effects of egg desiccation in the varial zone, we quantified the mortality rate of eggs exposed to sub-hour and multi-hour desiccation treatments. Baetis spp. egg masses were desiccated for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours, with approximately 14 egg masses per treatment. Proportional hatch rates were computed after a 5 week monitoring period as the ratio of hatchlings to the total number of eggs per mass. Hatch rates for the control exceeded 50% and did not significantly differ from the 0.5 hour treatment. In contrast, egg masses exposed to >1 hour of desiccation experienced over 90% mortality. We hypothesize that hydropeaking and subsequent egg desiccation is a bottleneck to macroinvertebrate population viability.

Jesse Fleri (Primary Presenter/Author), Utah State University, jessefleri@gmail.com;


Matt Schroer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), BLM/USU National Aquatic Monitoring Center, Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, mattschroer@gmail.com;


Scott Miller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), BLM/USU National Aquatic Monitoring Center, Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, scott.miller@usu.edu;


119 - BENTHIC AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND SPECIES ABUNDANCES IN THE COLORADO RIVER BASIN DOWNSTREAM OF SIX DAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

BENTHIC AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND SPECIES ABUNDANCES IN THE COLORADO RIVER BASIN DOWNSTREAM OF SIX DAMS Dams are ubiquitous structures in river systems that dramatically alter the timing and intensity of flow events, which can have negative ecological impacts. Our objective is to determine if within dam tailwater reaches experiencing different flow regimes, benthic aquatic invertebrates exhibit downstream recovery and/or variation in community composition and species abundances. To measure this, benthic invertebrate samples were collected at standardized distances downstream (0 to 15 river miles) of six large dams (Parker, Davis, Hoover, Fontenelle, Flaming Gorge, and Glen Canyon) in the Colorado River Basin during spring 2015. Once invertebrates are identified, we will compare relative abundances and community composition both within and among tailwater reaches. The results of this community analysis will then be related to dam flow regimes, characterized by hydrologic alteration software. With the dominance of human-natural systems, this research is critical to increasing our understanding of how an anthropogenic disturbance, dams, influences ecosystems. Specifically this will help determine how human water demands, that create various flow regimes downstream of large dams, impact the persistence and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrate communities.

Erin Abernethy (Primary Presenter/Author), Oregon State University, efabernethy@gmail.com;


Ted Kennedy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USGS Southwest Biological Science Center, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, tkennedy@usgs.gov;


Jeffrey Muehlbauer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, jmuehlbauer@usgs.gov;


Richard Van Driesche ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, vandrier@science.oregonstate.edu ;


David Lytle ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, lytleda@oregonstate.edu;


120 - DOES WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM HERBIVORY CHANGE CATCHMENT-STREAM CONNECTIVITY BY ALTERING CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS IN FOREST SOILS?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DOES WESTERN SPRUCE BUDWORM HERBIVORY CHANGE CATCHMENT-STREAM CONNECTIVITY BY ALTERING CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS IN FOREST SOILS? Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of Western spruce budworm outbreaks in Pacific Northwest forests. Budworms herbivory has the potential to affect litter decomposition rates and nitrogen cycling in forest soils with consequences for material export to recipient stream ecosystems. In September 2015, we deployed litter bags with coniferous or deciduous litter to measure decomposition rates in forests with and without budworms, and we collected initial samples to calculate net ammonium immobilization or nitrification in forest soils. Preliminary results showed budworm sites had higher frassfall, which peaked in June and July prior to pupation (rmANOVA, p=<<0.001). Litterfall peaked in autumn (rmANOVA, p=<<0.001) but high budworm sites had lower litterfall, possibly due to herbivory earlier in the growing season. Although conifer litter decomposition did not vary with budworm impact, deciduous litter decomposed faster in low budworm sites (ANOVA, p=0.021). Spring data collection will finalize calculation of decomposition rates and enable calculation of soil N cycling parameters to understand if budworm herbivory causes nitrogen immobilization or enhances nitrification with consequences for export to downstream ecosystems.

Izak Neziri (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Central Washington University, izakneziri@gmail.com;


Clay Arango ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Central Washington University, arangoc@cwu.edu;


121 - DROUGHT EFFECTS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN TROPICAL STREMS, PUERTO RICO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DROUGHT EFFECTS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN TROPICAL STREMS, PUERTO RICO Natural disturbances, both frequent rain and droughts, are important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams. In tropical rainforest streams, macroinvertebrates are known to be principally affected by floods, but we lack information on their responses to droughts, as they are uncommon phenomena. As global change models predict increases in drought frequency, it becomes critical to understand its effects on macroinvertebrate assemblages. Our aim was to characterize macroinvertebrate assemblages during the 2015 drought in Puerto Rico and contrast them with more frequent periods of high and low flow to understand macroinvertebrate responses to drought. We analyzed macroinvertebrate samples from two streams at El Yunque National Forest collected during the summer 2015 drought. In addition, samples from our long-term monitoring of the same two streams were selected as comparisons of rainy and average conditions. Macroinvertebrate assemblages during drought conditions were clearly different from non-drought periods. During drought, macroinvertebrate abundance was highest. Taxonomic richness also increased in response to drought. However, the two study streams showed different patterns indicating site specific responses to drought. Overall, drought favored macroinvertebrate abundance, but altered their composition.

Roberto Reyes-Maldonado (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, robertoomaldo@gmail.com;


Alonso Ramirez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;


122 - STREAM COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY FOLLOWING THE CATASTROPHIC ERUPTION OF MOUNT ST. HELENS, WA, USA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

STREAM COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY FOLLOWING THE CATASTROPHIC ERUPTION OF MOUNT ST. HELENS, WA, USA In 1980, the eruption of Mount St. Helens obliterated a vast area of forest and transformed many freshwater systems. Existing streams on the N-flank were buried by over 100 m of sterile pumice. Following the eruption, mountain-side springs and snowmelt created four new channels flowing into Spirit Lake. Community recovery was predicted to take many decades to centuries, but stream surveys 35 years post-eruption have found significant periphyton and riparian community development and differences in a variety of physio-chemical variables. Reach-scale surveys (n=20) in the four watersheds revealed large ranges in water temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, and canopy cover. Riparian plant communities and algal communities differed significantly among streams (A=0.07, p<0.0001 and A=0.25, p=0.004, respectively). Although nutrient concentrations were uniformly low among reaches (<0.01 mg/L NH3-N, <0.07 mg/L NO3-N, <0.06 mg/L PO4-P), algal biomass was significantly influenced by NO3-N (r2= 0.67; p=0.0004) and PO4-P (r2=0.33; p=0.0304). The more than 10-fold differences in many variables across the four study streams provides a unique opportunity to explore physical controls on in-stream community development.

Emily Wolfe (Primary Presenter/Author), Portland State University, Emwolfe@pdx.edu;


Carri LeRoy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Evergreen State College, leroyc@evergreen.edu;


Shannon Claeson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USDA Forest Service, sclaeson@fs.fed.us;


123 - RECOVERY OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES FOLLOWING WHOLE-LAKE DISTURBANCE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

RECOVERY OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES FOLLOWING WHOLE-LAKE DISTURBANCE Community assembly following disturbance, is a key process in determining the composition and functioning of the future community. However, replicated studies of community assembly at whole ecosystem scales are rare. Here, we describe a series of whole-lake experiments in which the recovery of zooplankton communities are tracked following an ecosystem-scale disturbance. Fourteen lakes in eastern Washington were chosen: seven lakes were treated with rotenone, while the remaining seven were controls, using a Before-After-Control-Impact design. Each lake was monitored six months before and one year after the rotenone treatments at monthly intervals. Zooplankton tows were taken at a middle, deep, and shallow site in each lake, and were later enumerated and identified. Preliminary data analysis shows a steep decline in the abundance and diversity of the zooplankton community post-treatment, and varying recovery times between lakes. Lake bathymetry and surrounding geology are predicted to be major factors in determining the rate of recovery. This study will help determine the importance of abiotic and biotic factors to the recovery of communities following disturbance.

Brian McGann (Primary Presenter/Author), Portland State University, bmcgann@pdx.edu;


124 - THE EFFECTS OF A LARGE RIVER IMPOUNDMENT ON RIVER CHANNEL COMPLEXITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE EFFECTS OF A LARGE RIVER IMPOUNDMENT ON RIVER CHANNEL COMPLEXITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE. Nearly all major rivers are affected by impoundments or other forms of flow regulation. Downstream of dams, river geomorphology is often altered by changes in sediment load and flow regime, which may influence key habitats for biota. Our study examined the impact of Fort Peck Dam on downstream habitat complexity (i.e. proportion of off-channel habitats), and associated macroinvertebrate communities in the Missouri River, MT. We used aerial imagery and GIS software to quantify habitat complexity at four sites between Fort Peck Dam and Lake Sakakawea. Additionally, macroinvertebrates were sampled in the main channel and off-channel habitats in April and July 2015 at the same locations as habitat quantification. Following sampling, macroinvertebrates were taken to the laboratory where they were counted, identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level (usually genus), and measured to the nearest millimeter to estimate biomass using length-mass regressions. Preliminary data indicate that the number and area of off-channel habitats were significantly reduced immediately beneath the dam. Additionally, off-channel habitats contained unique macroinvertebrate communities that had higher abundance and biomass estimates compared to macroinvertebrates in the main-channel.

Niall Clancy (Primary Presenter/Author), Montana State University , niallgc66@gmail.com;


Eric Scholl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, escholl86@gmail.com ;


Wyatt Cross ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, wyatt.cross@montana.edu ;


125 - POPULATION DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPECTACLED CAIMAN (CAIMAN CROCODILUS) IN CAÑO PALMA, COSTA RICA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

POPULATION DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPECTACLED CAIMAN (CAIMAN CROCODILUS) IN CAÑO PALMA, COSTA RICA The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus), one of two species of crocodilians in Costa Rica, is a long-lived top predator that can be used as environmental sentinel to help assess ecosystem conditions of inhabited areas. Here, we assess the population size of C. crocodilus in a canal in Northeast Costa Rica and the distribution and clustering of age classes throughout the canal. We conducted weekly surveys between May 2012 and April 2015 and estimated the total population size using the visible fraction (VF) method. The overall VF was 45.09% and the population was estimated at 32.39 caimans (6.48 caimans/km). The abundance of juveniles decreased over the study period while sub-adults and adults increased over time. Local Moran’s I and Hot-Spot analyses demonstrated that caimans are clustered within the canal with juveniles showing the highest levels of clustering in discrete areas, followed by adults. This study provides a population estimation which can serve as a baseline for continued monitoring efforts and to detect long-term changes in density and age demographics of the spectacled caiman population of Caño Palma.

Emily Khazan (POC,Primary Presenter), Oregon State University, ekhazan@gmail.com;


126 - INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR BROOK TROUT DENSITY IN PENNSYLVANIA HEADWATER STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR BROOK TROUT DENSITY IN PENNSYLVANIA HEADWATER STREAMS Eastern Brook Trout are a conservation priority due their recreational importance and because they are indicators of high water quality. Surveys by state agencies have improved managers’ ability to predict presence/absence of brook trout in headwater streams, yet to our knowledge models have not been developed for predicting population parameters for young-of-the-year (YOY) brook trout. We sampled 40 streams in northcentral Pennsylvania to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and population densities of YOY brook trout (0-75mm TL). We recorded average width, specific conductivity, water temperature, pH, and alkalinity in each stream, as well as densities of age 1+ brook trout (100+ mm TL). We used Akaike information criterion (AIC) to compare seven competing linear models of YOY density. The model consisting of average stream width and age-1+ brook trout had the strongest support, followed by the model consisting only of stream width. Although our models had only modest explanatory power, results suggest that streams more than three meters wide in this area are unlikely to hold high densities of YOY brook trout.

David J. Janetski (Primary Presenter/Author), Indiana University of Pennsylvania, janetski@iup.edu;


Lauren Prasko ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Indiana University of Pennsylvania, l.m.prasko@iup.edu;


127 - A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE STUDY OF FISH EFFECTS ON BENTHIC AND EMERGING AQUATIC INSECTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE STUDY OF FISH EFFECTS ON BENTHIC AND EMERGING AQUATIC INSECTS The effects of fish on prey can extend to surrounding terrestrial habitats by reducing emergence of adult aquatic insects. Here, we review the study of fish effects on both life stages of aquatic prey (benthic larval versus emerging adult) using a dataset comprised of 30 articles (26 articles of benthic effects and 7 articles of emergence effects (3 measured both)). Articles studying fish effects on total benthic biomass/abundance were represented by 26 species from 12 families. In contrast, articles studying fish effects on emerging insect biomass were represented by 10 species from 6 families. For the entire dataset, only 4/30 articles included treatments with >3 species. Salmonids were dominant in studies of benthic responses. In contrast, studies of emergence responses were roughly evenly split between Cyprinidae and Salmonidae, both of which are largely water-column feeders. These results indicate that our knowledge of the role of fish in regulating prey in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems is largely limited to studies of single species of cyprinids and salmonids. We discuss the implications of this potential bias, and a way forward.

Lauren Henning (Primary Presenter/Author), University of South Dakota, lauren.henning@usd.edu;


Jeff Wesner ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of South Dakota, Jeff.Wesner@usd.edu;


128 - UNDERWATER VIDEO COLLECTION METHODS FROM A FISH POPULATION STUDY OF SELENIUM EXPOSED STREAMS AND LAKES IN WEST VIRGINIA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

UNDERWATER VIDEO COLLECTION METHODS FROM A FISH POPULATION STUDY OF SELENIUM EXPOSED STREAMS AND LAKES IN WEST VIRGINIA West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) biologists are participating in a broad-scale fish population study with the goal of developing state-specific criteria for aquatic life exposure to waterborne selenium. High quality underwater video recordings of various fish behaviors (spawning, feeding, territorial displays) and egg sampling techniques were used by WVDEP biologists in the field to bolster sampling efficiency and the accuracy of larval identifications. Recordings were made using ambient light in wadeable lentic and lotic environments.

Kevin D. Seagle (Primary Presenter/Author), West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, kevin.d.seagle@wv.gov;


129 - ICHTHYOFAUNA OF IGBOKODA RIVER, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ICHTHYOFAUNA OF IGBOKODA RIVER, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA ICHTHYOFAUNA OF IGBOKODA RIVER, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA 1Olaniyan, R.F 2Ugwumba, A.O and 3Ayoade, A.A 1Department of Biology, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo state. 2&3Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Oyo state. A paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Society for Freshwater Science (SFs) Sacramento Convention Center, Sacrament, California 21st-26th, May, 2016 Author’s Email:olaniyan4real_06@yahoo.com Phone NO; +2348060083658 Abstract Fish species composition, diversity and abundant of Igbokoda River,Ondo state, Nigeria was assessed monthly for seventeen months for between June,2014 and Octber,2015.The fish assemblage and seasonal variation were investigated. A total 1738 fishes belonging to 10 families and 42 species were collected using gill net, cast nets and traps. The highest fish percentage was recorded for Clariidae(29%) followed by Cichlidae (20%) the least percentage recorded for malapteridae(1%).fish species were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. This river was reported pollution free in the previous study. This is considered suitable for aquaculture practices and fish farming. Key words: Fish, abundance, species, composition and Igbokoda River

Francis Olaniyan (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Ibadan,Oyo state,Nigeria, olaniyan4real_06@yahoo.com;


130 - ORGANISMAL RESPONSE TO HUMAN MANIPULATED ECOSYSTEMS: VARYING BODY CONDITION IN PADDLEFISH (POLYODON SPATHULA) ACROSS LARGE RIVER IMPOUNDMENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ORGANISMAL RESPONSE TO HUMAN MANIPULATED ECOSYSTEMS: VARYING BODY CONDITION IN PADDLEFISH (POLYODON SPATHULA) ACROSS LARGE RIVER IMPOUNDMENTS Understanding the relationship between organisms and manipulated ecosystems is an important goal of freshwater ecology. This project aims to understand the influence of river impoundment on Paddlefish body condition using commercial harvest data from three large rivers with varying levels of impoundment. A total of 1,512 male and 1,658 female paddlefish were processed from 2007- 2014 from reaches of the Ohio (least impounded), Cumberland (moderately impounded) and Tennessee (highly impounded) Rivers. Male and female body conditions were significantly lowest in the Ohio, second highest in the Cumberland and highest in the Tennessee River. Previous studies have suggested that paddlefish inhabiting impounded river habitats have higher body condition than those of relatively un-impounded habitats because of differences in food availability. Furthermore, many studies have shown that increased river discharge leads to light limitation of phytoplankton, and that higher degrees of impoundment are correlated with greater levels of algal abundance. Our results, paired with previous studies suggest that higher degrees of impoundment may mediate changes in basal resources and be one of many possible factors influencing paddlefish body condition.

Benjamin Tumolo (Primary Presenter/Author), Montana State University, bbtumolo@gmail.com;


Bradley Richardson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Murray State University, brichardson@murraystate.edu;


Neal Jackson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, neal.jackson@ky.gov ;


Michael Flinn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Murray State University, mflinn@murraystate.edu;


131 - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALT-INTOLERANT BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES AND BACKGROUND SPECIFIC CONDUCTIVITY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALT-INTOLERANT BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES AND BACKGROUND SPECIFIC CONDUCTIVITY Because background levels of naturally occurring chemicals affect the biota of a community, we hypothesized a regular relationship between natural background specific conductivity (SC) and the most intolerant genera. We characterized the background SC at the 25th centile of all sampled sites for 24 areas in the United States dominated by bicarbonate and sulfate ions. In the same areas, we calculated the upper tolerance limit at the 95th centile of occurrence of each genus in each of the 24 data sets. The 5th centile of each genus data set was identified as the limit of salt tolerance of the most salt-intolerant members of the community. The empirical least squares regression of values of the 5th centile of the salt-intolerant genera and background yielded a strong statistical relationship (r = 0.93). The regression model makes it possible to use SC background to predict the SC that is expected to extirpate the most salt intolerant organisms in an area with known background.

Lei Zheng (Primary Presenter/Author), Tetra Tech, Inc., lei.zheng@tetratech.com;


Susan Cormier ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USEPA, Cormier, Susan ;


132 - MERCURY IN FISH OF THE AMERICAN AND BEAR WATERSHEDS: MINIMIZING EXPOSURE RISK WITH SITE-SPECIFIC FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MERCURY IN FISH OF THE AMERICAN AND BEAR WATERSHEDS: MINIMIZING EXPOSURE RISK WITH SITE-SPECIFIC FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES The ability of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to issue mercury fish consumption advisories that are protective of human health is contingent upon the availability of adequate fish tissue data and an understanding of angler catch and consumption patterns. Accurate, site-specific advisories are crucial for water bodies in mining-impacted regions where some species may have high fish tissue mercury levels as a result of historic mercury use in the vicinity of the water body. Angler survey data collected by The Sierra Fund using the Sacramento River Angler Survey developed by UC Davis and the California Department of Public Health informed sampling of fish to ensure that commonly caught and consumed species were harvested from two reservoirs in the American and Bear watersheds. A total of 72 samples from four species or species groups were collected in 2015, using Ultra Clean Hands in the field and EPA Method 1631E Appendix for analysis at a certified laboratory. These samples fill gaps in existing data, providing OEHHA with adequate information to develop warranted site-specific advice for sunfish at both locations.

Alexandria Keeble-Toll (Primary Presenter/Author), CSU, Chico, alex.keeble-toll@sierrafund.org;


Carrie Monohan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The Sierra Fund , carrie.monohan@sierrafund.org;


133 - PREDICTING MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN FISH IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MERCURY DEPOSITION, FISH TROPHIC POSITION AND FISH SIZE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PREDICTING MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN FISH IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MERCURY DEPOSITION, FISH TROPHIC POSITION AND FISH SIZE Mercury (Hg) is an atmospherically-deposited metal that is found in fish and is hazardous to human health. The primary pathway of Hg into humans is through the consumption of Hg-contaminated fish. Because fish from most waterbodies in the U.S. are not monitored for Hg contamination, it is critical that we develop the ability to predict which regions contain fish with high concentrations of Hg. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model of how atmospheric Hg deposition, fish trophic position and fish size interact to determine Hg concentrations in game fish. The study focused on a size array of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in 14 USEPA level-III ecoregions in six states of the South Central U.S. Data on fish Hg concentrations for 835 waterbodies was obtained using the National Descriptive Model for Mercury in Fish. Mercury deposition, fish trophic position and fish size interact synergistically. Large individuals of high trophic-position fish in ecoregions with high Hg deposition have concentrations of Hg four times greater than considered safe for consumption by humans.

Ray Drenner (Primary Presenter/Author), Texas Christian University, r.drenner@tcu.edu;


Matthew Chumchal ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas Christian University, m.m.chumchal@tcu.edu;


Kimberly Adams ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas Christian University, k.j.adams@tcu.edu;


134 - WATER CHEMISTRY CONTROLS AQUEOUS COPPER AND ZINC UPTAKE IN THE STONEFLY ZAPADA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

WATER CHEMISTRY CONTROLS AQUEOUS COPPER AND ZINC UPTAKE IN THE STONEFLY ZAPADA The stonefly Zapada spp. occurs in streams affected by acid producing minerals that increase dissolved concentrations of trace elements to extremely high levels in some cases. The occurrence of the genus in such waters suggests two explanations: 1) metals uptake is moderated by competition between metals and hydrogen ions for biological binding sites in accordance with the free ion activity model; 2) the larva has acquired adaptive mechanisms, such as regulation of metal accumulation, to tolerate high dissolved metal concentrations. This study explored geochemical and physiological mechanisms that influence Cu and Zn bioavailability and uptake by Zapada sp. using stable isotopes of Cu (Cu-65) and Zn (Zn-67) as physiological tracers. Two populations were tested: one from a naturally acidic stream (pH 3.8) and the other from a nearby neutral tributary (pH 7.4). Evidence of phenotypic differentiation in metal uptake kinetics between populations was weak. Low pH (3.9) test water greatly reduced Cu and Zn uptake. These findings suggest that in acidic waters hydrogen ions compete with free Cu and Zn for biological binding sites, effectively inhibiting metal uptake.

Daniel J Cain (Primary Presenter/Author), US Geological Survey, djcain@usgs.gov;


Marie-Noele Croteau ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, mcroteau@usgs.gov;


Christopher Fuller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, ccfuller@usgs.gov;


135 - LAND USE EFFECTS ON TRACE ELEMENT ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND BIOTA OF COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LAND USE EFFECTS ON TRACE ELEMENT ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND BIOTA OF COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS Evaluating environmental contamination is an essential component of an integrated assessment of coastal plain streams. We used crayfish (3 species) and crane fly larvae (1 genus) as biomonitors of 16 trace elements entering the aquatic food web. Two reference streams were compared to three streams with varying amounts of stormwater runoff, industrial effluents, and scouring. Sediment organic matter (OM) content broadly correlated to trace element accumulation, but was reduced by scouring in disturbed streams. Clay sediment concentration was higher in a severely scoured stream and was more weakly correlated with trace element concentrations. Element concentrations were higher in depositional zones than runs within a stream, but generally not higher in disturbed streams with reduced OM. Despite scoured sediments and OM, element concentrations were frequently higher in biota of the disturbed systems. Accumulation was element and taxa dependent with differences most pronounced in disturbed streams. Differences among crayfish species and sexes were observed, but concentrations often highest in crane fly larvae. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors for all taxa were higher in disturbed than reference streams. Biota better indicated bioavailable contaminants than sediment.

Dean Fletcher (Primary Presenter/Author), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory-University of Georgia, fletcher@srel.uga.edu;


Angela Lindell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory-University of Georgia, lindell@srel.uga.edu;


J.C. Seaman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory-University of Georgia, seaman@srel.uga.edu;


Paul Stankus ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory-University of Georgia, stankus@srel.uga.edu;


J.V. McArthur ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory-University of Georgia, mcarthur@srel.uga.edu;


136 - CRAYFISH: LENGTHENED AQUATIC FOOD CHAINS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CRAYFISH: LENGTHENED AQUATIC FOOD CHAINS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH Crayfish are a commonly introduced prey species that can cause elevated trophic positions in predatory fish. The subsequent increases in food chain length can lead to higher levels of certain biomagnifying contaminants, such as mercury (Hg). We used stable N isotopes (15N) to test for differences in trophic position of walleye (Sander vitreus) and northern pike (Esox lucius) between two neighboring lakes in Saskatchewan, only one of which contains crayfish (Orconectes virilis). In both lakes, trophic position and Hg concentrations increased with body size. We found a significantly higher trophic position for walleye in the lake with crayfish (p < 0.001), but no significant difference between lakes for northern pike (p = 0.195). Hg concentrations were higher in both species in the lake without crayfish (p = 0.045). These results, coupled with observations of crayfish in the stomachs of walleye and northern pike, suggest that crayfish add an additional food source for fish, and have potential to increase fish trophic position and lengthen aquatic food chains, but Hg concentrations are influenced by other factors.

Kate Prestie (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Saskatchewan, kate.prestie@usask.ca;


137 - IMPACT OF LOST FLOODS ON FISH AND FOOD WEBS IN A REGULATED RIVER-FLOODPLAIN

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACT OF LOST FLOODS ON FISH AND FOOD WEBS IN A REGULATED RIVER-FLOODPLAIN In river-floodplain ecosystems, hydrologic connectivity creates and maintains a shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biological productivity and diversity. However, this process can be disrupted by loss of flooding due to flow regulation. We are investigating how varying hydrologic connectivity affects food web characteristics in a river-floodplain segment of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, whose floodplain habitats are protected from development by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, but flow regulation and reduction of flooding have prevented connection to the main river for nearly 20 years. Here, we compare diet composition of salmonid fishes in two springbrook sites: one that has been scoured by periodic connection to the Snake River and one that has not been scoured since 1997 and is now characterized by deep silt deposits and dense macrophytes. We have observed salmonids in the latter proportionally consume more aquatic insect taxa, whereas those in the former rely heavily on non-insect invertebrates, such as amphipods and snails. Overall, this indicates that changes in benthic habitat and invertebrate assemblages arising from altered hydrologic connectivity can impact food webs sustaining salmonid fishes in river-floodplain ecosystems.

James Paris (Primary Presenter/Author), Stream Ecology Center, Dept. Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, parijame@isu.edu;


Colden Baxter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, baxtcold@isu.edu;


Hunter Osborne ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Resident Fisheries Project, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department., hosborne@sbtribes.com;


Preston Buckskin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Resident Fisheries Project, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department., prbuckskin@sbtribes.com;


Zachary Wadsworth ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Resident Fisheries Project, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department., zwadsworth@sbtribes.com;


138 - QUANTIFYING LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL WETLAND – NEARSHORE LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINING SPORT FISHERIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

QUANTIFYING LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL WETLAND – NEARSHORE LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINING SPORT FISHERIES Movement of energy and organisms between highly productive Great Lakes coastal wetlands and adjacent nearshore habitats represents a critical, but largely unstudied, ecological linkage. We hypothesized that use of wetlands as spawning, rearing, and foraging habitat by native sport fishes, including yellow perch (Perca flavescens), represents a potentially vital linkage with the nearshore that contributes to high fish production and diversity. We collected sport fish and potential prey items for stable isotope and otolith microchemical analyses from nine paired wetland-nearshore sites across Lake Michigan in 2014 and 2015. Isotope data indicate that wetland trophic pathways are distinct from nearshore pathways, with wetland dissolved inorganic carbon d13C being -7.3‰ more depleted on average. Preliminary water chemistry data indicate that otolith Mn and Fe may provide the best discrimination between habitats. Our estimates of cross-habitat linkages will fill a major data gap concerning how sport fish utilize diverse habitats during different periods of their life history. Improved understanding of habitat usage will provide managers with tools for prioritizing preservation and restoration efforts in Lake Michigan to enhance sport fish recruitment and production.

Katherine O'Reilly (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, koreill2@nd.edu;


Amelia McReynolds ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, Amelia.T.McReynolds.4@nd.edu ;


Craig Stricker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USGS, cstricker@usgs.gov;


Gary Lamberti ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, glambert@nd.edu;


139 - CLIMATE EFFECTS ON RECIPROCAL TERRESTIRAL-AQUATIC LINKAGES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND FURTURE DIRECTIONS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CLIMATE EFFECTS ON RECIPROCAL TERRESTIRAL-AQUATIC LINKAGES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND FURTURE DIRECTIONS Riparian and aquatic ecosystems are coupled by reciprocal material exchanges. Leaf litter supports in-stream, secondary production and emergent aquatic insects subsidize terrestrial consumers. Climate change could affect these reciprocal resource flows. Changes in temperature and water availability could alter the characteristics of detrital inputs to aquatic ecosystems, and increased intermittency of stream flow could affect aquatic insect inputs to riparian ecosystems. Understanding the relative contribution of these factors individually, their interaction and potential feedbacks, will enable us to better understand the effects of climate change on cross-systems linkages and potentially inform restoration initiatives. Here, we present preliminary results related to climate effects on the litter production from three locally adapted (i.e. genetically dissimilar) Fremont cottonwood (Populous fremontii) populations. Cuttings from individual trees were collected throughout Arizona, USA and planted in a common garden on the Agua Fria River in Central Arizona. Our results include differences in litter biomass among populations along a latitudinal gradient. We discuss future directions to assess the effects of litter from locally adapted populations on aquatic insect emergence.

Darin Kopp (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Oklahoma, darinkopp@gmail.com;


Daniel Allen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Oklahoma, dcallen@ou.edu;


Juliet Stromberg ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arizona State University , jstrom@asu.edu;


Kevin Hultine ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Desert Botanical Garden, khultine@dbg.org;


140 - A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SPATIAL COMPLEXITY IN RIVER-FLOODPLAINS AND ITS EFFECTS ON INSECT EMERGENCE AND TERRESTRIAL INSECTIVORES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SPATIAL COMPLEXITY IN RIVER-FLOODPLAINS AND ITS EFFECTS ON INSECT EMERGENCE AND TERRESTRIAL INSECTIVORES Emergence of adult aquatic insects is a resource flux that can influence a suite of terrestrial insectivores, and in river-floodplains this flux and the movements of consumers link local food webs in a larger, meta-food web. Owing to such connections, spatial complexity of river-floodplain habitats (or, reciprocally, their homogenization) may influence numerous terrestrial organisms, but these relationships are poorly understood. Yet, a rich literature exists relating habitat heterogeneity to aquatic insect diversity, productivity, and variation in life-history phenology, providing the basis for predicting relationships with emergence. Moreover, theoretical models provide the basis for predicting responses by terrestrial insectivores based upon a combination of resource patterns and consumer traits. Drawing on these sources, we generated a conceptual framework and suite of testable hypotheses. Overall, we expect that in spatially complex river-floodplains, a combination of mechanisms leads to “hot spots” and “hot moments” of emergence, insect diversity and life-history asynchrony among local habitats resulting in greater and more consistent availability of emergent adults across the mosaic of a river-floodplain, and mobility of predators (e.g., bats vs. spiders) mediates responses at different scales.

Jade Ortiz (Primary Presenter/Author), Idaho State University, ortijade@isu.edu;


Colden Baxter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, baxtcold@isu.edu;


141 - INFLUENCE OF LOW-ORDER TRIBUTARY INPUTS ON THE NEARSHORE DYNAMICS OF WHITEFISH BAY, LAKE SUPERIOR

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INFLUENCE OF LOW-ORDER TRIBUTARY INPUTS ON THE NEARSHORE DYNAMICS OF WHITEFISH BAY, LAKE SUPERIOR Tributaries are important conveyers of dissolved nutrients and allochthonous matter to downstream waters, and may result in “biological hotspots” in oligotrophic receiving systems. However, most research to date has focused on the importance of contributions from large rivers, and little is known regarding the importance of small tributary inputs to nearshore food webs in the Great Lakes. Here we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of low-order tributary inputs to nearshore areas, and identify linkages between tributaries and nearshore food webs in Whitefish Bay, Lake Superior. We measured dissolved nutrients, DOC, and Chl a, and collected basal and consumer resources in three tributaries to Whitefish Bay and their downstream nearshore areas biweekly from April-August for two years. River nutrient concentrations were strong predictors of bay nearshore nutrient and Chl a concentrations, and stable isotope analysis suggests some incorporation of tributary inputs by bay seston. However, results varied between years and across tributaries. Thus, tributary inputs to Whitefish Bay appear to be spatially and temporally dynamic, yet may play seasonally important roles to biota in nearshore areas of Lake Superior.

Ashley Moerke (Primary Presenter/Author), Center for Freshwater Research and Education, Lake Superior State University, amoerke@lssu.edu;


Kristin Arend ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Department of Natural Resources, kristin.arend@dnr.state.oh.us;


Paul Ripple ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Bay Mills Indian Community, pripple@baymills.org;


Geoffrey Steinhart ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Department of Natural Resources, gsteinhart@me.com;


Frank Zomer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Bay Mills Indian Community, fzomer@baymills.org;


142 - NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC VARIABILITY IN SPRING SNOWMELT RECESSION FLOWS AND ASSOCIATION WITH BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC VARIABILITY IN SPRING SNOWMELT RECESSION FLOWS AND ASSOCIATION WITH BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES Many rivers have experienced, or will experience, shifts in flow regimes due to dams and climate change. These changes will have important consequences for stream biota when the novel conditions are dramatically different from those under which they evolved. Here we ask which metrics of hydrologic variability, at both the decadal- and annual-scales, can be used to predict altered or impoverished benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) communities. In California’s Mediterranean region, high winter flows, spring recession flows, and low summer flows could each be important in shaping the BMI community. We sampled BMI communities and measured local hydrologic variables in five rivers in the northern Sierra Nevada mountain range and used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the relationships between flow metrics and the BMI community. The relationships we identified will be useful in understanding human influences on stream health, and for management of regulated systems.

Anna Steel (Primary Presenter/Author), University of California, Davis, aesteel@ucdavis.edu;


Sarah Yarnell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Davis, smyarnell@ucdavis.edu;


Ryan Peek ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Davis, rapeek@ucdavis.edu;


Robert Lusardi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Davis, ralusardi@gmail.com;


143 - CARBON DIOXIDE IN STREAM DRAINING WATERSHEDS OF BOREAL FOREST STREAMS OF INTERIOR ALASKA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

CARBON DIOXIDE IN STREAM DRAINING WATERSHEDS OF BOREAL FOREST STREAMS OF INTERIOR ALASKA The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in streams is controlled by factors such as in-stream metabolism, atmospheric exchange, and import from terrestrial ecosystems. Discontinuous permafrost in the boreal forest has a strong control on catchment hydrology and terrestrial input of CO2 to streams. In watersheds with extensive permafrost, watershed flowpaths are restricted to soils, whereas with little permafrost, flowpaths can percolate deeper. We predicted that streams draining watersheds with extensive permafrost would have greater pCO2 compared to streams draining low permafrost watersheds due to greater input of CO2 from soil. Research was conducted in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed in Interior Alaska; pCO2 was measured over a summer using NDIR sensors in two headwater streams draining catchments with varying extents of underlying permafrost. Contrary to our prediction, pCO2 was similar in the streams but more variable in the stream draining the high permafrost catchment (high permafrost: 661-1084 ppmv; low permafrost: 920-1082 ppmv). Similarity in CO2 suggests approximately equal import rates into streams, whereas difference in variability over summer indicates watershed hydrology is important temporally for influencing hydrologic input of CO2.

Rachel Voight (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, rlvoight@alaska.edu;


Jeremy Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, jbjonesjr@alaska.edu;


144 - TOWARDS THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ECOHYDROLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF STREAMS OF ECUADOR

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TOWARDS THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ECOHYDROLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF STREAMS OF ECUADOR Ecuador’s water withdrawal from streams has increased more than tenfold in the last decade. However, currently, there is little informed planning of these water resources, due to the lack of sufficient flow records and scarce understanding of hydrological behavior in different regions of the country. Recently, Auerbach et. al (2016) established ecohydrologic classes for streams in Ecuador by grouping basins in a river network according to key environmental drivers of hydrological conditions. This project aims to evaluate the initial ecohydrological classification by deploying level loggers in most proposed regions to understand flow regimes and behavior. Since January 2015, level loggers have been installed in 60 streams across Ecuador. At each site, flow data are gathered every 3 months along with discharge and basic biological and chemical parameters. Our preliminary data suggest notable differences in stream behavior among ecohydrological regions. Moreover there appears to be striking variation in flow regimes along Andean elevation gradients. In the future we aim to overlay patterns in biological communities and ecological processes for different ecohydrological regions, to offer useful information to watershed managers in Ecuador.

Jose Schreckinger (Primary Presenter/Author), 1 Salzburg University, Salzburg, Austria 2 Laboratorio de Ecología Acuática, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, jose555@hotmail.com;


Andrea C. Encalada ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Instituto BIOSFERA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Ecuador Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, aencalada@usfq.edu.ec;


Dan Auerbach ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds, USEPA, Washington DC, auerbach.dan@gmail.com;


Brian Buchanan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, bb386@cornellprod.onmicrosoft.com;


Todd Walter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, mtw5@cornell.edu;


Erin Hotchkiss ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Tech, ehotchkiss@vt.edu;


James Knighton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, jok8@cornell.edu;


Alexander Flecker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, asf3@cornell.edu;


145 - EFFECTS OF WATER ABSTRACTION ON LITTER BREAKDOWN IN STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF WATER ABSTRACTION ON LITTER BREAKDOWN IN STREAMS To assess potential impacts of stream water abstraction on leaf litter breakdown, we conducted experiments in six streams of the Swiss Alps that experience severe flow reductions at downstream sites. We enclosed grey alder (Alnus incana) leaves in coarse and fine mesh bags (5 g dry mass) and deployed the bags at reference sites upstream and at downstream sites affected by water abstraction. We periodically retrieved the bags to determine ash-free dry mass remaining, fungal biomass (ergosterol), fungal sporulation, and phosphorus concentrations. All four response variables differed among streams (p<0.05). Exponential breakdown coefficients (-0.0044 to -0.0132 day-1) also differed between upstream and downstream (p<0.05), but the response varied among streams (interaction p<0.05). Breakdown was faster in coarse than in fine mesh bags (p <0.05), suggesting that both shredders and microbes had an influence. There was no effect of site (upstream vs downstream) or mesh size on fungal biomass or phosphorus. In contrast, while unaffected by mesh size, sporulation was consistently higher upstream (p<0.001), indicating that fungal reproduction is a powerful indicator of impacts on decomposing litter caused by water abstraction.

Megan Wiitala (Primary Presenter/Author), US EPA, wiitala.megan@epa.gov;


Mark Gessner ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), IGB, Eawag, TU Berlin, ETH Zurich, gessner@igb-berlin.de;


Simone M.J.H. Baptiste ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eawag, smjhb@hotmail.com;


Lydia Oschwald ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eawag, lydia.oschwald@eaway.ch;


Francisco Vasquez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eawag, Francisco.vazques@eqwag.ch;


Kornelia Zepp ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Eawag, kornelia.zepp@eawag.ch;


146 - EFFICIENCY AND FUNCTION OF URBAN STORMWATER WETLANDS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFICIENCY AND FUNCTION OF URBAN STORMWATER WETLANDS We studied the stormwater and nutrient retention and greenhouse gas emissions of three urban wetlands in northern Kentucky. All sites were restored with the primary goal of retaining water during storm events. We measured stormwater retention with flow meters, rain gauges, and level loggers, and automated samplers were used to obtain samples for nutrient analysis. Time-lapse photography was used during storm events to create videos for educational purposes. Lastly, we collected preliminary data on greenhouse gas emissions from these wetlands for one growing season. Efficiency in retaining stormwater was substantial in all three wetlands with retention times often longer than the wetlands were designed for; however, we found that retention times were dependent on previous drought or rain conditions of the site. Nutrient concentrations (i.e., nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus) of stormwater runoff were significantly lower after water was retained in the wetlands. Preliminary data showed that stormwater wetlands were emitting nitrous oxide, while absorbing methane during the growing season. Future studies will investigate the potential trade-offs between improving stormwater retention and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions in urban areas.

Kristy Hopfensperger (Primary Presenter/Author), Northern Kentucky University, hopfenspek1@nku.edu;


James Brown ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Kentucky University, james.brown@respec.com;


Corey Shrader ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Kentucky University, shraderc1@nku.edu;


147 - ARE DECLINING DENSITIES OF THE INTRODUCED NEW ZEALAND MUD SNAIL (POTAMOPYRGUS ANTIPODARUM) RELATED TO CHANGES IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE PAST DECADE?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ARE DECLINING DENSITIES OF THE INTRODUCED NEW ZEALAND MUD SNAIL (POTAMOPYRGUS ANTIPODARUM) RELATED TO CHANGES IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE PAST DECADE? Invasive species can reduce diversity in the introduced range, especially when invaders have strong negative interactions with native species and reach high densities. The invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) was first documented in streams within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in 1994 and became the dominant macroinvertebrate in many locations within a decade. However, densities of Potamopyrgus have since declined in some areas, including one spring stream where Potamopyrgus overlaps the entire Wyoming range of the endemic Jackson Lake spring snail (Pyrgulopsis robusta). In response to fluctuations in Potamopyrgus densities over the past ten years, this study sought to document temporal variation in periphyton and macroinvertebrate community structure within this catchment basin. Benthic macroinvertebrates and periphyton were collected in riffle habitat at six sites in July 2014 following established protocols for previous collections at the same sites (2005). Preliminary analyses from 2014 indicate that sites with high Potamopyrgus abundance have greater macroinvertebrate diversity, but periphyton diversity was not significantly different across sites. Current multivariate analyses are examining changes in macroinvertebrate and periphyton community structure over the past decade.

Stephanie Estell (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, sestell1@gmail.com;


148 - THE REGENERATION OF DORMANT TISSUE (MENONTS) IN THE INVASIVE HYDROID CORDYLOPHORA (PHYLUM CNIDARIA, CLASS HYDROZOA) AT VARIOUS SALINITIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

THE REGENERATION OF DORMANT TISSUE (MENONTS) IN THE INVASIVE HYDROID CORDYLOPHORA (PHYLUM CNIDARIA, CLASS HYDROZOA) AT VARIOUS SALINITIES Cordylophora is an invasive colonial hydroid that has the ability to survive in a wide range of salinities globally. Cordylophora survives environmental stresses by forming masses of tissue called menonts. Colonies typically enter this non-hydranth, dormant stage during colder months when temperatures drop below 8-10°C and regenerate when temperatures increase. The purpose of this research was to assess how dormant stages of the freshwater hydroid Cordylophora regenerate at different salinities of 0 (control), 4, 8 and 12 psu. Menont tissue from Lake Michigan was collected and held at 4°C. Colony pieces with menont tissue were either abruptly placed or gradually acclimated to the various experimental salinities at 16°C. Results indicate that regeneration occurred to varying degrees in both instances of direct placement and gradual acclimation of tissue in water at 0, 4, 8 and 12 psu. The ability of menonts to regenerate at different salinities provides this hydroid a physiological invasive advantage. Understanding salinity effects on dormant stages of this hydroid will enhance our ability to predict future distribution patterns of this invasive cnidarian in freshwater systems.

Nadine Folino-Rorem (POC,Primary Presenter), Wheaton College, nadine.rorem@wheaton.edu;


149 - SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION AS HABITAT FOR THE INVASIVE SNAIL BITHYNIA TENTACULATA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF TREMATODIASIS TO WATERFOWL

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION AS HABITAT FOR THE INVASIVE SNAIL BITHYNIA TENTACULATA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF TREMATODIASIS TO WATERFOWL The invasive faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) was discovered in Navigation Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) in 2002 and has subsequently spread downriver. Faucet snails serve as secondary hosts for 3 species of trematode flatworms, which use migratory waterfowl as their definitive hosts. Transmission of trematode metacercariae to waterfowl can occur when birds consume vegetation harboring snails. Since 2002, over 70,000 waterfowl deaths have been linked to trematodiasis along this reach of the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is most pronounced during seasonal migrations when birds feed in areas near beds of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). The distribution and abundance of faucet snails in SAV along the UMR are poorly understood and have not been well quantified. We sampled vegetation and the associated snail assemblage at 140 sites in Navigation Pool 8 during the early summer of 2015. Faucet snail abundance tripled since an earlier SAV/snail survey conducted in 2007. Faucet snails displayed positive electivity for water celery (Vallisneria americana), an SAV species that had increased 8% among sites since 2007.

Alicia Weeks ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), River Studies Center, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601, weeks.alic@uwlax.edu;


Roger Haro (Primary Presenter/Author), River Studies Center, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, rharo@uwlax.edu;


Nathan De Jager ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603, ndejager@usgs.gov;


Gregory Sandland ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), River Studies Center, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601, gsandland@uwlax.edu;


150 - DISPERSAL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS, DREISSENA POLYMORPHA, DOWNSTREAM OF AN INVADED RESERVOIR

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DISPERSAL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS, DREISSENA POLYMORPHA, DOWNSTREAM OF AN INVADED RESERVOIR Zebra mussels recently invaded Central Texas and more information is needed to predict their spread in this region and inform management decisions. Therefore, we examined riverine zebra mussel dispersal, settlement and growth downstream of Lake Belton, TX, invaded by mussels in 2013. Artificial cinder block substrata to monitor juvenile settlement was placed at six sites in the Leon and Little Rivers, 0.5 to 55 km downstream of the Lake. Preliminary results showed that few juveniles settled immediately downstream of the lake outflow with maximum juvenile settlement (up to 217 per block) occurring 2.5 and 6 km downstream. Zebra mussels on natural substrata at these two locations were significantly larger compared to those found in the lake. Temperature, pH, and DO did not differ significantly between sites. No mussels were found at 27.3 and 54.7 km downstream on artificial or natural substrata. Our results suggest that zebra mussels may be dispersal limited in rivers downstream of Lake Belton. Further study this year will aim to identify the factors that limit their downstream settlement and growth.

Jenae Olson (Primary Presenter/Author), Texas State University, jmo59@txstate.edu;


Robert McMahon ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Univerisity of Texas Arlingtion, r.mcmahon@uta.edu;


Todd Swannack ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), UNITED STATES ARMY ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, Todd.M.Swannack@erdc.dren.mil;


Astrid Schwalb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas State University, schwalb@txstate.edu;


151 - DISTRIBUTION AND SPREAD OF NON-NATIVE INVERTEBRATES IN THE CHICAGO AREA WATERWAY SYSTEM: IMPLICATIONS FOR INVASIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES AND MISSISSIPPI

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DISTRIBUTION AND SPREAD OF NON-NATIVE INVERTEBRATES IN THE CHICAGO AREA WATERWAY SYSTEM: IMPLICATIONS FOR INVASIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES AND MISSISSIPPI The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) forms a direct and artificial aquatic connection between the Laurentian Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins. The CAWS serves as a route for invasive species spread, but little effort has been put into sampling non-fish taxa. During summer 2015 we sampled crayfish and smaller crustaceans at sites throughout the CAWS and in Lake Michigan harbors. Invasive rusty crayfish were widespread, and the non-native red swamp crayfish were found in large numbers in the northern branches of the CAWS. Native crayfish species were only found in harbors and the relatively undisturbed North Branch of the Chicago River. The sampling of smaller crustaceans was to assess the spread of scud (Apocorophium lacustre) upstream from the Mississippi River basin towards Lake Michigan. We found scud only in the lower reaches of the CAWS. Our results are the first systematic sampling of invertebrates in the CAWS in the last decade, and show that the system contains viable habitat for invasive invertebrates, raising the risk of further invasions between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins.

Trent Henry (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University Chicago, thenry@luc.edu;


Jonathon Brenner ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, jbrenner@luc.edu;


Gabrielle Habeeb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, ghabeeb@luc.edu;


Reuben Keller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, rkeller1@luc.edu;


152 - EFFECTS OF SILVER CARP ON THE WABASH RIVER ECOSYSTEM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF SILVER CARP ON THE WABASH RIVER ECOSYSTEM Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) have been abundant in many US rivers for over 20 years. Effects of this invasion include alteration of phytoplankton communities, competition with native fishes, and a potential shift in functional feeding group dominance among large river fishes. The increased dominance of benthic invertivore fishes in the Wabash River after the invasion of Asian carps may be an indication that benthic invertebrate consumers utilize carp feces. We examined long-term Wabash River fish assemblage data to identify relationships among Silver Carp and other fish species. We tested for effects of Asian carp fecal matter on growth and survival of bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus) and freshwater snails (Pleurocera spp) in mesocosm experiments. Ten minnows and 20 snails were added to each of 12 experimental stream mesocosms. Half of the mesocosms received chironomid larvae (Chironomidae) as food sources, while the other half received the same mass of Silver Carp fecal matter. Our results provide a more complete understanding of Asian carps in invaded ecosystems.

Robert Shields (Primary Presenter/Author), Ball State University, rcshields@bsu.edu;


Mark Pyron ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ball State University, mpyron@bsu.edu;


Mario Minder ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ball State University, mmminder@bsu.edu;


153 - TEMPERATURE AND NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT EFFECT ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EXOTIC AND NATIVE FRESHWATER BIVALVES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TEMPERATURE AND NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT EFFECT ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EXOTIC AND NATIVE FRESHWATER BIVALVES Global environmental changes constitute major threats to biodiversity in all ecosystems worldwide. In freshwater habitats, mussels decline is among the major exponents of this loss of biodiversity. Here we experimentally examined in mesocosms how temperature and nutrient enrichment (using phytoplankton concentration as a surrogate) can influence the interaction between a highly invasive species and a native naiad population. We exposed the native freshwater mussel Unio delphinus to the presence/absence of the invasive Corbicula fluminea under three temperatures levels and three levels of phytoplankton concentrations. U. delphinus responded to high temperatures with higher respiration rates showing a disequilibrium in its energetic balance. Faeces production increased with temperature and phytoplankton concentration, and declined in the presence of the invasive clam. Results evidenced that temperature increases will negatively influence the physiology of native mussels and suggest that C. fluminea will advantageously out-compete Unio in warmer and highly productive freshwater environments. We demonstrated that increasing degradation of freshwater environmental conditions as for nutrient enrichment along with the expected increases in water temperature can benefit C. fluminea expansion compromising the survival of native freshwater mussels.

Noe Ferreira-Rodriguez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade de Vigo, noeferreira@uvigo.es;


Isabel Pardo (Primary Presenter/Author), Universidade de Vigo, ipardo@uvigo.es;


154 - AMERICA’S NEWEST INVADER? - DISCOVERY OF A THIRD CORBICULA SPECIES IN ILLINOIS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

AMERICA’S NEWEST INVADER? - DISCOVERY OF A THIRD CORBICULA SPECIES IN ILLINOIS Corbicula, a “hyper-invasive alien” with great biofouling capabilities, was first recorded in North America in 1924 in British Columbia and breached the Continental Divide in the late 1950s. Since then, it has spread throughout the continent. Corbicula taxonomy is muddled and unclear, as is the number of species that have become established. Literature reports vary from an invasion of but a single species to invasions of multiple species. The Midwest has long been recognized as having only Corbicula fluminea. However, in 2008, a tentative second species, Corbicula largilllierti, began appearing in navigable rivers. A potential third Corbulid species was discovered while sampling the Illinois River in 2015, and was collected in conjunction with C. fluminea and C. largillierti. It is currently unknown in North America, and we have no information for what the species is or its potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. In collaboration with the University of Michigan - Museum of Zoology, genomic and morphometric assessments are being employed to confirm the identity of this undocumented Corbulid and also that of C. largillierti.

Jeremy Tiemann (Primary Presenter/Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, jtiemann@illinois.edu;


Sarah Douglass ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, sabales@illinois.edu;


Mark Davis ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, davis63@illinois.edu;


Kevin S. Cummings ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois, USA, kscummin@illinois.edu;


155 - AQUATIC INVERTEBARTE COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN THE REGULATED TUOLUMNE RIVER

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

AQUATIC INVERTEBARTE COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN THE REGULATED TUOLUMNE RIVER We studied community dynamics and life history patterns of aquatic invertebrates at two sites on the lower Tuolumne River, a regulated river in California's San Joaquin Valley that supports Chinook salmon and steelhead. As a result of cold-water dam releases, there were large differences in water temperature between the upstream site near the dam and the downstream site. Higher temperatures at the downstream site contributed to faster growth and life cycles among species found at both sites. Communities at both sites were dominated by fast-developing baetid mayflies, simuliid blackflies, and hydropsychid caddisflies. Despite the relatively constant year-round flow in this regulated river, we observed frequent and rapid shifts in abundance and composition of the invertebrate community, especially at the downstream site.

Haider Alkaabi (Primary Presenter/Author), CSU Stanislaus, halkaabi@csustan.edu;


Kim Moll Lee ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, kmolllee1@csustan.edu;


Janette Salinas ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, salinaj0119@me.com;


David Son ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, dson@csustan.edu;


Taylor Young ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, tyoung1@csustan.edu;


Joe Zermeno ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Modesto Junior College, zermenoj@yosemite.edu;


Matthew Cover ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University, Stanislaus, mcover@csustan.edu;


156 - AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN INTERMITTENT STREAMS OF CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN INTERMITTENT STREAMS OF CENTRAL CALIFORNIA We compared the biodiversity and community dynamics of aquatic invertebrates in streams in the arid inner Coast Range and foothills of the Sierra Nevada in central California. Stream networks in both regions were predominantly intermittent (flowing 3-6 months/year), with short, isolated reaches of perennial flow or pools at key topographic points on the landscape. Invertebrate communities in isolated perennial reaches were surprisingly similar to communities in more mesic regions of California. For example, the water penny Eubrianax edwardsii and the caddisfly Hetereoplecton californicum were abundant in both arid regions, and are also found throughout California in montane and wet coastal streams. Communities in temporary stream reaches were dominated by species with fast-seasonal life cycles and drought-resistant life stages. Overall, we found that nearby perennial and temporary streams have unique communities, resulting in high total aquatic biodiversity.

Patricia-Ann Baker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, psabol@csustan.edu;


Alfred Brennan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, abrennan@csustan.edu;


Derek Brewer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, dbrewer@csustan.edu;


Jessica Gomez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, jgomez18@csustan.edu;


Elena Lombardo (Primary Presenter/Author), CSU Stanislaus, elombardo88@gmail.com;


Ethan Skiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, eskiles@csustan.edu;


Meghan Weiby ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, mweiby@csustan.edu;


Matthew Cover ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University, Stanislaus, mcover@csustan.edu;


157 - WINTER INVERTEBRATE DYNAMICS IN GROUNDWATER-FED STREAMS IN SOUTHEASTERN MINNESOTA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

WINTER INVERTEBRATE DYNAMICS IN GROUNDWATER-FED STREAMS IN SOUTHEASTERN MINNESOTA Ice-free, groundwater-fed streams provide an ideal habitat for cold-stenotherm insects. Research in this area has focused on thermal tolerances and emergence patterns, but the relationship between invertebrates and groundwater input is poorly understood. We documented winter invertebrate dynamics in 36 groundwater-fed streams in southeastern Minnesota over three winters. Each stream was sampled on three occasions over a single winter. Hess samples were used to evaluate invertebrate community composition and surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE) were used to identify winter-active chironomid species. Invertebrate communities were dominated by several genera, including Baetis and Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera), Brachycentrus and Glossosoma (Trichoptera), and Gammarus (Amphipoda). Average invertebrate abundances were positively related to groundwater input, ranging from 800 to over 10000 individuals per square meter of riffle habitat. A total of 30 genera of emerging chironomids were collected, with over half exclusive to late-winter samples. The cold-stenotherm species Diamesa mendotae was prevalent in Hess and SFPE samples across all streams, and was common in trout diets, indicating the ecological significance of winter-active taxa. We conclude that groundwater significantly influences winter invertebrate dynamics in southeastern Minnesota streams.

Jane Mazack (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Minnesota, louws002@umn.edu;


Bruce Vondracek ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of minnesota, bvondrac@umn.edu;


Leonard C. Ferrington, Jr. ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of minnesota, ferri016@umn.edu;


158 - RESPONSES TO INJURED CONSPECIFICS AND HETEROSPECIFICS BY THE WATER FLEA CHYDORUS SPHAERICUS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

RESPONSES TO INJURED CONSPECIFICS AND HETEROSPECIFICS BY THE WATER FLEA CHYDORUS SPHAERICUS The water flea Chydorus sphaericus is widespread, with a global distribution. In an attempt to help explain its distribution, we tested the hypothesis that individuals of C. sphaericus would respond with antipredator behavior to chemical cues from both injured conspecifics and injured heterospecifics, responses to the latter stimulus having been noted in some freshwater crustaceans that were successful in establishing exotic populations. Individuals of C. sphaericus were exposed one of four cues- plain water, cues from injured C. sphaericus, cues from injured Daphnia magna, or cues from injured D. pulex- and observed for habitat use. Avoidance behavior was seen in response to cues from C. sphaericus and D. magna. Responses to cues from D. pulex were intermediate between those of the other cues and the water control. We suggest that responses to a broad range of cues may help explain the range of C. sphaericus and that there may be a dosage effect for responses to heterospecific cues.

Keith Pecor (Primary Presenter/Author), The College of New Jersey, pecor@tcnj.edu;


159 - LEAF PACKS REDUCE PREDATION RISK FOR STREAM INVERTEBRATES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LEAF PACKS REDUCE PREDATION RISK FOR STREAM INVERTEBRATES Effects of leaf pack habitat structure on predation in stream ecosystems are poorly understood. We investigated how predation of stream invertebrates (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) by fish (Cottus bairdii) was influenced by varying leaf pack structure as well as prey density in two replicated field experiments. Our hypotheses were: 1) increasing habitat structure decreases fish predation of invertebrates, and 2) effect of predation is proportional to initial prey densities. Additionally, we examined the effects of spatial scale (arena area: 510, 1,225, 2,331 cm2) on our experimental results. We found that increasing size of leaf packs (dry mass: 0, 1, 5, 10 g) reduced predation. Initial stocking density had no effect on the proportion of prey remaining during a predation trial, indicating predation was proportional to initial prey density. Lastly, we found that arena size did not significantly affect the outcome of predation experiments. These findings indicate leaf packs can decrease predation risk at the patch scale in streams. Thus, larger leaf packs provide more effective refuge for stream invertebrates from fish predation.

Susanna LaGory (Primary Presenter/Author), Purdue University, slagory@purdue.edu;


Carl R. Ruetz III ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, ruetzc@gvsu.edu;


Matthew E. Altenritter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, Matthew.Altenritter@tamucc.edu;


160 - STOICHIOMETRIC HOMEOSTASIS IN THE OLIGOCHAETE WORM THAT IS THE INVERTEBRATE HOST OF WHIRLING DISEASE

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

STOICHIOMETRIC HOMEOSTASIS IN THE OLIGOCHAETE WORM THAT IS THE INVERTEBRATE HOST OF WHIRLING DISEASE An organism’s degree of stoichiometric homeostasis and its threshold elemental ratio (TER) have strong implications for how it will be affected by heterogeneity or changes in diet stoichiometry. The oligochaete Tubifex tubifex, the primary host of the pathogen that causes whirling disease in salmonids, is cosmopolitan and faces high variability in diet stoichiometry over its range. In order to determine T. tubifex’s degree of stoichiometric flexibility and identify its TER, we reared the worms on six diets ranging from C:P of ~7 to ~700 for 94 days and measured their growth, body C:N:P, and N and P excretion rates. Results suggest that T. tubifex is strongly homeostatic (1/H = 19.6, p < 0.001) in %P, and regulates body stoichiometry via excretion. T. tubifex did not display a TER in instantaneous growth rate. These results suggest that T. tubifex is capable of thriving on a diverse set of resource stoichiometries. Because T. tubifex is the key host of the whirling disease pathogen, these results will be used to predict how variation in their food resource quality will influence whirling disease dynamics.

Andrew Sanders (Primary Presenter/Author), North Carolina State University Dept. of Applied Ecology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, ajsande5@ncsu.edu;


Brad Taylor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University Dept. of Applied Ecology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, bwtaylo3@ncsu.edu ;


161 - TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN MAYFLY EMERGENCE IN TROPICAL STREAMS IN PUERTO RICO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN MAYFLY EMERGENCE IN TROPICAL STREAMS IN PUERTO RICO Aquatic insect emergence patterns remain an understudied topic in the tropics. Temporal emergence patterns respond to multiple factors, likely to change among streams. In this study, we studied temporal patterns of Ephemeroptera emergence and whether patterns differed between streams, one shrimp dominated and the other fish-dominated. The study was conducted in Quebrada Prieta (shimps present) and Quebrada Bisley (shimps absent), both situated in El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico. Emergence traps were placed and emptied every month for 20 months, from December 2001 to July 2003. Mayflies where identified to genus. Results revealed similar monthly fluctuations in emergence for both streams. Almost all taxa belonged to the genus Neohagenulus and Borinquena (98%). When comparing the streams, we found that the absence of shrimp greatly diminishes mayfly abundance. Temporal patterns in emergence were generally similar to those previously reported for one of the streams. Contrasting abundance of mayflies among streams appear to be related to their interaction with shrimps. As scrappers, mayflies are negatively affected when sediment accumulates over substrates. Shrimp-dominated streams are generally low in sediment, favoring mayflies.

Jose Sanchez-Ruiz (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras, jas091988@gmail.com;


Pablo E. Gutiérrez-Fonseca ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Costa Rica, gutifp@gmail.com;


Alonso Ramirez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;


162 - UNDERSTANDING VIRAL PATHOGENS AND THEIR IMPACT ON IMPORTANT ENDEMIC INVERTEBRATE SPECIES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

UNDERSTANDING VIRAL PATHOGENS AND THEIR IMPACT ON IMPORTANT ENDEMIC INVERTEBRATE SPECIES Diporeia are an ecologically and biogeochemically important native amphipod species found throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. Their populations have experienced major declines throughout Lake Michigan, Huron, and Ontario potentially due to several factors including competition with invasive dreissenid mussels and disease. A pathogenic circovirus identified by Hewson et al. 2013 (LM29173) may have played an as yet poorly constrained role in its demise, yet its origins are not currently known. In this study, sediment cores will be taken in several locations across the Great Lakes where Diporeia populations were historically abundant. The abundance of circoviruses will be quantified in vertical core horizons, which correspond to a chronosequence of deposition. Results will identify the appearance of the LM29173 circovirus in time, to understand whether its presence in the lakes occurred during times of largest Diporeia population declines.

Nicholas Gezon (Primary Presenter/Author), Annis Water Resources Institute Grand Valley State University , gezonn@mail.gvsu.edu;


Kevin Strychar ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Annis Water Resources Institute Grand Valley State University , strychak@gvsu.edu;


Ian Hewson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cornell University , hewson@cornell.edu;


163 - RESOURCE QUALITY, NOT QUANTITY, DRIVES CONSUMER PRODUCTION IN HEADWATER STREAMS: RESULTS FROM MULTIPLE N AND P ENRICHMENT EXPERIMENTS AT COWEETA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

RESOURCE QUALITY, NOT QUANTITY, DRIVES CONSUMER PRODUCTION IN HEADWATER STREAMS: RESULTS FROM MULTIPLE N AND P ENRICHMENT EXPERIMENTS AT COWEETA Ecological stoichiometry predicts highest growth rates and biomass production of consumers when resources are abundant and their quality (C:N:P ratio) is balanced with consumer demand. However, large elemental imbalances between resource supply and consumer demand are not uncommon for taxa that feed on abundant, poor-quality resources like vascular plant detritus. We compiled data from two separate, whole-reach N and P enrichment experiments at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (NC, USA) to test the effects of altered leaf litter stoichiometry on production of leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. Our analysis included three years of data from 7 headwater streams, which varied in mean discharge (~0.5 ? ~20 L s-1) and leaf litter standing stock (~20 ? ~200 g AFDM m-2). Leaf litter C:P, but not C:N or standing stock, was the strongest predictor of shredder production across all streams (p<0.001, r2=0.64). Additionally, there was a tight negative relationship between the post-enrichment response ratios of shredder production and litter C:P (p<0.001, r2=0.73). These results suggest strong phosphorus limitation of shredder production in headwater streams spanning a large gradient of resource availability.

Lee Demi (Primary Presenter/Author), North Carolina State University, mickdemi@yahoo.com;


Jonathan Benstead ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The University of Alabama, jbenstead@ua.edu;


Amy Rosemond ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, rosemond@uga.edu;


Wyatt Cross ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, wyatt.cross@montana.edu ;


John Maerz ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, jcmaerz@uga.edu;


Vlad Gulis ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Coastal Carolina University, vgulis@coastal.edu;


164 - IMPACTS OF MILL DEBRIS ON THE BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY IN MUSKEGON LAKE, MICHIGAN

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACTS OF MILL DEBRIS ON THE BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY IN MUSKEGON LAKE, MICHIGAN Muskegon Lake is a 4,150-acre drowned river mouth lake located on the eastern shoreline of Lake Michigan. Historical anthropogenic stressors, including industrial discharges and shoreline alterations, caused ecological degradation within the lake leading to its designation as an Area of Concern (AOC) in 1985. Specifically, one industrial pollutant, sawmill debris (saw dust, bark, woodchips), has caused continual negative impacts on the littoral zone of Muskegon Lake. In areas impacted by mill debris, the typical benthic community within the littoral zone is absent due to the extent and density of the debris. Benthic communities are an integral part of an aquatic ecosystem with the integrity of the system relying on organism abundance and assemblage. To examine the impacts of mill debris on Muskegon Lake, benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected along transects at sites varying in depth and debris coverage. Preliminary population based metric results suggest that a minimum coverage of 40-60% mill debris negatively impacts macroinvertebrate communities.

Victoria Harris (Primary Presenter/Author), Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, harrisv@mail.gvsu.edu;


Brian Scull ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, scullbr@gvsu.edu;


Richard Rediske ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, redisker@gvsu.edu;


165 - FRESHWATER MUSSELS LINK MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEMS THROUGH PROVIDING OVERWINTERING HABITATS FOR AMPHIBIANS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

FRESHWATER MUSSELS LINK MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEMS THROUGH PROVIDING OVERWINTERING HABITATS FOR AMPHIBIANS Movement of functionally important organisms across ecosystem boundaries and their habitat has received considerable attention. We hypothesized that pearl mussels control POM retention, and thereby mediate quality of overwintering habitats of frog. We examined the seasonal migration pattern of frog and the effects of pearl mussel on frog overwintering habitat in the tributary of Bekanbeushi River in Hokkaido Japan, which is surrounded by wetland and forest, in 2014-2015. We quantified the relative frog abundance in three types of landscape (forest, wetland, riverbank) and determined migration direction with traps laid at each landscape boundaries. Twelve 10-m reaches were manipulated with three levels of treatment (mussel removal, removal-release, untouched), and compared for frog abundance, POM, and physical variables in winter. Frog distribution clearly shifted towards river as winter approaches and the majority of overwintering frogs were found in the river not wetland. Frog abundance and POM retention were significantly reduced in the removal reaches with those in other treatments being higher. Thus, pearl mussel likely creates overwintering habitat for frog through controlling POM retention, and potentially influence on functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

Kazuki Miura (Primary Presenter/Author), Hokkaido University, kmiura8@gmail.com;


Nozomi Watanabe ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Hokkaido University, n.watanabe@ees.hokudai.ac.jp;


Junjiro Negishi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Hokkaido University, negishi@ees.hokudai.ac.jp;


166 - LIFE HISTORY OF PHYLLOICUS PULCHRUS (TRICHOPTERA: CALAMOCERATIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LIFE HISTORY OF PHYLLOICUS PULCHRUS (TRICHOPTERA: CALAMOCERATIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO Phylloicus pulchrus is an important member of tropical streams ecosystems, where it is a shredder of leaf litter. We assessed the life history and phenology of P. pulchrus in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The goal was to understand which environmental factors are controlling P. pulchrus population dynamics. P. pulchrus were never abundant, only 25 adults (68% females, 32% males) were collected from June-December 2015. There was a moderate negative correlation (r=-0.47) between monthly abundance and average rainfall and a moderate positive correlation (r=0.48) between monthly abundance and temperature. The correlation between sex and average rainfall was moderate negative for males (r=-0.44) and females (r=-0.55). Female abundance was positively related to air temperature (r=0.61), males did not respond to air temperature (r=-0.08). P. pulchrus females spawn over water and it is possible that the quantity of females collected was the result of the closeness of the light trap with the stream (1.2m). Precise relationships between environmental variables and life history will help us understand the role of P. pulchrus in tropical streams.

Limarie Reyes (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, limarie.reyes1@upr.edu;


Alonso Ramirez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;


167 - PUPAE OF NORTH AMERICAN GLOSSOSOMATIDAE (TRICHOPTERA) GENERA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PUPAE OF NORTH AMERICAN GLOSSOSOMATIDAE (TRICHOPTERA) GENERA SESSION CATEGORY (First Choice): Taxonomy/Systematics of Freshwater Organisms The distribution of hook plates on abdominal terga of Glossosomatidae (Trichoptera) varies among North American genera. For this reason, the well-known key by Wiggins & Currie (2008) to pupae of North American families of Trichoptera is misleading for Glossosomatidae genera other than Glossosoma. A pupa of a representative species of each North American genus is described, including the distribution of its hook plates. A revised key for pupae of North American families is provided.

Madeline S. Genco (Primary Presenter/Author), Clemson University, mgenco@g.clemson.edu;


John C. Morse ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Clemson University, jmorse@clemson.edu;


168 - OLIGOCHAETA ASSEMBLAGE IN A NEOTROPICAL STREAM: INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

OLIGOCHAETA ASSEMBLAGE IN A NEOTROPICAL STREAM: INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES The Oligochaeta species play a key role in the energy flow and recycling of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between limnic oligochaetes community and environmental variables in a neotropical lotic system. The stream is located in the Campos do Jordão State Park (São Paulo, Brazil), at 1700 meters above sea level. A total of 192 samples were taken in four selected points, according to their hierarchy within the hydrographic basin. In order to correlate environmental variables and oligofauna was used Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). We identified 16 species divided into four families (Naididae, Tubificidae, Pristinidae and Enchytraeidae). In CCA ordination diagram, the physical environment characteristics such as depth, width, flow velocity and flow rate were the factors that influenced the community composition. The species Aulodrilus limnobius and Nais communis were designed with electric conductivity and turbidity, suggesting association with organically enriched environments. The results agree with previous studies performed in low order streams, poiting to the influence of physic-chemical characteristics of the tributaries on oligochaete.

Guilherme Gorni (Primary Presenter/Author), São Paulo University - USP, grgorni@gmail.com;


Juliano Corbi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of São Paulo, julianocorbi@usp.br;


José Mello ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of São Paulo, josemello@sc.usp.br;


Daniel Abrahão ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of São Paulo, danielshs@usp.br;


169 - METACOMMUNITY STRUCTURING OF MACROINVERTEBRATES IN THE GUADALUPE RIVER BASIN, TX

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

METACOMMUNITY STRUCTURING OF MACROINVERTEBRATES IN THE GUADALUPE RIVER BASIN, TX Benthic macroinvertebrates (BMI) are widely used as bio-indicators local stream quality. However, local community structure can be affected by small-scale (local) conditions and larger-scale spatial processes. We assessed the abundance and diversity of BMI and their relationship with local stream conditions, patterns of land use, and large-scale physiographic gradients across the Guadalupe River system, a large basin (3,256 km2) that spans land use and physiographic gradients across central and southeastern Texas. We sampled macroinvertebrates, water quality, and habitat conditions across 29 sites in the Guadalupe River and its main tributaries. We found a general shift in taxonomic composition in communities related to stream order and physiographic gradients, with smaller-bodied Trichoperta being more abundant in the western arid portions of the drainage and Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae, and Plecoptera being more abundant in the larger-order and relatively wetter portions of the drainage. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating physiographic gradients when examining local- and regional diversity and composition of BMI communities, especially in large complex watersheds. Our results will help develop more effective monitoring programs for larger river systems.

Rebecca Zawalski (Primary Presenter/Author), Texas State University, raz20@txstate.edu;


Weston Nowlin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas State University, wnowlin@txstate.edu;


Astrid Schwalb ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas State University, schwalb@txstate.edu;


170 - PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF NEOHERMES (MEGALOPTERA: CORYDALIDAE)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF NEOHERMES (MEGALOPTERA: CORYDALIDAE) Although the landscape genetics of a number of aquatic insect species have been investigated, little is known about the phylogeography of temporary stream specialists. Neohermes filicornis is a large aquatic insect in temporary streams California Coast Range, Southern California, and Arizona, while a sister taxon, N. californicus, is distributed in the Sierra Nevada foothills, Nevada, and Oregon. The objective of this study was to understand genetic variation within Neohermes filicornis, as part of a larger study of the phylogenetics of Corydalidae. We collected Neohermes specimens from the western USA, sequenced the COI barcoding gene, and built phylogenetic trees using Protochauliodes as the outgroup. All Neohermes specimens made up one clade that was very distinct from Protochauliodes. Distinct clades were identified based primarily on geographic distance; however, specimens from the two recognized species of Neohermes were not clustered in distinct clades. Rather, N. filicornis from the central California coast were more closely related to N. californicus specimens than to other N. filicornis. Further molecular and morphologic phylogenetic data is needed to the clarify the patterns observed in this study.

Julianna Avalos-Gracia (Primary Presenter/Author), CSU Stanislaus, javalosgracia@csustan.edu;


Samantha Kotelnicki ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, skotelnicki@csustan.edu;


Nathan Nguyen ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, nathannate92@yahoo.com;


Hou Mai Xiong ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), CSU Stanislaus, hxiong4@csustan.edu;


Matthew Cover ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), California State University, Stanislaus, mcover@csustan.edu;


171 - HOW DO URBAN INTENSITY AND ORIENTATION INFLUENCE STREAM WATER QUALITY?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

HOW DO URBAN INTENSITY AND ORIENTATION INFLUENCE STREAM WATER QUALITY? Urbanization increases stream flashiness and nutrient-loading to alter the amount and form of material and nutrients transported throughout catchments. Runoff from fertilized lawns, parking lots, roads, and wastewater can stress nearby freshwaters by elevating nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus) and conductivity. Urban categories (e.g. commercial, residential) are expected to exert different stress on freshwater based upon their extent and density within a catchment. For example, commercial centers are characterized by more impervious surface that change hydrology, while fertilizer application is more common in residential areas that increases nutrient loading. The magnitude of stress could also depend on urban orientation to freshwater. When urban development is close to stream channels, shorter flow paths reduce the potential for retention or biological-processing by riparian vegetation. We predicted elevated nutrient and sediment concentrations in streams with intense urbanization nearby compared to those with intense urbanization farther away. We will present sediment and nutrient concentrations across an urban intensity gradient in 10 streams during base and storm flow. Urban intensity and orientation to streams will be considered to identify management strategies to reduce alterations to freshwater.

Stephanie Stoughton (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Central Arkansas, stoughton54@gmail.com;


Sally Entrekin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Tech, sallye@vt.edu;


172 - PATTERNS IN NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ALGAE AND MACROINVERTEBRATES ALONG MONTANE TO URBAN STREAM GRADIENTS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PATTERNS IN NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ALGAE AND MACROINVERTEBRATES ALONG MONTANE TO URBAN STREAM GRADIENTS Streams that flow from natural to urban ecosystems may be significantly affected by nitrogen (N) inputs due to urbanization, affecting the N composition of riparian and aquatic organisms. Each of these N inputs, or sources, has a range of ?15N values that can and have been traced through riparian and aquatic organisms because the organisms reflect the isotope ratio of their N sources in their tissues. Here we assess the efficacy of algae and macroinvertebrate ?15N compared to riparian plants as tracers of urban stream N pollution sources along a montane to urban gradient in five watersheds in the Wasatch Front, near Salt Lake City, UT. Since algae and macroinvertebrates integrate stream N in their tissues over their lifetimes, ?15N of these organisms provides an intermediate temporal indicator of nitrogen pollution relative to instantaneous water samples or long term riparian plant samples. This in turn could provide important information regarding the consistency of using different aquatic organisms to trace anthropogenic N inputs, and inform watershed management.

Simone Jackson (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Utah, kavoka18@gmail.com;


173 - IN-STREAM LEAF DECOMPOSITION AS AN INDICATOR OF MARCELLUS SHALE IMPAIRMENT ACROSS A LAND USE GRADIENT

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IN-STREAM LEAF DECOMPOSITION AS AN INDICATOR OF MARCELLUS SHALE IMPAIRMENT ACROSS A LAND USE GRADIENT Rapid development of hydrofracking has greatly outpaced ecological research assessing potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Increased sedimentation and contamination of streams from hydrofracking could affect stream biota, resulting in altered rates of in-stream leaf decomposition. We deployed leaf packs in seven sites representing a range of Marcellus Shale activity among different land uses including forest, agriculture, and development. In addition, physical and chemical variables were measured. Summer breakdown rates for all sites, mesh sizes, and leaf species were higher in the presence of Marcellus Shale activity. Fall breakdown rates demonstrated no trend among land uses or Marcellus Shale activity. Higher breakdown rates in Marcellus Shale sites in summer suggest more disturbed land modifies hydrology of stream systems, promoting more runoff into streams as well as more sediment release. However, fall measurements, under more consistent flow regimes, indicate sites with flashier hydrology are prone to faster decomposition rates due to mechanical fragmentation rather than biological. Leaf breakdown rates were not a consistent indicator of Marcellus Shale impairment among our sites due to many other contributing land use effects on breakdown rates.

Jordan Barton (Primary Presenter/Author), Bucknell University, jab101@bucknell.edu;


Matthew McTammany ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Bucknell University, mmctamma@bucknell.edu;


Meghan Reilly ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Bucknell University, mer039@bucknell.edu;


174 - REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL WATERSHEDS PREDICTS DIFFERENCES IN COASTAL WATER QUALITY ALONG CARIBBEAN COAST OF COSTA RICA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL WATERSHEDS PREDICTS DIFFERENCES IN COASTAL WATER QUALITY ALONG CARIBBEAN COAST OF COSTA RICA Estuarine and coastal ecosystems on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica contribute to important ecosystems services including biogeochemical cycling and maintenance of biodiversity. However, land use changes from native rainforest to monoculture agriculture have posed significant risks to these ecosystems. As agricultural production increases, watershed-scale analyses are crucial for monitoring water quality. We quantified land cover change of six coastal watersheds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica between 2001 and 2014. The overall five-class classification accuracies for all six watersheds averaged 83.6% for 2001. Over the 13-year period, in Tortuguero watershed on the northern coast, there was a reduction in forest (57% to 54%) and a gain in agriculture (8% to 10%) and urban (6% to 7%) land cover. While, in Estrella watershed on the southern coast, there was a gain in forest (87% to 91%), no change in agriculture (3% to 3%), and a reduction in pasture (8% to 4%) land cover. The results of this study will be useful for conservation and management of coastal watersheds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

Petra Kranzfelder (POC,Primary Presenter), University of Minnesota Twin Cities, kranz081@umn.edu;


Jennifer Corcoran ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota, jencor808@gmail.com;


Lian Rampi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota, ortiz073@umn.edu;


Joseph Knight ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota, jknight@umn.edu;


Leonard C. Ferrington, Jr. ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of minnesota, ferri016@umn.edu;


175 - COMPARISON OF WATERSHED LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS USING ATTILA WITHIN THE NORTHWESTERN GREAT PLAINS LEVEL III ECOREGION OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

COMPARISON OF WATERSHED LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS USING ATTILA WITHIN THE NORTHWESTERN GREAT PLAINS LEVEL III ECOREGION OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA The connectedness of the upland landscape to downstream waterways has become increasingly recognized. Remote assessment of landscape characteristics using GIS software has gained recognition as an effective assessment tool that can save resources. Our objective was to remotely assess watershed condition of HUC12 watersheds in the Northwestern Great Plains (NWGP) ecoregion of western South Dakota, drawing on landscape metric comparisons among level IV ecoregions within the NWGP. Landscape spatial data was analyzed using a GIS and U.S. EPA’s Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessment to determine the landscape, riparian, and human stressor characteristics for 1,026 HUC12 areas ranging from 52–177 km2 (mean=87 km2) in the NWGP. This area was predominantly grassland/grazed land (mean=77%). Among the 10 level IV ecoregions within the NWGP, stream riparian buffers (60m) in the Missouri Plateau contained the most anthropogenic land use (mean=20%), subsequently receiving the highest N (mean=1.53 K ha-1yr-1) and P loading (mean=0.28 K ha-1yr-1) into its waterways. Results of this study will be used to define relative watershed condition in the NWGP.

Aaron Suehring (Primary Presenter/Author), South Dakota State University, aaron.suehring@sdstate.edu;


Nels H. Troelstrup, Jr. ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), South Dakota State University Department of Natural Resource Management, nels.troelstrup@sdstate.edu;


176 - PHOSPHORUS RETENTION IN WEST MICHIGAN TWO-STAGE AGRICULTURAL DITCHES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PHOSPHORUS RETENTION IN WEST MICHIGAN TWO-STAGE AGRICULTURAL DITCHES Input of excess nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, into a water body can result in ecological impairments. Phosphorus (P) input from agricultural drainage has resulted in hypereutrophic conditions in Lake Macatawa, a drowned river-mouth lake connected to Lake Michigan on the west coast of Michigan. Two-stage agricultural ditches with excavated floodplain benches were developed in the Midwestern United States with the intent of reducing nutrient and sediment export from agricultural areas. This proposed project, within the Macatawa watershed, will assess the effectiveness of two-stage ditches at retaining sediment-bound P and dissolved P compared to traditional trapezoidal-shaped ditches. P retention will be assessed through fractionation of P and determination of equilibrium P concentrations in sediments from upstream traditional ditches and respective downstream two-stage ditches. Monthly water sampling will also allow for total P and bioavailable P comparisons between traditional and two-stage reaches. In addition, monthly periphyton sampling will be utilized to test the effect of trapezoidal-shaped vs. two-stage ditches on community structure and P content. The results will help inform future restoration and management practices within the Macatawa watershed.

Emily Kindervater (Primary Presenter/Author), Annis Water Resources Institute- Grand Valley State University, kinderve@mail.gvsu.edu;


Alan Steinman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University, steinmaa@gvsu.edu;


177 - EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN CHANGE ON PERIPHYTON ACCRUAL, NUTRIENT LIMITATION, STOICHIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION IN TROPICAL STREAMS OF ATLANTIC FOREST, BRAZIL

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN CHANGE ON PERIPHYTON ACCRUAL, NUTRIENT LIMITATION, STOICHIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION IN TROPICAL STREAMS OF ATLANTIC FOREST, BRAZIL Human activities are considered to cause major impacts on aquatic ecosystem function, however the mechanisms through which land cover change affects tropical streams is still poorly understood. In this study we used an integrative approach to examine how transformations from pristine forests to pastures and crops affected the properties of periphyton in three Brazilian Atlantic forest streams. Periphyton standing stocks in pristine forest reaches were small and light limited, while standing stocks and accrual rates of periphyton were significantly greater in all deforested reaches and the limiting factor shifted to nutrients. Periphyton community structure also changed such that species tolerating high nutrient and light conditions dominated in deforested reaches. The percent canopy cover was the most important variable determining the presence of algae taxa, whereas phosphorus concentration was best correlated with algal abundances. Finally, periphyton C:N and C:P decreased in crop and pasture reaches, suggesting that periphyton food quality tracked patterns of nutrient availability. This study highlights the complex effects of forest clearing on stream periphyton, ranging through changes to basal productivity, nutrient limitation, stoichiometry, and community structure.

Christine Lourenço-Amorim (Primary Presenter/Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, chris.lourenco.amorim@gmail.com;


Flavia Tromboni ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Nevada, Reno, flavia.tromboni@gmail.com;


Timothy P. Moulton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, moulton.timothy@gmail.com;


Vinicius Neres-Lima ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, vinicius.lima.eco@gmail.com;


Thomas Heatherly ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, heatherly1975@gmail.com;


Monalisa Silva-Araujo ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, monalisa.araujo.bio@gmail.com;


Eduardo Silva-Júnior ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, eduardobioadventure@gmail.com;


Rafael Feijó de Lima ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, rafael.feijo.bio.uerj@gmail.com;


Steven Thomas ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, sthomas5@unl.edu;


Eugenia Zandona ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, eugenia.zandona@gmail.com;


178 - LEAF DECAY RATES AND LITTER DWELLING INVERTEBRATES IN GEORGIA COASTAL PLAIN RIVERS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LEAF DECAY RATES AND LITTER DWELLING INVERTEBRATES IN GEORGIA COASTAL PLAIN RIVERS Leaf litter processing rates and the concomitant macroinvertebrate assemblages were studied in main-channel habitats of three Coastal Plain rivers in Southeast Georgia: Altamaha, Ogeechee, and Savannah. Study sites were chosen to assess the effects of flow regime, particularly the magnitude of discharge, on leaf litter breakdown and community structure. Ninety-six single-species packs of water oak leaves were deployed in mid-September 2014 and retrieved at two-week intervals over an eight-week period. During the study period, a distinct gradient in discharge was observed (average Q = 150.8, 75.3, and 8.2 m3/s on the Savannah, Altamaha, and Ogeechee, respectively). Among basins, mean leaf litter processing coefficients (k) ranged from medium to fast (range: -0.0077 to -0.0129). Overall, species composition was similar between basins. Chironomidae was the most abundant taxon in all assemblages, with nearly half (48.2%) of the Ogeechee’s total abundance attributed to midges. In the Altamaha, hydrobiid snails were the second most common taxon (15.4%). Over one quarter (25.6%) of the Savannah’s assemblage was composed of caddisflies, with Hydropsychidae being the dominant family (14.1%).

V. Byron Collins (Primary Presenter/Author), Georgia Southern University , vc00812@georgiasouthern.edu;


Checo Colon-Gaud ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Southern University, jccolongaud@georgiasouthern.edu;


179 - LITTER SPECIES INFLUENCES WHOLE-STREAM MESOCOSM NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND BREAKDOWN RESPONSE TO SHADING

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

LITTER SPECIES INFLUENCES WHOLE-STREAM MESOCOSM NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND BREAKDOWN RESPONSE TO SHADING Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem process primarily determined by litter quality and environmental conditions. We examined litter quality effects on nutrient uptake and response to shading using 12 stream mesocosms each containing ~100 g/m2 of one of three different litter species, or an equivalent mixture of all three. Each stream was covered with shade cloth except for a three meter riffle section exposed to full sunlight. Litter bags were retrieved at 28 and 56 days to measure breakdown. Nutrients were dosed once weekly to measure removal of PO4-P, NH4-N and NOx-N. Shading effects on breakdown were species-specific, and the direction of effect depended on incubation time. Nutrient removal generally followed breakdown rates early in the study, but litter species with the fastest and slowest removal rates switched during the study. Our results suggest that, despite no evidence of non-additive effects of mixed litter on breakdown rate or nutrient uptake, litter diversity may serve a temporal stabilizer of ecosystem processes, such as sequestration of nutrients. Our experiment highlights the need for further research regarding litter quality on whole-ecosystem processes.

Caleb J. Robbins (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Kansas, Caleb_Robbins@ku.edu;


Sarah Hester ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Sarah_Hester@baylor.edu;


Lauren Housley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Lauren_Housley@baylor.edu;


Stephen C. Cook ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Stephen_Cook@baylor.edu;


Matt Garbarino ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Matt_Garbarino@baylor.edu;


Erick LeBrun ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Erick_LeBrun@baylor.edu;


Will Matthaeus ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Will_Matthaeus@baylor.edu;


Swastika Raut ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Swastika_Raut@baylor.edu;


Chi-Yen Tseng ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Chi-yen_Tseng@baylor.edu;


Ryan S. King ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Baylor University, Ryan_S_King@baylor.edu;


180 - EVALUATING THE ROLE OF CRAYFISH AS VECTORS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN PRAIRIE POTHOLE LAKES

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

EVALUATING THE ROLE OF CRAYFISH AS VECTORS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN PRAIRIE POTHOLE LAKES Organic matter (OM) from littoral and terrestrial sources provides a food resource for benthic macroinvertebrates in lakes. In small lakes this OM may be utilized by benthic macroinvertebrates far from shore. We investigated the role of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in distributing organic matter from the littoral zone in Cottonwood Lake, a mesotrophic prairie pothole lake in west central Minnesota. Using baited traps, we collected 22 crayfish from June to October 2014. At each collection site, water depth and substrate type were noted. Gut contents of all crayfish were measured and categorized. Crayfish did not show a distinct habitat preference in the lake. Male and female crayfish were collected at depths ranging from 0.7 to 3 M and from areas with sandy bottom, emergent vegetation and dense submerged macrophyte growth. Gut contents >1mm were dominated by algae (63.5%) followed by plant (24.5%) and animal (12%) material. In addition to facilitating the physical breakdown and dispersal of organic matter, feces produced by crayfish may provide a source of organic matter for benthic organisms away from the littoral zone.

Corrie Nyquist (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Minnesota, nyqui095@umn.edu;


Tracey Anderson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota Morris, anderstm@morris.umn.edu;


181 - MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ALONG A ~200-KM STRETCH OF THE OGEECHEE RIVER

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ALONG A ~200-KM STRETCH OF THE OGEECHEE RIVER Examining consumer assemblages along a longitudinal gradient allows for an assessment of spatial patterns in community structure in river systems. As part of a long-term study we used benthic macroinvertebrate data collected from the Ogeechee River to assess for spatial patterns in consumer communities. Sampling sites were selected to reflect a gradient in drainage area and differences in community structure can be observed along the gradient for benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based on square root transformed relative abundance data grouped sites by season (winter vs. spring) or spatially (by sampling site). Chironomidae were consistently the dominant contributors at the two upstream sites (>21%) while Amphipods (one site in winter) and Asellidae were the most common contributors at the two downstream sites (14-68% of total). Collector-Gatherers and Predators made up the greatest percentage of taxa in both winter and spring (>29%). Continuous monitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Ogeechee River will further detail the structure of consumer communities in this river and ultimately allow for more thorough assessments of trophic relationships and aid in the construction of food webs.

Allison Lutz (Primary Presenter/Author), Trout Unlimited, allison.lutz@tu.edu;


Checo Colón-Gaud ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Southern University, jccolongaud@georgiasouthern.edu;


182 - HABITAT SHAPES ASSEMBLAGE COMPOSITION, PRODUCTION AND FOODWEB STRUCTURE OF SHRIMP DOMINATED TROPICAL ISLAND HEADWATER STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

HABITAT SHAPES ASSEMBLAGE COMPOSITION, PRODUCTION AND FOODWEB STRUCTURE OF SHRIMP DOMINATED TROPICAL ISLAND HEADWATER STREAMS We monitored macroinvertebrates in two shrimp-dominated and fishless headwater streams within the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico from 2009-2010. We combined growth rates with yearly biomass data to calculate secondary production and examined gut contents to develop quantitative food webs. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by a few insect taxa, with similar biotic composition across streams and habitats, but different structure amongst habitats. Biomass and abundance were greater in pools, suggesting that pools may provide habitat stability and shelter; alternatively, given the high density of shrimp in pools, they may provide secondary benefits by removing fine sediments. Overall, aquatic insects had low biomass; therefore, their production was relatively low; however, their P/B ratios were high. Secondary production appears to rely more on amorphous detritus and allochthonous organic matter rather than primary production. These data are an important first step towards predicting the long-term effects that expected changes in rainfall and discharge will have in tropical stream communities.

Keysa G. Rosas (Primary Presenter/Author), Georgia Southern University, kr03925@georgiasouthern.edu;


Checo Colón-Gaud ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Southern University, jccolongaud@georgiasouthern.edu;


Alonso Ramirez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;


183 - IMPACT OF SULFUR SPRING DISCHARGE ON BENTHIC COMMUNITIES.

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

IMPACT OF SULFUR SPRING DISCHARGE ON BENTHIC COMMUNITIES. Scattered throughout the Blanchard River watershed (Ohio, USA) are numerous free flowing, sulfur-rich springs that emanate from standpipes left in the ground from abandoned petroleum exploration. The spring water is typically circumneutral in pH with elevated specific conductance, sulfate, and total alkalinity. The primary objectives of the investigation are: 1. Describe the spatial variation in the macroinvertebrate and periphyton communities leading away from these sulfur springs and 2. Determine if benthic community biomass varies with increasing distance from the sulfur spring. Multivariate analyses will be utilized to elucidate critical environmental parameters influencing the distribution of taxa and community structure. Furthermore, these analyses will assist in determining if there are any macroinvertebrate or algal taxa unique to these sulfur spring systems.

Robert Verb (Primary Presenter/Author), Ohio Northern University, r-verb@onu.edu;


Janet Deardorff ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Miami University , j-deardorff@onu.edu;


Paige Kleindl ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University, kleindlp@mail.gvsu.edu;


Chad Carroll ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Hancock Soil & Water Conservation District, c-carroll@onu.edu;


Leslie Riley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ohio Northern University, l-riley.1@onu.edu;


184 - MODIFICATION IN DIET DUE TO INTER-COHORT COMPETITION AT LOW POPULATION DENSITIES IN STEELHEAD (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MODIFICATION IN DIET DUE TO INTER-COHORT COMPETITION AT LOW POPULATION DENSITIES IN STEELHEAD (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) Within a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) inter-cohort competition has been demonstrated by which subyearling growth rates were negatively associated with densities of yearling fish. Surprisingly this occurs at lower population densities that one would expect given the lack of effect intra-cohort interactions. To maximize energetic gain per unit of effort, fish are expected to select larger prey as they grow but previous work in this system has also shown a delicate threshold at which large size becomes an energetic liability. To determine the relative role of inter-cohort competition and thermal stress on foraging decisions in in this system, stomach contents of subyearling and yearling fish were sampled. We predict that yearling fish will have greater diversity of diet as greater bioenergetic needs pressure fish to consume less energetically efficient prey, but that this relationship weakens with high temperatures. In subyearling fish, diversity of diet will remain constant, however the quantity of prey consumed will decrease. These findings will support that changes in allometric foraging behavior can occur at low population densities due to inter-cohort competition for resources.

Natasha Wingerter (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Idaho, wing4979@vandals.uidaho.edu;


Brian Kennedy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Idaho, Kennedy@uidaho.edu;


185 - PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE NEAR A LOWHEAD DAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC COMMUNITY STRUCTURE NEAR A LOWHEAD DAM Lowhead dams have been historically installed along the Ottawa River to maintain higher water levels during dry periods of the year. However, lowhead dams disrupt the natural flow of lotic systems, cause fragmentation and create an environment favoring taxa indicative of lentic habitats rather than those of rivers and streams. The Jackson Street lowhead dam on the Ottawa River (Lima, Ohio) was sampled on August 29, 2014 and August 25, 2015. This lowhead dam is a candidate for removal and one of the baffles has already been extracted. The primary objective of this investigation was to survey the aquatic life above and below the dam to create a baseline dataset of the community structure. Two riffle habitats were sampled downstream of the dam and one riffle was sampled upstream for physical and chemical parameters, periphyton, and macroinvertebrates. MRPP and ISA depicted significant differences between benthic communities upstream and downstream of the dam. Specifically, the diatoms Achnanthidium and Nitzschia were indicative of upstream habitats and Cymbella and members of the Elmidae characterized downstream locations.

Rody Seballos (Primary Presenter/Author), Ohio Northern University, r-seballos@onu.edu;


186 - APPLICATIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE STABLE ISOTOPE PROBING IN FRESHWATER ECOLOGY

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

APPLICATIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE STABLE ISOTOPE PROBING IN FRESHWATER ECOLOGY Freshwater microbes are drivers of important ecosystem services, such as leaf litter decomposition. Current molecular methods provide the means to identify freshwater microbial communities but fall short in understanding the roles and relationships of specific microbial taxa. We have developed a powerful new tool – quantitative Stable Isotope Probing (qSIP) – that differentiates the active versus inactive microbial community and provides a metric for estimating taxon specific growth rates. This technique builds on stable isotope probing utilizing 18O, which is incorporated into replicating DNA that only occurs in actively growing cells. QSIP resolves taxon-specific isotope enrichment, providing more sensitivity than traditional SIP. Our data show for the first time the efficacy of using qSIP in aquatic ecosystems. Results indicate that only 50% of microbial taxa present on decomposing litter are actively dividing. Identifying taxa that are most active on different leaf types and during different stages of decomposition will help elucidate the ecological roles held by microbes. We will talk about potential applications for using this technique to study microbes on leaf litter and in insect digestive tracts.

Rebecca Fritz (Primary Presenter/Author), Northern Arizona University, rjf227@nau.edu;


Michaela Hayer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, michaela.hayer@nau.edu;


Rebecca Mau ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, rlm284@nau.edu;


Bruce Hungate ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, bruce.hungate@nau.edu;


Egbert Schwartz ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, egbert.schwartz@nau.edu;


Jane Marks ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, jane.marks@nau.edu;


187 - NATURAL HISTORY OF TELEBASIS VULNERATA IN PUERTO RICO

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

NATURAL HISTORY OF TELEBASIS VULNERATA IN PUERTO RICO Natural history studies provide useful information on species dynamics, population structure and the role of a species in its environment. Odonata are good models for these studies, but there is limited information for tropical species. Here we present the natural history of Telebasis vulnerata (Coenagrionidae), a dominant species of damselfly in Puerto Rico. We assessed its population structure and describe its behavior (e.g, territoriality, sex ratio, reproduction and microhabitat use). The study took place during summer 2015 at El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico. A mark-recapture method was used to study territoriality and population characteristics, along with individual behavioral observations. Males exhibited the expected territorial behavior; defending ovipositional areas, staying within a small area (<20m) and spending most of their time perching and defending territories. Reproductive behavior had the typical characteristics of high population density; females oviposited in tandem, increasing male success and groups of pairs were observed ovipositing in the same area. Gender ratio was biased to males, 3.3 males per female. Telebasis presented the characteristic territorial behavior of most Odonata, with an unexpected bias toward male abundance.

Josian Sanchez Ruiz (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, josian.sanchezruiz@gmail.com;


Alonso Ramirez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;


188 - ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIANCE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, LITTLE CREEK, DAVENPORT CA

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIANCE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, LITTLE CREEK, DAVENPORT CA Seven study reaches were established in 2015 for the purpose of investigating the influence of physical factors on macroinvertebrate community structure along a forested mountain stream on Cal Poly’s Swanton Pacific Ranch in Davenport, California. These study reaches are evenly spaced throughout the Little Creek watershed, an approximately 1,200-acre drainage characterized by steep inner-gorge areas and dense riparian vegetation. The overall goal of this project is to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of macroinvertebrate community structuring (distribution, abundance, richness, biomass), physical parameters (canopy density, substrate, flow, pH, DO, temperature), and standing coarse particulate organic matter along the channel gradient. Samples will be collected seasonally for two years using the Reachwide Benthos (RWB) procedure described by SWAMP- bioassessment protocol. Most of the taxa analyzed are from four orders; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera. Preliminary results indicate that there are higher proportions of shredders in the upper watershed and higher proportions of collector-gatherers in the lower watershed. Results from this study will aid in determining baseline conditions for communities within Little Creek and define the influence of varying physical characteristics on community structuring.

John Hardy (Primary Presenter/Author), Cal Poly's Swanton Pacific Ranch, jphardy@calpoly.edu;


Nicholas Macias ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of California, Santa Cruz, niamacia@ucsc.edu;


brian dietterick ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cal Poly's Swanton Pacific Ranch, bdietter@calpoly.edu;


189 - MARIA RIERADEVALL (1960-2015), ECOLOGIST, ENTOMOLOGIST, AND PROFESSOR

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MARIA RIERADEVALL (1960-2015), ECOLOGIST, ENTOMOLOGIST, AND PROFESSOR Last October 15th, our friend, colleague, and mentor Maria Rieradevall passed away. Maria was a very versatile researcher who helped to advance the knowledge of Iberian limnology. She started her studies analysing Chironomidae exuviae from the Llobregat River, and soon after began her PhD thesis about the benthos of the Banyoles Lake under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Narcís Prat. She continued working on the taxonomy of Chironomidae and the study of the ecology of Mediterranean rivers. More recently, she focused on intermittent rivers in the Iberian Peninsula, being one of the first to consider the joint effect of drought and fire on aquatic macroinvertebrates. She was also involved in several projects to design biomonitoring tools to assess the ecological status of Mediterranean and Andean rivers. She kept her interest in lentic environments, especially in coastal lagoons and mountain lakes. Her experience on Chironomidae communities was very valuable when studying paleolimnological records. She will be remembered by her passion for docent activities, scientific outreach, and her rigour and creativity in whatever she was involved.

Nuria Bonada (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Barcelona, bonada@ub.edu;


Núria Cid ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Barcelona, ncid@ub.edu;


Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Barcelona, mcanedo.fem@gmail.com;


Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, U.S., pablorodriguezlozano@berkeley.edu;


Iraima Verkaik ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Barcelona, iraima.verkaik@gmail.com;


Biel Obrador ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universitat de Barcelona, obrador@ub.edu;


Narcis Prat ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Universitat de Barcelona, nprat@ub.edu;


190 - MICROPLASTIC REPRESENTS A DISTINCT MICROBIAL NICHE WITHIN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

MICROPLASTIC REPRESENTS A DISTINCT MICROBIAL NICHE WITHIN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS Microplastic (particles < 5mm) pollution has been documented throughout aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that microplastic particles are unique microbial habitats, supporting bacterial biofilms that differ in composition from native communities. The distinct makeup of microplastic assemblages includes taxa linked to plastic decomposition and taxa that pose potential risks to both environmental and public health. This study sought to experimentally determine the influence of microplastic on bacterial communities. We harvested microplastic beads from a common skin cleanser and incubated beads and ceramic tiles (as surrogates for natural inert substrates) in water collected from three Illinois rivers, all with distinct land-use patterns and microbiomes. Samples were incubated for 34 days before extracting DNA and performing 16S amplicon paired end sequencing with Illumina MiSeq. All sequence data were analyzed using mothur. Microplastic beads selected for similar bacterial consortia that were distinct from periphyton and planktonic communities in all three rivers, indicating microplastic represents a distinct microbial niche in rivers. The metabolic capacity of biofilm constituents on microplastic is unknown and may affect stream ecosystem processes and plastic breakdown.

Brenainn Turner (Primary Presenter/Author), Loyola University Chicago, brenainnturner@gmail.com;


Nina Oforji ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, nofgrji@luc.edu;


Ayomide Ogunsola ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, aogunsola@luc.edu;


Timothy Hoellein ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, thoellein@luc.edu;


John Kelly ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Loyola University Chicago, Jkelly7@luc.edu;


191 - TOP-DOWN EFFECTS OF FISH ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND PERIPHYTON IN A MICHIGAN STREAM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

TOP-DOWN EFFECTS OF FISH ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND PERIPHYTON IN A MICHIGAN STREAM Fish can have strong top-down effects on their prey through direct predation and non-consumptive effects in streams. We conducted a manipulative field experiment to test the strength of fish predation on benthic macroinvertebrates at the patch scale in Stegman Creek. We hypothesized that fish predation decreases invertebrate grazer density, thereby increasing periphyton biomass. Stegman Creek is a small (0.38 m3/s at baseflow), groundwater-fed stream in Michigan with mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) as the dominant predators. We placed paired exclosures and open controls in a 250-m stream reach (n=12 pairs) on 10 September 2015. Exclosures had mesh (6.4 mm) on all sides to exclude fish from natural substrates. Open controls lacked mesh on side panels to allow fish access. After 32 days, six cobbles were removed from each cage to quantify densities of benthic macroinvetebrates and periphyton. Based on preliminary analysis, periphyton biomass (measured as Chlorophyll-a) did not differ significantly between exclosures and open controls. Thus, fish predation did not appear to strongly affect periphyton biomass via a decrease in grazer densities in Stegman Creek.

Travis J. Ellens (Primary Presenter/Author), Grand Valley State University, ellentra@gvsu.edu;


Carl R. Ruetz III ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Grand Valley State University, ruetzc@gvsu.edu;


Steven L. Kohler ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Western Michigan University, steve.kohler@wmich.edu;


192 - A CONTRIBUTION TO MAYFLY STUDIES OF WESTERN MONGOLIA (INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA)

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

A CONTRIBUTION TO MAYFLY STUDIES OF WESTERN MONGOLIA (INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA) Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from moraines and glaciers are part of the endorheic Central Asian Internal Watershed. These streams provide extreme conditions for mayflies because of their high elevation, low summer air temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera (including subgenus level) and 8 families of mayflies have been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was from sampled from 79 sites during 2008-2010 by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Acentrella lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptillum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Afronurus abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are found at more sites than other species in this region.

Bolortsetseg Erdenee (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, be83@drexel.edu;


193 - DOES RESOURCE AVAILABILITY AFFECT FOOD PREFERENCE AND BIOMASS OF A COLLECTOR-GATHERER MAYFLY?

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

DOES RESOURCE AVAILABILITY AFFECT FOOD PREFERENCE AND BIOMASS OF A COLLECTOR-GATHERER MAYFLY? Streams can be thought of as the continuing combination of populations that are constantly influenced by physical and biological factors. Many species depend on the input of materials that provide the necessary energy for the optimal functioning of food webs. As the stream widens, the canopy of the riparian forest opens changing the relative inputs of allocthonous and authochthonous resources. These changes in resources along the stream may be reflected in the diet of species that inhibit it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass, abundance and resource consumption of Leptophlebiid mayflies along a stream continuum. Although there was a change in algal and detrital resources across the longitudinal gradient and among habitats, those differences were not reflected in the gut content analysis. The mayflies did however express a preference for habitats, found mostly on pools. Our results suggest that Leptophlebiid mayfly habitat preference may be driven by other factors (such as shelter) and not by food resource availability.

Ashley Mariani (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Puerto Rico at Ponce, ashley.mariani@upr.edu ;


Keysa G. Rosas ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Georgia Southern University, kr03925@georgiasouthern.edu;


194 - SUGAR-CANE CULTIVATION DRIVES GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CHIRONOMIDS IN NEOTROPICAL STREAMS

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SUGAR-CANE CULTIVATION DRIVES GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CHIRONOMIDS IN NEOTROPICAL STREAMS The use of fertilizers and herbicides in sugar-cane culture have caused impacts on the hydric resources of the adjacent areas. Genetic approaches can offer great tools for examining the current status of populations to assess contaminant-induced changes and antedating future directions. The scope of the present study was to evaluate possible loss of genetic diversity by using RAPD-PCR test, in the larvae of the Chironomus sancticaroli. We test the possible impacts of nine Neotropical historically impacted streams. For tests, 10 larvae were added to 240 mL of test solution and 60g of sediments, in triplicates. The experiments were conducted at laboratory conditions. Larvae of second generation were separated and fixed in Isopropyl Alcohol for the genetic analyses. The results showed that although not occur high mortality rates in Chironomus sancticaroli species exposed in sediments, there were significant changes in genetic diversity in the organisms exposed to contaminated sediments when compared to the sterilized sediment. Our findings points that sugar-cane cultivation may lead to decrease the chironomids genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management environments.

Juliano Corbi (Primary Presenter/Author), University of São Paulo, julianocorbi@usp.br;


Guilherme Gorni ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), São Paulo University - USP, grgorni@gmail.com;


Thais Falcoski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), UNESP, thais_tor@yahoo.com.br;


Vanessa Colombo-Corbi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Araraquara - UNIARA, vanessacolombo25@yahoo.com.br;


195 - INVESTIGATING HERBIVORE-BIOFILM INTERACTIONS USING INVERTEBRATE EXCLUSIONS: A DESIGN COMPARISON

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

INVESTIGATING HERBIVORE-BIOFILM INTERACTIONS USING INVERTEBRATE EXCLUSIONS: A DESIGN COMPARISON Invertebrate exclusion studies have significantly improved our understanding of herbivore-biofilm interactions in streams, but materials and design practices typically used to exclude organisms inherently alter natural stream conditions. Laboratory assessments of cage materials and sizes were used to determine how various cage designs alter turbulent and boundary layer flow over cage substrata, and how construction materials impact photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) light transmission to substrata. All materials similarly interfered with UV and PAR transmission, with most interference occurring in the UV light range. We deployed a variety of submerged exclusion cage designs into a second-order stream to assess whether cage design alters benthic organism colonization. Half of the cages were screened to prevent macroinvertebrate colonization. Analysis of variance revealed that cage size did not influence macroinvertebrate abundance (p-value = 0.54) or algal biomass (p-value = 0.27), but the presence of screen affected both (p-values < 0.019). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling also revealed that macroinvertebrate communities were similar between unscreened cage types. Results from this study suggest that cage size and material do not significantly influence stream organism colonization.

Natalie Knorp (Primary Presenter/Author), Tennessee Tech University, neknorp42@students.tntech.edu;


Justin Murdock ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Tennessee Tech University, jnmurdock@tntech.edu;


196 - SEASONALITY AND HABITAT PREFERENCE OF THE BLUE DASHER DRAGONFLY, PACHYDIPLAX LONGIPENNIS, IN A DISTURBED SOUTHWEST FLORIDA SWAMP SLOUGH SYSTEM

5/20/2015  |   13:30 - 16:00   |  Foyer

SEASONALITY AND HABITAT PREFERENCE OF THE BLUE DASHER DRAGONFLY, PACHYDIPLAX LONGIPENNIS, IN A DISTURBED SOUTHWEST FLORIDA SWAMP SLOUGH SYSTEM Habitat preference and seasonal distribution of Pachydiplax longipennis were surveyed from April 2010 to December 2015 at Six Mile Cypress Slough Preserve in Lee County, Florida. Several observations were made monthly at two distinct habitats: flag ponds and forested swamp. Adult Dashers were among the first dragonfly species to appear each spring, becoming abundant in March and remaining so throughout the summer. Pachydiplax showed a distinct preference for pond habitats, which have abundant emergent vegetation in sunny locations. During late fall of 2101, much of the vegetation was removed from the shoreline of the ponds to control in-filling. Blue Dasher populations consequently exhibited significant declines at all ponds due to loss of preferred perch sites. Populations in the swamp did not exhibit any significant changes. This ongoing study contributes to the establishment of baseline data on the Odonate populations in the Slough and will be a valuable asset to determine how habitat alteration impacts the Preserve.

Cheryl Black (Primary Presenter/Author), Florida Southwestern State College, crblack2@fsw.edu;