Sunday, May 22, 2016
13:30 - 15:00

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13:30 - 13:45: / 311-312 SCALING LAWS FOR AQUATIC METABOLISM VS. WATERSHED SIZE

5/22/2016  |   13:30 - 13:45   |  311-312

SCALING LAWS FOR AQUATIC METABOLISM VS. WATERSHED SIZE The metabolic theory of ecology posits that organismal metabolic rates scale as a function of body mass with a ¾ power law slope. This scaling is hypothesized to result from the ability of an organisms distribution network (i.e. circulatory system) to deliver energy to body tissue. Similar to circulatory systems, river systems are hierarchical networks that gather and metabolize energy from the landscape. We explored scaling of cumulative aquatic metabolism with increasing watershed size (analogous to body size) within five biomes: tropical, temperate, prairie, boreal, and tundra. Cumulative benthic surface area scales with increasing watershed size with power exponents between 1.09 and 1.36. In temperate forests, cumulative PAR reaching the water surface and canopy cover also scale with exponents >1. As a result, cumulative GPP and R, estimated using a spatially-distributed river network model also increase with exponents >1. This suggest that metabolism of river networks follow different scaling laws than organisms with increasing size. This approach may prove useful for estimating the role of rivers in carbon cycling at broad spatial scales.

Wilfred Wollheim (Primary Presenter/Author), University of New Hampshire, wil.wollheim@unh.edu;


Walter Dodds ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, wkdodds@ksu.edu;


Matt Whiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


Ken Sheehan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, ken.r.sheehan@gmail.com;


Rob Stewart ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, Rob.stewart@unh.edu;


Ford Ballantyne ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, fb4@uga.edu;


Christina Baker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, clbaker5@alaska.edu;


William Breck Bowden ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, breck.bowden@uvm.edu;


Kaitlin J. Farrell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, farrellkj2@gmail.com;


Michael Flinn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Murray State University, mflinn@murraystate.edu;


Keith Gido ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, kgido@ksu.edu;


Tamara Harms ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, tamara.harms@alaska.edu;


Ashley Helton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Connecticut, ashley.helton@uconn.edu;


Jeremy Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Univeristy of Alaska Fairbanks, jbjonesjr@alaska.edu;


Lauren Koenig ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, lauren.koenig@unh.edu;


William H. McDowell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, bill.mcdowell@unh.edu;


Samuel P. Parker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, samuel.parker@uvm.edu;


Amy Rosemond ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, rosemond@uga.edu;


Janine Ruegg ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, jrueegg@GMAIL.COM;


Chao Song ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, chaosong@uga.edu;


Matt T. Trentman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, mtrentma@nd.edu;


John S. Kominoski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Florida International University, jkominoski@gmail.com;


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13:45 - 14:00: / 311-312 IMPLICATIONS OF SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY FOR SCALING LOTIC METABOLISM

5/22/2016  |   13:45 - 14:00   |  311-312

IMPLICATIONS OF SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY FOR SCALING LOTIC METABOLISM We measure metabolic rates of lotic biofilms from µm scales to stream reaches, but don’t know how well measurements or variability transfer across scales. At mm-scales gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR) vary across steep gradients of light and redox. At decimeter scales, rates vary depending upon substrata, light, habitat (riffle versus pool), and grazing. In reaches, dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics can be influenced by pool stratification during hot days, and local variation of canopy cover strongly influences GPP. Spatial autocorrelation of DO in stream and river reaches suggests strong local influences, even though stream segments are connected by flow from upstream. We suspect this is because flow averages the smallest scale variance by turbulent mixing and reach-scale variation from above by transport across multiple reaches, leaving local reach-scale effects to drive variance. So for example, variance in water column DO in the thalweg is most influenced by benthic processes immediately upstream, and not as much by watershed-scale variance far upstream or mm-scale variance of microbial communities associated with individual particles on site.

Walter Dodds (Primary Presenter/Author), Kansas State University, wkdodds@ksu.edu;


Wilfred Wollheim ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, wil.wollheim@unh.edu;


Christina Baker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Univeristy of Alaska, christina.l.baker@gmail.com ;


Ford Ballantyne ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, fba4@uga.edu;


William Breck Bowden ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, breck.bowden@uvm.edu;


Michelle Evans-White ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Arkansas, mevanswh@uark.edu;


Kait Farrell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, kfarell@uga.edu;


Michael Flinn ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Murray State University, michael.flinn@murrystate.edu;


Brian Frenette ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, frenette@ksu.edu;


Garcia Erica ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Charles Darwin University, erica.garcia@cdu.edu.au;


James Guinnip ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, jguinnip@ksu.edu;


Tamara Harms ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Alaska Fairbanks, tamara.harms@alaska.edu;


Skyler Hedden ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, skyh@ksu.edu;


Sophie A. Higgs ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, sahiggs@ksu.edu;


David Hoeinghaus ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of North Texas, david.hoeinghaus@unt.edu;


Jeremy Jones ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Univeristy of Alaska Fairbanks, jbjonesjr@alaska.edu;


Lauren Koenig ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, lauren.koenig@unh.edu;


John S. Kominoski ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Florida International University, jkominoski@gmail.com;


Danelle Larson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Danelle.Larson@state.mn.us ;


Richard Lehrter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, rlherter@ksu.edu;


Robert Mapes ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, rlmapes@ksu.edu;


William H. McDowell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, bill.mcdowell@unh.edu;


Damien McMaster ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Charles Darwin University, Damien.McMaster@cdu.edu.au;


Samuel P. Parker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Vermont, samuel.parker@uvm.edu;


Brooke Penaluna ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), PNW Research Station, US Forest Service, brooke.penaluna@oregonstate.edu;


Amy Rosemond ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, rosemond@uga.edu;


Janine Ruegg ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, jrueegg@GMAIL.COM;


Jeffrey Scott ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, jdscott@ksu.edu;


Ken Sheehan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of New Hampshire, ken.r.sheehan@gmail.com;


Adam Siders ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Northern Arizona University, acs427@nau.edu;


Chao Song ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, chaosong@uga.edu;


Margaret Spangler ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, margar1@ksu.edu;


Ryland Taylor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Kansas State University, rylandbt@ksu.edu;


Matt T. Trentman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Notre Dame, mtrentma@nd.edu;


Matt Whiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


Alba Argerich ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Missouri, alba.argerich@oregonstate.edu;


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14:00 - 14:15: / 311-312 ANNUAL METABOLISM OF US STREAMS AND RIVERS

5/22/2016  |   14:00 - 14:15   |  311-312

ANNUAL METABOLISM OF US STREAMS AND RIVERS Gross Primary Production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) vary across timescales ranging from minutes to decades. Efforts to explain metabolic variation among streams and rivers with daily snapshots have largely failed to detect strong patterns with climate and biome, land use, channel position, and other hypothesized drivers of metabolism. Here we report annual metabolic rates derived from continuous flow and oxygen data at 250 streams and rivers across the U.S. Within individual streams, annual metabolic rates were much less variable than daily rates. GPP increased with drainage area, but was unrelated to watershed land use or climate. ER was poorly correlated with any single predictor. GPP:ER and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) exhibited skewed distributions, with few annually net autotrophic systems. GPP and ER were weakly correlated in small streams, but closely associated in larger rivers. After accounting for effects of GPP on ER,we found that ER responded strongly to temperature. Climate and channel position appear to be the major drivers of annual metabolic balance in streams and rivers.

Jim Heffernan (Primary Presenter/Author), Duke University, james.heffernan@duke.edu;


Alison Appling ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, alison.appling@gmail.com;


Maite Arroita ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of the Basque Country, maite.arroita@ehu.eus;


Emily Bernhardt ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Duke University, ebernhar@duke.edu;


Natalie Griffiths ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, griffithsna@ornl.gov;


Robert Hall ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, bob.hall@flbs.umt.edu;


Jud Harvey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U. S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, Reston, VA, USA, jwharvey@usgs.gov;


David Lorenz ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, lorenz@usgs.gov;


Jordan Read ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, jread@usgs.gov;


Emily Stanley ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Wisconsin - Madison, ehstanley@wisc.edu;


Edward Stets ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), US Geological Survey, tedstets@gmail.com;


Charles Yackulic ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USGS Southwest Biological Science Center, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, cyackulic@usgs.gov;


Jacques Finlay ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Minnesota, jfinlay@umn.edu;


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14:15 - 14:30: / 311-312 CONTINUOUS AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM AND SCALING FROM THE SITE TO THE CONTINENT USING THE NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATORY NETWORK

5/22/2016  |   14:15 - 14:30   |  311-312

CONTINUOUS AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM AND SCALING FROM THE SITE TO THE CONTINENT USING THE NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATORY NETWORK Forecasting the response of varied ecosystems to changes in climate and land use will be crucial for natural resource management. Stream ecosystem metabolism is one metric that allows integration across temporal scales and comparison of varied ecosystems across spatial scales. Metabolism provides information on ecosystem function, constituting processes controlling nutrient cycling and the processing of organic matter. Measurements of stream metabolism are typically performed over limited time scales at independent study sites, hindering the understanding of factors driving ecosystem function. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and disseminate data addressing impacts of climate change, land-use, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function at the high space-time resolution sampling required for scaling from the site level to the continent. Using standardized observational sampling and sensor measurements, NEON will provide biogeochemical and biophysical data from 34 aquatic and 47 terrestrial sites distributed across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico for 30 years. Here we present metabolism time series using a Bayesian two-station model illustrating how NEON will provide expansive temporal and spatial coverage of ecosystem metabolism.

Jesse Vance (Primary Presenter/Author), National Ecological Observatory Network, jvance@neoninc.org;


Keli Goodman ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) operated by Battelle, kgoodman@battelleecology.org;


Claire Lunch ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), National Ecological Observatory Network, clunch@neoninc.org;


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14:30 - 14:45: / 311-312 FOOD WEB PERSPECTIVES FOR LARGE, MOBILE FISHES: THE IMPORTANCE OF MATCHING FOOD RESOURCE AVAILABILITY WITH CONSUMER MOVEMENT

5/22/2016  |   14:30 - 14:45   |  311-312

FOOD WEB PERSPECTIVES FOR LARGE, MOBILE FISHES: THE IMPORTANCE OF MATCHING FOOD RESOURCE AVAILABILITY WITH CONSUMER MOVEMENT Food webs are composed of a multitude of species interactions that can be dispersed over broad areas in the landscape. However, most river food web studies continue to be carried out on confined spatial scales that fail to capture the true extent over which consumer-resource interactions occur. Geographically constrained resource measurements may inaccurately estimate available resources for consumers by missing important subsidies from outside traditional habitat boundaries, or by failing to explicitly consider the foraging extent of large, mobile consumers. Importantly, food web studies that fail to consider the full spatial extent of consumer foraging may be of little value for management of large and mobile fishes of concern. To illustrate this point, we combined benthic habitat quantification via side-scan sonar, habitat-specific estimates of macroinvertebrate community structure, and Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) foraging movement information in the upper Missouri River, MT. Our results indicate that Pallid Sturgeon foraging may extend far beyond the typical spatial extent of most benthic sampling efforts, requiring new strategies for how we study and manage the food webs that support these mobile fishes

Eric Scholl (Primary Presenter/Author), Montana State University, escholl86@gmail.com ;


Wyatt Cross ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, wyatt.cross@montana.edu ;


Yuka Tsutsui ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, yukayukayukatsutsui@gmail.com;


Hailey Gelzer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, hailey.gelzer@gmail.com;


Addie Dutton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Montana State University , adeline.dutton@msu.montana.edu;


Christopher Guy ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, Montana State University, cguy@montana.edu;


Colden Baxter ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho State University, baxtcold@isu.edu;


Jay Rotella ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Montana State University, rotella@montana.edu;


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14:45 - 15:00: / 311-312 HYPORHEIC ZONE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND ITS ROLE ON ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES: A REACH-SCALE APPROACH

5/22/2016  |   14:45 - 15:00   |  311-312

HYPORHEIC ZONE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND ITS ROLE ON ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES: A REACH-SCALE APPROACH Hyporheic zone (HZ) hosts essential ecosystem functions such as nutrient retention and biodiversity. The excessive input of fine sediments in streams and the subsequent physical alteration of the HZ (i.e. clogging) is today a major environmental issue. Because most of the knowledge on HZ physical characteristics and ecosystem function is limited to fine-scale approaches, we lack of understanding on the significance of clogging on reach-scale ecosystem function. This prevents cross-system comparisons and limits our ability to understand and manage HZ efficiently. In this study, we first developed a quantitative and transferable method for assessing HZ clogging based on sediment hydraulic conductivity at the reach scale (K). We then explored the relationships between K, hyporheic exchange, HZ nutrient retention and microbial diversity. Here, we report some preliminary results along with some conceptual developments, which suggest that the relationship between the level of clogging and ecosystem function is not linear. We discuss how K is promising for studying reach-scale physical alterations of HZ and their functional implications, such as clogging across stream monitoring networks.

Clara Mendoza-Lera (Primary Presenter/Author), IRSTEA, France, clara.mendoza-lera@irstea.fr;


Thibault Datry ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), IRSTEA/IRD, France, Thibault.datry@irstea.fr;


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