Tuesday, May 24, 2016
10:30 - 12:00

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10:30 - 10:45: / 307 NUTRIENTS VERSUS EMERGING CONTAMINANTS - OR A DYNAMIC MATCH BETWEEN SUBSIDY AND STRESS EFFECTS ON STREAM BIOFILMS

5/24/2016  |   10:30 - 10:45   |  307

NUTRIENTS VERSUS EMERGING CONTAMINANTS - OR A DYNAMIC MATCH BETWEEN SUBSIDY AND STRESS EFFECTS ON STREAM BIOFILMS Freshwater ecosystems are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, which might be differentiated into two types: those that reduce biological activity at all concentrations (toxic contaminants), and those that subsidize biological activity at low concentrations and reduce it at high concentrations (assimilable contaminants). When occurring in mixtures, these contaminants can have either antagonistic, neutral or synergistic effects; but little is known on their joint effects. We assessed the interaction effects of a mixture of assimilable and toxic contaminants on stream biofilms in a manipulative experiment using artificial streams. We measured biofilm biomass, basal fluorescence, gross primary production and community respiration. Only antagonistic interactions were observed between nutrients and emerging contaminants, as medium and high nutrient concentrations partly compensated the harmful effects of emerging contaminants during the first weeks of the experiment. Our results show that contaminants with a subsidy effect can alleviate the effects of toxic contaminants, and that long-term experiments are required to detect stress effects of emerging contaminants at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Ibon Aristi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), EHU, ibon.aristi@ehu.es;


Maria Casellas ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), ICRA, mcasellas@icra.cat;


Arturo Elosegi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), arturo.elosegi@ehu.eus;


Sara Insa ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), ICRA, sinsa@icra.cat;


Mira Petrovic ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), ICRA, mpetrovic@icra.cat;


Sergi Sabater ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Girona and ICRA, sergi.sabater@udg.es;


Vicenç Acuña (Primary Presenter/Author), ICRA, vicenc.acuna@icra.cat;


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10:45 - 11:00: / 307 HOW DO THE STIMULATORY EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ADD UP?

5/24/2016  |   10:45 - 11:00   |  307

HOW DO THE STIMULATORY EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ADD UP? Nutrients and pharmaceuticals often have contrasting impacts on stream biofilms, as nutrients commonly have stimulatory effects, while pharmaceuticals have been shown to have toxicological effects. Although these contaminants can co-occur in human-impacted streams, few studies have investigated their combined effects. We deployed contaminant exposure substrates at mountain and urban sites in three northern Utah rivers to test how nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, iron) and pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, caffeine), alone and in combination, impacted gross primary production, respiration, nitrogen fixation, and biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic stream biofilms. Nutrients stimulated growth and primary production of autotrophic biofilms and respiration of heterotrophic biofilms. Pharmaceuticals less commonly had significant effects but did reduce biomass and GPP of autotrophic biofilms. Nutrients and pharmaceuticals had contrasting effects and, when added in combination, each contaminant was able to reduce the strength of the other’s effect. In one case, nutrients were able to completely ameliorate the contrasting effect of pharmaceuticals. These results indicate the importance of considering the combined effects of co-occurring stressors and the potential importance of evaluating pharmaceutical pollution in low nutrient waters.

Elizabeth Ogata (Primary Presenter/Author), Utah State University, bethogata@gmail.com;


Donald Long ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Utah University, Donaldo82@yahoo.com;


Michelle Baker ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Utah State University, michelle.baker@usu.edu;


Zachary Aanderud ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Brigham Young University, zachary_aanderud@byu.edu;


Emma Rosi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, rosie@caryinstitute.org;


Susan Durham ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Utah State University, susan.durham@usu.edu;


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11:00 - 11:15: / 307 A META-ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) IN US FRESHWATERS: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL TRENDS

5/24/2016  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  307

A META-ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) IN US FRESHWATERS: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL TRENDS Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) enter freshwater ecosystems via multiple sources including disposal of surplus drugs, human excretion into sewage, and runoff associated with therapeutic treatment of livestock. These emerging contaminants may have adverse effects on freshwater resources and aquatic life. We conducted a meta-analysis of PPCP abundance in freshwaters to identify spatial and temporal trends. At the reach scale, physicochemical parameters influencing photo- and biodegradation drive PPCP abundance. However, at regional scales, population size and urban development are more predictive of concentrations. Regionally, in the Midwestern US, PPCP compounds have increased an order of magnitude in the last decade. Nationwide data also indicate up to 60% higher PPCP concentrations in freshwaters in the last decade, suggesting compound abundance is increasing either due to accumulation in ecosystems or increased use. These data highlight the need to better understand the impact of PPCPs on freshwater. Our findings also elucidate several testable hypotheses for further study.

Melody Bernot (Primary Presenter/Author), Ball State University, mjbernot@bsu.edu;


Jason Doll ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Ball State University, jcdoll@bsu.edu;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 307 BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO MULTIPLE STRESSORS ASSOCIATED WITH DAM REMOVAL

5/24/2016  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  307

BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO MULTIPLE STRESSORS ASSOCIATED WITH DAM REMOVAL Dam removal can represent a significant ecosystem disturbance, inducing a suite of physical and chemical stressors in river ecosystems. We investigated the combined effects of multiple stressors driven by dam removal in the Olentangy River, Ohio, USA, using taxonomic and functional traits of benthic macroinvertebrates. We compared macroinvertebrate metrics downstream of the former dam, as well as in two reaches upstream of the former dam (one passively restored, one actively restored) for three years after dam removal. Macroinvertebrate density and richness were lowest 19 months after dam removal coinciding with highest observed flows; density and richness consistently increased afterwards. Biotic indices indicated increased pollution-sensitive taxa density and richness through time coinciding with diminished conductivity and turbidity. Ordination analysis revealed that macroinvertebrate communities were similar among the three reaches, but differed through time. However, these temporal community shifts were unrelated to restoration strategy, or potential stressors including turbidity, conductivity, and mercury concentrations. Our results imply that stressors associated with dam removal have subtle effects on macroinvertebrate community structure, but suggest that macroinvertebrate richness, including sensitive taxa, can increase following dam removal.

David W. P. Manning (Primary Presenter/Author), The Ohio State University, manning.413@osu.edu;


S. Mažeika P. Sullivan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), The Ohio State University, sullivan.191@osu.edu;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 307 THE MULTIPLE STRESSOR CHALLENGE IN THE CANTERBURY WATERWAY REHABILITATION EXPERIMENT (CAREX): DEFINING THE SCALE OF WEED X NUTRIENT X FINE SEDIMENT INFLUENCE

5/24/2016  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  307

THE MULTIPLE STRESSOR CHALLENGE IN THE CANTERBURY WATERWAY REHABILITATION EXPERIMENT (CAREX): DEFINING THE SCALE OF WEED X NUTRIENT X FINE SEDIMENT INFLUENCE Dealing with multiple interacting stressors is a big challenge in stream restoration. Moreover, failure to account for the scales at which stressors operate may be a main cause of restoration disappointment. Here, using initial data from nine one-km reaches of the Canterbury Waterway Rehabilitation Experiment (CAREX), we define the scales at which the three main stressors affecting these lowland agricultural streams operate over, and identify interactions between stressors. Nested mixed effects models revealed local-scale deleterious effects of legacy fine sediment on invertebrate communities. These patchy negative effects were exacerbated by excessive weed macrophytes which increased sediment deposition during summer. In general, there were few detectable effects of nutrient enrichment on invertebrate communities at any scale despite some very high point sources (~16 mg/L NO3-N) and a nutrient gradient spanning three orders of magnitude. The lack of nutrient influence suggests weed and sediment stressors need to be ameliorated before any effects of nutrient reduction will accrue. Overall, elucidating the scales of multiple stressor influence has helped direct the location and timing of restoration efforts and has better defined expectations.

Angus McIntosh (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Canterbury, angus.mcintosh@canterbury.ac.nz;


Catherine Febria ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Windsor, Catherine.Febria@uwindsor.ca;


Helen Warburton ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, helen.warburton@canterbury.ac.nz;


Hayley Devlin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, hayley.devlin@canterbury.ac.nz;


Katie Collins ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, katie.collins@pg.canterbury.ac.nz;


Brandon Goeller ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury.ac.nz, brandon.goeller@pg.canterbury.ac.nz;


Jon Harding ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, jon.harding@canterbury.ac.nz;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 307 WHAT CAN RANKED ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS TELL US ABOUT ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGE IN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS?

5/24/2016  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  307

WHAT CAN RANKED ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS TELL US ABOUT ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGE IN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS? One fundamental macroecological pattern is the hollow curve of species ranked by abundance, also known as ranked abundance distributions (RADs). These describe that frequently, communities consist of a few abundant and many rare species. Despite their ubiquity, the underlying processes controlling the shape of RADs are still debated, but anthropogenic disturbances may show changes consistent with theoretical predictions. Here, the addition of an additional pressure to 24 Swiss streams embedded in multi-pressures landscapes was assessed using benthic invertebrate communities. Changes in the abundance decay rate (the steepness of the rank abundance curve, represented by the niche-preemption model parameter) were driven by the dominance of stress-tolerant taxa and the loss of rare taxa in response to additional human pressures. The magnitude of change in the abundance decay rate between reference and impacted sites was environmentally contingent, reflecting the size of the upstream catchment and underlying levels of anthropogenic stress. These findings help stimulate the discussion for general principles regarding the RADs and their use, including the potential of different currencies such as organism body size.

Francis Burdon (Primary Presenter/Author), Eawag, francis.burdon@eawag.ch;


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