Tuesday, May 24, 2016
10:30 - 12:00

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10:30 - 10:45: / 313 TESTING AND DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR WEED MACROPHYTE CONTROL IN NEW ZEALAND AGRICULTURAL WATERWAYS

5/24/2016  |   10:30 - 10:45   |  313

TESTING AND DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR WEED MACROPHYTE CONTROL IN NEW ZEALAND AGRICULTURAL WATERWAYS Aquatic macrophytes provide important functions in stream ecosystems, however, excessive macrophyte growth can have negative impacts and often impedes drainage. When drains become choked during summer months, management typically involves mechanical clearance using a bank-side digger to excavate plants. This practice can over steepen banks, damage in-stream habitat and hinder aquatic ecosystem function. We applied macrophyte control methods at a small-scale, testing: hand weeding, herbicide spray, weed mat, channel shading, flower and seed removal, sediment removal and physical disturbance. Hand weeding, weed mat and herbicide spray provided effective reductions in macrophyte growth. Macrophyte growth was severely limited under full shade across the channel (with 70% light reduction), however growth was enhanced in partially shaded channels. To identify the optimum level of shading required to control excessive plant growth, we have trialled shading across a gradient using 25 five-metre shade tunnels. To test the practicality of hand weeding and weed mat at a real-world scale, we have expanded these treatments to larger-scale field trials. Excessive macrophyte growth is a problem globally, finding ecologically sound solutions for control will assist ongoing management.

Katie Collins (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Canterbury, katie.collins@pg.canterbury.ac.nz;


Catherine Febria ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Windsor, Catherine.Febria@uwindsor.ca;


Angus McIntosh ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, angus.mcintosh@canterbury.ac.nz;


Jon Harding ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Canterbury, jon.harding@canterbury.ac.nz;


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10:45 - 11:00: / 313 RESTORATION SCALE AND STREAM BENEFITS IN CALIFORNIA RANGELANDS

5/24/2016  |   10:45 - 11:00   |  313

RESTORATION SCALE AND STREAM BENEFITS IN CALIFORNIA RANGELANDS Despite the need for effective restoration to manage land use impacts, outcomes are often mixed and restoration benefits potentially limited by inadequate restoration scale. We investigated a series of eight narrow riparian revegetation projects along 2nd-4th order rangeland streams in Marin County, CA to evaluate the importance of linear buffer length, defined as the longitudinal stream length with shading by continuous riparian tree buffers (up to 1500m in length). We sampled macroinvertebrates and surveyed physical and biotic conditions at multiple intervals along these restored buffers, which we compared to unbuffered reaches upstream. Tolerant taxa density, temperature, and aquatic vegetation all decreased with greater upstream buffer length, while substrate size and insect richness were unaltered. Trends were more consistent at buffer lengths >150m. While previous research shows that narrow buffers are often ineffective at improving water quality, our findings suggest that given a minimum length, narrow buffers can provide some benefits.

Bronwen Stanford (Primary Presenter/Author), University of California, Santa Cruz, bstanfor@ucsc.edu;


Erika Zavaleta ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), UCSC, zavaleta@ucsc.edu;


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11:00 - 11:15: / 313 BENTHOS AND PLANKTON STUDIES AT SELECTED RIVERS AND HARBORS ALONG LAKE MICHIGAN

5/24/2016  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  313

BENTHOS AND PLANKTON STUDIES AT SELECTED RIVERS AND HARBORS ALONG LAKE MICHIGAN Decades ago, 43 geographic areas around North America’s Great Lakes were designated as severely degraded Areas of Concern (AOCs). These areas failed to meet objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement because of Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) generally related to a suite of sediment contaminants. The degradation of benthos (benthic invertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities are BUIs which may be removed if these communities have improved enough to not differ significantly from communities at comparable reference areas. In 2012 and 2014, the USGS assessed benthos and plankton communities in rivers and harbors at four AOCs and six paired comparison areas (nonAOCs) along Lake Michigan. In 2015, another AOC/nonAOC pair (Waukegan Harbor AOC/Burns Harbor-Port of Indiana) was sampled. From the community data, relative abundances and selected metrics (richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity for benthos) were calculated and compared for statistical differences among AOCs and nonAOCs. State governments, citizen groups, and the USEPA will use results of these studies as input to evaluate whether recent remediation efforts have been effective and the BUIs can be removed.

Barbara Scudder Eikenberry (Primary Presenter/Author), U.S. Geological Survey, beikenberry@usgs.gov;


Hayley Templar ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, htemplar@usgs.gov;


Daniel Burns ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, dburns@usgs.gov;


Amanda Bell ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), U.S. Geological Survey, ahbell@usgs.gov;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 313 COMPARING BIOINDICATORS TO MEASURE THE EFFICACY OF RESTORATION IN MIDDLE FORK JOHN DAY RIVER, OR

5/24/2016  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  313

COMPARING BIOINDICATORS TO MEASURE THE EFFICACY OF RESTORATION IN MIDDLE FORK JOHN DAY RIVER, OR Due to the large quantity of resources invested in stream restoration, it is critical to ascertain which bioindicators are more variable when measuring the efficacy of stream restoration. To determine if the Middle Fork John Day River (MFJDR) sites (n=10) have improved biotic integrity, we compared bioindicators using macroinvertebrate assemblage data from the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) representing 105 reference sites in eastern Oregon and Washington. A total of 28 bioindicators were developed, including Simpson’s Diversity index (SD), Hilsenhoff’s biotic index, multi-metric indices (MMI), and Observed/Expected (O/E) indices. Overall, SD generated the lowest coefficient of variation (CV) between reference groups followed by the O/E index and taxa richness (7.9, 14.2, 19.9%), with the variance significantly different between each index (p< 0.10). The bioindicators’ benchmark classifications produced variable results for the MFJDR, with SD predicting that 100% were in least disturbed in 2014 compared to 40% in moderately disturbed and 60% in least disturbed biological condition for the O/E index. Ongoing analysis is needed to determine how restoration actions have affected the various bioindicators.

Robin Henderson (Primary Presenter/Author, Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Washington State University, robin.henderson@wsu.edu;


James Pratt ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Washington State University, jrpratt@tricity.wsu.edu;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 313 LIMITED INFLUENCE OF MIDWESTERN STREAM RESTORATIONS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES

5/24/2016  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  313

LIMITED INFLUENCE OF MIDWESTERN STREAM RESTORATIONS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES Approximately one billion dollars is spent annually on stream restoration projects in the United States. These projects typically involve little to no monitoring upon completion, or monitoring focuses on a single parameter. We sampled twelve Midwestern streams that had undergone fish habitat restorations 4-15 years prior to sampling. Restoration techniques included in-stream habitat enhancements, bank stabilization, and riparian restoration. Restored reaches and unrestored upstream reaches were sampled for macroinvertebrate communities and water chemistry. Macroinvertebrates were sampled following the EPA’s Rapid Bioassessment protocols using a kick net. We predicted that macroinvertebrate richness and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) richness would be greater in restored reaches due to higher water quality and habitat availability. However, there was no difference in macroinvertebrate richness and EPT richness between restored and unrestored reaches (t6 = -0.28, p =0.39 and t6 = -0.277, p =0.40, respectively). Additionally, there were no differences in NH4+, NO3- and PO4-3 concentrations between restored and unrestored sites. Fish habitat restoration projects may accomplish some targeted goals, but based on our results they do not appear to enhance overall biological integrity.

Jessica Fulgoni (Primary Presenter/Author), Southern Illinois University, jfulgoni@siu.edu;


Sophia Bonjour ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University , sbonjour29@gmail.com;


Kerry McLeran ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, kmcleran@siu.edu;


Matt Whiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 313 ASSESSING AQUATIC HABITAT QUALITY IN RESTORED ARROYOS AT RIO MORA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE

5/24/2016  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  313

ASSESSING AQUATIC HABITAT QUALITY IN RESTORED ARROYOS AT RIO MORA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Arroyos in the Southwest are common land features that are highly erosive, leading to reduced ecosystem productivity and diminished grassland health. In the face of climate change, these erosive features are expected to escalate and exacerbate, with new arroyo formations developing in greater frequency and existing arroyos deteriorating rapidly.  Arroyo restoration at Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge in Watrous, New Mexico, provides a case study where degraded systems are restored into viable habitat.  Through the building of grade control structures, erosion is stemmed, and soil deposits serve as water reserves, recharging the water table and encouraging vegetation re-colonization.  These structures also facilitate pool creation, thus creating aquatic habitat in an otherwise xeric environment.  We measured relative volume of pools over time to determine if the structures were holding water and for how long. As a result of the pools, wetland habitat was created and may serve as important refuges for native wildlife particularly during drought events.

Eliza Montoya (Primary Presenter/Author), New Mexico Highlands University , emontoya2009@gmail.com;


Edward Martinez ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), New Mexico Highlands University , eamartinez@nmhu.edu;


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