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SFS Annual Meeting

2021 Detailed Schedule

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ANTECEDENT CONDITIONS AND LOCAL CLIMATE SHAPE STREAM INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO A MAJOR STORM DISTURBANCE [Oral Presentation]

Bradley Strickland (Primary Presenter/Author)
Virginia Institute of Marine Science, bastrickland273@gmail.com;

Connor Brown (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Sam Houston State University, clb150@SHSU.EDU;

Fernando Carvallo (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi, fcarvallo@islander.tamucc.edu ;

Christopher Frazier (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Texas A&M Corpus Christi, christopher.frazier@tamucc.edu;

Christopher Groff (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Texas A&M Corpus Christi, cgroff@islander.tamucc.edu;

Victoria Jenkins (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Texas A&M Corpus Christi, vjenkins@islander.tamucc.edu;

Sean Kinard (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Virginia Institute of Marine Science, s2kinard@gmail.com;

Alexander Solis (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
VIMS, alexander.tr.solis@gmail.com;

Matt Whiles (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Florida, mwhiles@ufl.edu;

Amber Ulseth (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Sam Houston State University, amber.ulseth@epfl.ch;

James Hogan (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi, james.hogan@tamucc.edu;

Christopher Patrick (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), cpatrick@vims.edu;

Abstract: Major disturbances such as hurricanes can alter dynamics of biological systems. However, responses of ecological communities to a major disturbance vary due to differences in storm characteristics and variation in the antecedent conditions prior to the disturbance. Our goal was to determine the role of rainfall regime on the resistance and resilience of stream invertebrate communities to Hurricane Harvey in 2017. As expected, we observed that there was a positive relationship between storm rainfall, flood magnitude, and flood duration. Flood duration was positively related to the time it took for communities to return to baseline and flood magnitude was positively related to the size of the invertebrate response. However, mesic (wetter) streams had a dampened flood magnitude, but longer flood duration per unit storm rainfall. The invertebrate response, per unit flood magnitude, was also lower in mesic sites, potentially due to differences in species identity or eco-evolutionary adaptations. This indicates that changes in precipitation regime have the potential to alter the resistance and resilience of stream ecosystems and underscores the important influence of climate on ecosystem stability.

DIFFERENTIAL HYPORHEIC ZONE DEVELOPMENT AMONG YOUNG STREAM CHANNELS ON THE PUMICE PLAIN OF MOUNT ST HELENS (CASCADE RANGE, USA) [Oral Presentation]

Debra Finn (Primary Presenter/Author)
Missouri State University, dfinn@missouristate.edu;

Shannon Claeson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
USFS PNW Research Station, shannon.claeson@usda.gov;

Iris Garthwaite (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Northern Arizona University, ig334@nau.edu;

David Fleshman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Missouri State University , fleshman33@live.missouristate.edu;

Carri LeRoy (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Evergreen State College, leroyc@evergreen.edu;

Abstract: The 1980 Mount St Helens eruption deposited a massive volume of ash and rock, creating a sterile landscape of ~15 km2 known as the Pumice Plain. Multiple stream channels formed on the Pumice Plain and have contrasting patterns of primary ecological succession, including different benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Because many invertebrates use hyporheic zone (HZ) habitat during their life cycles, we asked if differential HZ development among streams could help explain variation in the benthos. In 2019, we installed four wells in each of four streams to 30-cm depth. We pump-sampled wells in July, August, and October. HZ communities were not well-developed in any stream, largely due to thin alluvial layers atop compacted ash typically within 30 cm beneath streambeds. However, one stream had at least 2 orders of magnitude greater HZ biomass than the other three combined and supported unique insects and crustaceans. Supply of course sediments from the upper catchment and channel stability associated with dense riparian vegetation likely have accelerated physical development of the HZ here compared to other streams. Pumice Plain streams provide a rare opportunity monitor the interplay between physical channel evolution and ecosystem primary succession.

EFFECTS OF HURRICANE DISTURBANCE ON SHRIMP ASSEMBLAGES IN A TROPICAL HEADWATER STREAM [Oral Presentation]

Jesús E. Gómez (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Puerto Rico, jesuslobo06@gmail.com;

Alonso Ramírez (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
North Carolina State University, alonso.ramirez@ncsu.edu;

Abstract: Hurricane disturbances have profound long-term impacts on habitat diversity and food web dynamics in tropical islands, including streams where they promote a shift from predominantly detritus-based to algal-based headwater stream ecosystems. Here we study how Puerto Rican mountainous stream shrimp assemblages responded to disturbances from hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017. We hypothesize that changes in shrimp assemblages were driven by the drastic changes in canopy openness, increased food resources (leaf deposition and periphyton biomass) and habitat refugia from hurricane disturbance. We sampled shrimps once a month on 18 pools along two parallel 100 m headwater streams since October 2016. Hurricane disturbance resulted in above average shrimp abundance (F=8.21, p= <0.05) for at least 2.5 yrs. Shrimp abundance differed consistently between streams regardless of disturbance (F=264.48, p= <0.05). Species richness and species evenness were not affected. CCA models (F= 3.63, p=0.001, Inertia= 27.9%) suggest that shrimp assemblages were influenced primarily by a) stream identity and associated habitat attributes, b) hurricane disturbance, and c) post-hurricane periphyton biomass. Overall, our findings support our hypotheses and demonstrate that shrimp assemblages are well adapted to hurricane disturbances in our study tropical island streams.

LINKING HYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MEGAFIRE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DNA [Oral Presentation]

Paul Frandsen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Brigham Young University, paul_frandsen@byu.edu;

Benjamin Abbott (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Brigham Young University, Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, benabbott@byu.edu;

Ethan Tolman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Brigham Young University, ethan.tolman@gmail.com;

John Chaston (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Brigham Young University, john_chaston@byu.edu;

Isabella Errigo (Primary Presenter/Author)
Brigham Young University, ierrigo95@gmail.com;

Abstract: In the western United States, anthropogenic climate change is causing larger, more severe fires and an increase in extreme precipitation events. The compounded impact of these two changes can create massive ecosystem disturbances. In the fall of 2018, this scenario occurred in central Utah when a 610 km2 megafire affected a large portion of the Utah Lake watershed. Two weeks later, the remnants of a Pacific hurricane swept across the state, resulting in torrential rains which triggered debris flows and flash-flooding in the fire scar. To understand the impact of these mega-disturbances on aquatic ecosystems, we established 20 permanent monitoring stations and 80 sampling locations in both burned and unburned catchments. We collected hydrochemical and environmental DNA samples throughout the year, which we related to catchment characteristics, including disturbance severity. We investigated how biogeochemical and biological succession progress following large ecological disturbance events. Understanding the impacts of increasing disturbance events and the ecosystem recovery process will inform decisions that will protect native species, effectively facilitate habitat and species restoration, and ensure continued water security for communities in the arid western US.

USING A BACI DESIGN TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF A NATURAL GAS PIPELINE INSTALLTION THROUGH MILL CREEK, VA: REPORTING ON THE PRE-INSTALLATION STREAM STRUCTURE [Oral Presentation]

Donya Mohamed (Primary Presenter/Author)
Radford University, dmohamed1@radford.edu;

Kristina Stefaniak (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Radford University, kroth1@radford.edu;

Tara Pelletier (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Radford University, tpelletier@radford.edu;

Jamie Lau (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Radford University, jlau@radford.edu;

Abstract: A natural gas pipeline is planned to cross several streams in Southwest Virginia. The installation process modifies the stream riparian area, channel, chemistry, and macroinvertebrate assemblage. We designed a before-after-control-impact (BACI) study to determine the effects of the installation process in the Mill Creek watershed. In March and August 2019 and 2020, we conducted a systematic physical habitat assessment and collected macroinvertebrates in 4 control and 6 impact sites, pre-installation. We measured microclimate and water chemistry (i.e., basic chemistry, metals, anions, and cations). A principle components analysis was used to explore how our sites are abiotically structured. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) explored potential differences in the macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The Spring microclimate varies widely among our sites, unlike in the Summer. The physical habitat in our small and large streams differ, but the physical habitat does not change across seasons. The water chemistry differs between the spring and summer seasons, especially among the larger sites. The macroinvertebrate assemblage between the small and large sites are distinct. Pipeline completion is expected in late 2021; our BACI design allows us to effectively capture any structural changes produced by the installation process.

INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OIL SPILLS, INDIGENOUS TERRITORIES, PROTECTED AREAS, AND FISH DIVERSITY OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON [Poster Presentation]

Claire Beveridge (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Florida International University, cbeverid@fiu.edu;

Elizabeth P Anderson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Florida International University, epanders@fiu.edu;

Lauren Emer (Primary Presenter/Author)
Florida International University , lemer006@fiu.edu;

Abstract: Peru has experienced more than 450 recorded oil spills from 2000-2019 with most occurring in its northern Amazon region. Despite defined oil blocks and formal protected areas (PAs), oil spills can affect the health of organisms and people living in these areas because of proximity and the interconnectedness of the Amazonian lotic system. As such, there is a need for spatial analysis to understand the risks and vulnerability of biodiversity and Indigenous communities to oil spills in the Peruvian Amazon. We compiled the locations of reported oil spills across the Peruvian Amazon over 2000-2019 and contrasted them with patterns of fish biodiversity distribution, PAs and Indigenous Territories. The resulting maps show overlaps of high fish biodiversity areas with oil spills, PAs and Indigenous Territories, identifying a high potential for negative impacts on fish and people. Our spatial analyses can help to avoid contamination of PAs and Indigenous Territories and identify sites of remediation priority. Future research should evaluate the results of this study with participatory mapping methods on the ground to determine if spill reports are accurate and better understand socio-ecological implications of oil spills in the Peruvian Amazon.

LONG-TERM UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ABUNDANCE IN SPATIALLY RELATED STREAMS FROM NORTHERN MICHIGAN [Poster Presentation]

Brenna Friday (Primary Presenter/Author)
Wayne State University, bfriday@wayne.edu;

Donna Kashian (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Wayne State University, dkashian@wayne.edu;

Abstract: Abiotic and biotic factors shape macroinvertebrate communities across aquatic landscapes but identifying influential drivers can be difficult. Factors that control ecosystem function may be identified following standardized sampling over extended time and space. Our objective is to use univariate statistical analyses and landscape level metrics to identify significant relationships between macroinvertebrate and water quality measures. Macroinvertebrate community composition, water chemistry, and habitat quality was measured in 26 stream sites in Marquette County, Michigan between 2007 and 2019. Sample sites were located within 2 watersheds ranging from pristine forests to newly constructed roads. Streams were grouped based on spatial self-similarity using GS+ software. Bray Curtis dissimilarity was calculated based on relative abundance of EPT taxa in stream communities across years and streams. We used partial least squares regression to help identify factors that influence relative abundance of EPT taxa in streams. We found that increases in DOC and conductivity were highly correlated with increasing Bray Curtis dissimilarity within similar streams. These parameters are likely influenced by anthropogenic activities and our data suggest that construction within these areas is negatively affecting sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa.

RAPID RESPONSE OF STREAM BENTHIC ALGAE AND MACROINVERTEBRATE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION TO RIPARIAN CLEARING IN A TROPICAL MONTANE HOTSPOT [Poster Presentation]

Carlos Iñiguez Armijos (Primary Presenter/Author)
Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador, cainiguez@utpl.edu.ec;

Abstract: Riparian forests are crucial in montane streams as a food source and to protect stream ecological integrity, but they are facing agriculture or mining in highly biodiverse areas such as the Cordillera del Condor, southern Ecuador. After riparian clearing, benthic algal growth and functional organization of macroinvertebrate communities between forested and opened reaches were determined in six streams. Opened reaches exhibit more light penetration and warmer temperatures than forested reaches. Algal growth was up to 20-fold greater in opened than in forested reaches. Shredder invertebrates were more abundant in forested reaches, while scraper invertebrates were more abundant in opened reaches. The results indicate the rapid response of the structure and function of tropical montane streams to riparian deforestation. Conserving and restoring riparian forests could provide a nature-based and economical management approach to balance agriculture production, mining activities, and ecological integrity of fluvial ecosystems in biodiversity hotspots.

Stream Water Quality Responses in a Tornado Damaged Residential Watershed [Poster Presentation]

Peter Blum (Primary Presenter/Author)
Tennessee Technological University, pwblum42@tntech.edu;

Justin Murdock (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Tech University, jnmurdock@tntech.edu;

Joseph Asante (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, jasante@tntech.edu;

Brittany Bajo (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, babajo42@tntech.edu;

Robert Brown (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Tech University, rsbrown43@tntech.edu;

Frederick Hoogakker (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, fjhoogakke42@tntech.edu;

Ashley Padgett (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, anpadgett42@tntech.edu;

Samantha Tompkins (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, satompkins42@students.tntech.edu;

Victor Wesley (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, vpwesley@tntech.edu;

Tyler Wright (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tennessee Technological University, tjwright42@tntech.edu;

Abstract: Tornado damage has the potential to impact stream water quality from seeping anthropogenic compounds and scattered debris in affected areas. On 3 March 2020, an EF4 tornado (~282 km h-1 winds) hit Putnam County, Tennessee, destroying structures, trees, and removing vegetation across the area. This study assessed the influence of tornado damage on the water quality of streams draining the damaged area. We compared physiochemical conditions, fecal contamination, and chemical water quality measures for affected and unaffected watersheds over three months. We found differences between stormflow and baseflow conditions between watersheds, with elevated nutrients, dissolved metals, and fecal coliform bacteria after rain events. However, there were no significant differences between affected and unaffected watersheds for any parameter. Similarly, there were no relationships among nutrients or contaminates and distance to, or density of tornado wreckage. This study provides evidence that unlike other natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, tornados may have minimal effects on water quality when residential areas are hit, possibly due to the localized area of destruction that tornados leave. However, tornado influence may still be event-specific and depend on the type of structures damaged.

TRACKING ONE-HUNDRED TWENTY YEARS OF LAND-USE CHANGES AND EXTREME-NATURAL EVENTS USING FOUR SEDIMENTARY RECORDS FROM LAKE COCIBOLCA (NICARAGUA) [Poster Presentation]

Camilo Fuentes Peña (Primary Presenter/Author)
PEARL Lab (Queen's University, Canada), camilofuentesp@gmail.com;

Kathleen Rühland (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queen's University, ruhlandk@queensu.ca;

Chris Grooms (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queen’s University, groomsc@queensu.ca;

John Smol (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queen's University, smolj@queensu.ca;

Abstract: Lake Cocibolca (Nicaragua), the largest freshwater lake in Central America, is of considerable socio-economic and ecological relevance. This currently eutrophic lake has a long history of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Furthermore, a proposed interoceanic canal will cross the lake and therefore pose environmental threats and ecological impacts to this waterbody. To provide a retrospective assessment of the environmental history of this lake, prior to the proposed canal construction, we analysed four sedimentary records collected from strategic locations. We used changes in diatom composition, visible reflectance spectroscopy-inferred chlorophyll a, sand fraction percentage of the sediment matrix, and sediment accumulation rate (SAR), to track ~120 years of catchment disturbances. Diatom trends before 1980s suggest mesotrophic conditions, but after 1990s the prevalence of eutrophic turbid water conditions. Generally coherent post-1990s changes in diatom composition and large SAR/sand fraction increases suggest the nutrient flows entering the lake have increased in the past three decades. The rising occurrence of hurricanes crossing the lake might also play an important role in nutrient and sediment transport to the lake, driving lake productivity.

WATER QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE DENSITY OF ZOOPLANKTON SUBSIDY TO A STREAM WITH MULTIPLE IMPOUNDMENTS [Poster Presentation]

Sara Iuliucci (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, iuliuc98@students.rowan.edu;

Michael Grove (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Grove@rowan.edu;

Courtney Richmond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Richmond@rowan.edu;

Nathan Ruhl (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Ruhl@rowan.edu;

Dominic Ruggiero (Primary Presenter/Author)
Rowan University, ruggierod1@students.rowan.edu;

Abstract: Damming of streams inserts a lentic system (a reservoir) into a lotic system (the stream), causing alterations to downstream hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological attributes of streams. One way in which reservoirs alter ecological interactions is through the creation of planktonic subsidies that cause a shift in downstream community composition toward filter feeders. Filter feeders obtain resources as a function of the density of those resources in the environment. Measuring zooplankton density is a labor-intensive process, so in this study we assess whether the density of zooplankton subsidies can be predicted by water quality variables, which would be a much more efficient way of quantifying zooplankton subsidy. We monitored zooplankton subsidy from four polymictic reservoirs and assessed 22 water quality variables for their ability to predict subsidies. Using linear regression and modeling methods, 48.3% of the variation in zooplankton subsidy can be predicted using a combination of 7 water quality variables. We detected three distinct water quality states during the study, but differences in water quality state did not significantly affect the density of zooplankton subsidy.

ZOOPLANKTON SUBSIDY WITHIN A RESERVOIR-STREAM NETWORK DIFFERS BETWEEN WATER QUALITY REGIMES [Poster Presentation]

Dominic Ruggiero (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, ruggierod1@students.rowan.edu;

Michael Grove (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Grove@rowan.edu;

Courtney Richmond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Richmond@rowan.edu;

Nathan Ruhl (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Rowan University, Ruhl@rowan.edu;

Sara Iuliucci (Primary Presenter/Author)
Rowan University, iuliuc98@students.rowan.edu;

Abstract: Damming of streams creates a landscape mosaic of lentic systems (reservoirs) within a lotic system (the stream network) and alters ecological attributes of the stream network. The introduction of reservoirs into stream systems increases the planktonic subsidy to the lotic portions of the landscape and shifts community composition toward filter feeders in areas immediately downstream of the dams. Reservoir mixing dynamics result in regime-changes in water quality conditions that affect the plankton, so in this study we asked whether regime-changes in water quality influence zooplankton subsidy to streams. Our model system is a 4th order stream impounded by a series of four small polymictic reservoirs separated by an average of 3.41 stream-kilometers. UPGMA clustering of 22 water quality variables measured weekly supported the existence of three distinctly different water quality regimes: one defined by elevated conductivity readings, another by elevated colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) readings, and a third with lower conductivity and CDOM readings. Zooplankton subsidy to the stream network was higher during the high-conductivity state, suggesting a link between zooplankton subsidy to the stream and reservoir mixing dynamics.