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SFS Annual Meeting

2021 Detailed Schedule

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“Aqua Temporaria” in a Tropical Biodiversity Hotspot [Oral Presentation]

Giovanny M. Mosquera (Primary Presenter/Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, giovamosquera@gmail.com;

Daniela Rosero-Lopez (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, droserol@usfq.edu.ed;

Daniel Escobar Camacho (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, descoba2@umd.edu;

Thibault Datry (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, France, Thibault.datry@inrae.fr;

Andrea C. Encalada (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Instituto BIOSFERA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Ecuador Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, aencalada@usfq.edu.ec;

Abstract: Intermittent Stream Flows (“Aqua Temporaria”) strongly depend on seasonal hydro-climatological conditions, varying markedly between wet and dry seasons. Interest in the hydrology of these streams has recently increased worldwide because they influence biodiversity dynamics, determine water supply to human communities, and are vulnerable to the impacts of global stressors. However, most research on this topic has been studied in temperate environments, while the hydrological knowledge of tropical Aqua Temporaria still remains limited. To fill this knowledge gap, the Cube River experimental catchment (40 km2) has been established in the Pacific lowlands of Northwestern Ecuador (The Chocó Andean ecoregion), to unravel the hydrological dynamics of this tropical biodiversity hotspot. The catchment exhibits a variety of land uses ranging from an exuberant tropical rain forest to highly deforested areas and grasslands used for intensive agriculture and cattle grazing. Studying this combination of climate-landscape features allows a thorough understating of the influence of hydrological conditions and land use on the hydrology of Aqua Temporaria in tropical flows. For this presentation we aim to introduce the monitoring setup and preliminary results of hydrologic and isotopic information collected at the Cube River.

A PROPOSAL TO CLASSIFY AND ASSESS ECOLOGICAL STATUS IN MEDITERRANEAN TEMPORARY RIVERS: INSIGHTS FROM TRIVERS LIFE PROJECT TO COPE WITH MANAGEMENT ISSUES [Oral Presentation]

Antoni Munne (Primary Presenter/Author)
Catalan Water Agency, anmunne@gencat.cat;

Carolina Sola (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Catalan Water Agency, csolao@gencat.cat;

Monica Bardina (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Catalan Water Agency, mbardinam@gencat.cat;

Albert Rovira (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Catalan Water Agency, alrovirag@gencat.cat;

Abstract: We propose a new classification for temporary rivers to better assess their ecological status. It arises from LIFE+ TRivers project, which was conducted in the Catalan and the Júcar Mediterranean River Basin Districts. The European Water Framework Directive provided two systems to set river types (systems A or B), which have been officially used by water authorities across Europe. However, essential hydrological variables such as river temporality have been largely omitted. River types established according to the WFD were compared with river categories obtained by using a rainfall-runoff model, and with “aquatic phases regimes” calculated by using the TREHS software (from TRivers project). Biological quality indices currently used in Spain based on macroinvertebrates and diatoms (IBMWP, IMMI-T and IPS) were compared with a general degradation gradient in order to analyze the river classification procedures. Results showed that river types officially used by water managers so far did not properly classify temporary rivers. TREHS software classification identified ecologically meaningful categories, especially those related to stagnant phases. Four management temporary river categories based on TREHS software classification are proposed to be used for water managers,

ADVANCING FLOW PERMANENCE PREDICTION IN HEADWATER STREAMS WITH SEMI-DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGIC MODELING [Oral Presentation]

Jay Christensen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , christensen.jay@epa.gov;

Heather Golden (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , golden.heather@epa.gov;

Charles Lane (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , lane.charles@epa.gov;

Grey Evenson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, evenson.grey@epa.gov;

Elaheh White (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education c/o US Environmental Protection Agency, white.elaheh@epa.gov;

Ken Fritz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, fritz.ken@epa.gov;

Ellen D'Amico (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Pegasus Corporation, Research Contractor to the US Environmental Protection Agency, damico.ellen@epa.gov;

Chris Barton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Kentucky, barton@uky.edu;

Tanja Williamson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
United States Geological Survey, OH-KY-IN Water Science Center, tnwillia@usgs.gov;

Kenton Sena (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Kentucky, kenton.sena@uky.edu;

David Mahoney (Primary Presenter/Author)
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education c/o US Environmental Protection Agency, mahoney.david@epa.gov;

Abstract: Streamflow permanence supports ecosystem function and biodiversity in headwater systems. However, characterization of the frequency, magnitude, and duration of flow in headwater streams remains limited because of the difficulty in instrumenting these environments. Advancements in physically-based, semi-distributed hydrologic models show promise for characterizing headwaters; however, the effective simulation of streamflow permanence remains largely untested. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop and test an approach for simulating the frequency, magnitude, and duration of headwater streamflow with a semi-distributed hydrologic model and (2) apply model outputs to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of headwaters. A spatially resolved hydrologic model (Dynamic TOPMODEL) was applied to a 15-km2 watershed in the Appalachian region of Kentucky, USA. The model was forced using local climate data and structured with high-resolution LiDAR and geospatial data. Model performance was evaluated with several datasets including multi-location discharge, flow-state sensor data, and observed headwater extent. The model simulated flow across the watershed uplands and within reaches at a high spatiotemporal resolution relevant to important stream dynamics. Preliminary results assess the approach’s capacity to simulate headwater streamflow, and to enable mapping of streamflow duration and reach-scale streamflow probability distributions.

AGRICULTURAL STRESSORS MAGNIFY DIFFERENCES IN MACROINVERTEBRATE COMPOSITION BETWEEN TEMPORARY AND PERENNIAL STREAMS [Oral Presentation]

Tim Sykes (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment Agency (England, UK), tim.sykes@environment-agency.gov.uk;

Judy England (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment Agency, judy.england@environment-agency.gov.uk;

Rachel Stubbington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, rachel.stubbington@ntu.ac.uk;

Kieran Gething (Primary Presenter/Author)
Nottingham Trent University, kieran.gething2015@my.ntu.ac.uk;

Abstract: Temporary streams are increasingly common – including in cool, wet countries, where they often occur in catchments dominated by agricultural land uses. In these landscapes, fertilizer use and livestock grazing introduce nutrients and fine sediment into aquatic ecosystems, but how these pollutants affect temporary stream communities, and how the effects differ from those in perennial streams remains unclear. We analysed how macroinvertebrate communities from perennial and temporary streams in southern England responded to discharge, sediment composition, nutrients and land use. Community responses were stressor-specific, and differed between perennial and temporary streams, highlighting covarying responses to intermittence and anthropogenic stressors. Differences in overall community composition were greater between perennial and temporary streams in catchments with >70% agricultural land, mainly due to increased differences in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) composition. The temporary stream specialist mayfly Paraleptophlebia werneri occurred more frequently in catchments with >70% agricultural land use. Thus, the more distinct perennial and temporary stream communities of agricultural catchments may allow drying-resistant specialists, like P. werneri, to survive. However, this distinctness may also prevent perennial reaches from supplying colonists that support ecosystem functioning in temporary streams.

AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES WITHSTAND EXTREME ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABILITY IN AN INTERMITTENT PALM OASIS [Oral Presentation]

Kimia Mostafavi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of San Diego, kmostafavi@sandiego.edu;

Natalie Constancio (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Michigan State University , consta80@msu.edu;

Samantha Rodriguez (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of San Diego, srodriguez1@sandiego.edu;

Kate Boersma (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of San Diego, kateboersma@sandiego.edu;

Marion Chavarria Rivera (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of San Diego, mchavarriarivera@sandiego.edu;

Abstract: Intermittent desert streams are characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal environmental variability. Although research is increasing on the effects of this variability on aquatic invertebrates in alluvial streams and rivers, intermittent palm oases represent a unique habitat that remains understudied. Unlike other intermittent streams, those fed by palm spring oases have high organic matter input and often maintain stable year-round aquatic refuges. To understand how environmental variability impacts these ecosystems, we examined the relationship between hydrology, environmental conditions, and the aquatic invertebrate community in Borrego Palm Canyon, a spring-fed palm oasis in Southern California. We measured water quality and sampled benthic aquatic invertebrates throughout the canyon seasonally over four years, including both wet and dry years. We identified over 70 taxa and observed little community turnover through time or with increasing distance from the oasis, suggesting that the aquatic community can withstand extreme hydrological and environmental gradients. High community resistance and resilience are crucial for aquatic invertebrates to survive inter-annual and inter-seasonal environmental variability in desert palm oases. Future studies are necessary to determine whether these responses will offer protection against climatic changes that are predicted for the region.

CHARACTERISING TEMPORARY STREAM DRY-PHASE INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES FOR THE USE AS POTENTIAL BIOMONITORS [Oral Presentation]

Judy England (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment Agency, judy.england@environment-agency.gov.uk;

Carl Smith (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, carl.smith01@ntu.ac.uk;

Rachel Stubbington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, rachel.stubbington@ntu.ac.uk;

Chloe Hayes (Primary Presenter/Author)
Nottingham Trent University, chloe.hayes2017@my.ntu.ac.uk;

Abstract: As temporary streams become increasingly common even in cool, wet regions, efforts are being made to improve their biomonitoring, but dry phase biomonitoring methods remain rare. Terrestrial taxa have high potential to distinguish between sites experiencing different impacts, and my aim was to characterize how terrestrial communities respond to changing physical habitat conditions, including variability in human impacts. Invertebrate communities including both persisting aquatic and colonizing terrestrial taxa were surveyed repeatedly between May and September at 6 sites on 4 ‘winterbourne’ streams in England. Sites varied in channel morphology, land use, shade, poaching, and sediment composition, moisture and nutrient concentrations. Sediment moisture was a key influence on communities, with some aquatic taxa such as Nepa cinerea surviving a sites experiencing shorter dry phases, whereas sites which dried for longer supported many terrestrial taxa. At woodland sites, with higher soil proportions in the sediment, and shading were dominated by a few species of beetle, isopod and springtail. Sites with high proportions of gravels in channel and a higher number of bank and riparian vegetation morphotypes supported higher spider diversity.

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ISOLATED POOLS IN TEMPORARY RIVERS [Oral Presentation]

Nuria Bonada (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Barcelona, bonada@ub.edu;

Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, mcanedo.fem@gmail.com;

Francesc Gallart (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
IDAEA-CSIC, francesc.gallart@idaea.csic.es;

Daniel von Schiller (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, d.vonschiller@ub.edu;

Pau Fortuño (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, pfortuno@ub.edu;

Jérôme Latron (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
IDAEA-CSIC, jerome.latron@idaea.csic.es;

Pilar Llorens (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
IDAEA-CSIC, pilar.llorens@idaea.csic.es;

Cesc Múrria (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, cmurria@gmail.com;

Maria Soria (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, mariasoria@ub.edu;

Dolors Vinyoles (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, d.vinyoles@ub.edu;

José Mª Fernández-Calero (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, josefernandezcalero@ub.edu;

Ricard Fontserè (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, ricardfontsere@gmail.com;

Nieves López-Rodríguez (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, nlopezro@ub.edu;

Guillermo Quevedo-Ortiz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, quevedoortizbio@gmail.com;

Núria Cid (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, nuria.cid-puey@inrae.fr;

Abstract: Temporary rivers are characterized by shifting habitats between flowing, isolated pools, and dry phases. Despite the fact that temporary rivers are currently receiving increasing attention by researchers and managers, the isolated pools phase has been largely disregarded. However, isolated pools in temporary rivers are transitional habitats of major ecological relevance as they support aquatic ecosystems during no-flow periods, and can act as refugees for maintaining local and regional freshwater biodiversity. Pool characteristics such as surface water permanence and size, presence of predators, local physicochemical conditions, time since disconnection from the river flow, or distance to other freshwater habitats challenge a comprehensive understanding of the ecology of these habitats, and challenge ecological quality assessments and conservation practices in temporary rivers. In this presentation, we aim at providing a characterization of isolated pools from a hydrological, geomorphological, physicochemical, biogeochemical, and biological point of view as a framework to better conceptualize, conserve, and manage these habitats.

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERMITTENT RIVERS TO BETA DIVERSITY CAN INFORM REGIONAL FRESHWATER CONSERVATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION [Oral Presentation]

Maria Soria Extremera (Primary Presenter/Author)
IDAEA-CSIC and University of Barcelona, mariasoriaextremera@gmail.com;

Núria Cid (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, nuria.cid-puey@inrae.fr;

Jean Ortega (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidade Federal do Acre, ortegajean@gmail.com;

Luis Mauricio Bini (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil, lmbini@gmail.com ;

Raúl Acosta (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universitat de Barcelona, racosta@ub.edu;

Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, cayeguti@um.es ;

Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Geography, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain, pablo.rodriguez@uib.es;

Pau Fortuño (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, pfortuno@ub.edu;

Dolors Vinyoles (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, d.vinyoles@ub.edu;

Francesc Gallart (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
IDAEA-CSIC, francesc.gallart@idaea.csic.es;

Nuria Bonada (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Barcelona, bonada@ub.edu;

Abstract: From a conservation point of view, including both spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of intermittent rivers (IRs) is key to capture the contribution to regional diversity. Using static taxonomic measures alone to protect biodiversity might provide limited insight into the impacts of disturbance on ecosystem functioning in a changing world. Information on the contribution of key sites and moments to both regional taxonomic and functional diversity could help to develop effective conservation strategies. We analysed the spatiotemporal contribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates from perennial and IRs to taxonomic and functional beta diversity in 20 rivers of the western Mediterranean Basin over five sampling times in relation to flow intermittence, local environmental variability and anthropogenic impacts. When considering all sampling times, taxonomic and functional richness over time were significantly higher in perennial than in IRs, while taxonomic and functional LCBD were higher in IRs. When comparing the sites over time, higher values of taxonomic and functional LCBD corresponded mostly to IRs during the disconnected pool phase. Our results highlight the importance of IRs to biodiversity conservation of Mediterranean-climate rivers, especially during the disconnected pool phase.

CrowdWater: Putting temporary streams on the map with a smartphone app [Oral Presentation]

Ilja van Meerveld (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Zurich, ilja.vanmeerveld@geo.uzh.ch;

Mirjam Scheller (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Zurich, mirjam.scheller@geo.uzh.ch;

Franziska Schwarzenbach (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Zurich, franziska.schwarzenbach@uzh.ch;

Jan Seibert (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Zurich, jan.seibert@geo.uzh.ch;

Abstract: Even though it is the repeated presence and absence of flowing water that shapes temporary stream ecosystems, there is very little hydrological data for them. In fact, many headwater temporary streams are not even on the map. Crowdsourcing or citizen science can be used to obtain data on the location and hydrological state of temporary streams. Citizens can record the locations of temporary streams with a GPS enabled smartphone and app, and report the state of temporary streams (e.g. dry streambed, wet streambed, standing water, isolated pools, trickling water, flowing water). Repeated observations for the same location provide information on the temporal variation of the flow state of temporary streams. Observations at multiple locations provide information on the overall state of temporary streams in a region. We will present the freely available CrowdWater app, which is used to collect hydrological data, including the states of temporary streams. We will describe how the CrowdWater app works, show examples of the data collected so far, and provide initial results on the accuracy of the collected data. The presentation will end with some examples on how these freely available data can be used.

DETERMINING AND MONITORING STREAMFLOW REGIMES IN DRYLAND RIVERS USING SMALL SATELLITE SENSORS [Oral Presentation]

Danielle Smilovsky (Primary Presenter/Author)
School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University , dsmilovs@asu.edu;

Enrique Vivoni (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
School of Earth and Space Exploration, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Build Environment, Arizona State University , vivoni@asu.edu;

Zhaocheng Wang (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
School of Earth and Space Exploration, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Build Environment, Arizona State University , zwang307@asu.edu;

Patrice Spindler (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, spindler.patti@azdeq.gov;

Cody Maynard (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, maynard.cody@azdeq.gov;

Meghan Smart (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, smart.meghan@azdeq.gov;

Hans Huth (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, huth.hans@azdeq.gov;

Abstract: The Hassayampa River, near Phoenix, Arizona, is an important watershed in the Sonoran Desert characterized by ephemeral, intermittent and perennial reaches. Nine major reaches require updated streamflow regime assessments for regulatory purposes; but obtaining this information is difficult. This presentation will focus on the novel use of a constellation of small satellites for streamflow regime assessments. The Planet Lab platform is capable of acquiring near daily, four-band, remote sensing images at 3 to 4 meter resolution. We have processed imagery covering the Hassayampa River and derived the Normalized Difference Water Index in an automated workflow to detect the presence of water in river reaches covering many seasonal changes. This procedure is compared to a large number of in-situ observations from streamflow gauges and cameras. Streamflow detection will allow a compilation of flow statistics such as number of flow days per year which are useful for regulatory purposes. The proposed methodology can be applied to other arid regions where streamflow observations are scarce to identify jurisdictional surface waters and improve the protection and management of freshwater ecosystems.

Development of a Beta Streamflow Duration Assessment Method (SDAM) for the Arid West USA [Oral Presentation]

Whitney Beck (Primary Presenter/Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, beck.whitney@epa.gov;

Raphael Mazor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, raphaelm@sccwrp.org;

Brian Topping (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, topping.brian@epa.gov;

Tracie Nadeau (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nadeau.tracie@epa.gov;

Ken Fritz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, fritz.ken@epa.gov;

Julie Kelso (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
ORISE Environmental Protection Agency, julia.kelso@gmail.com;

Rachel Harrington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, harrington.rachel@epa.gov;

Abstract: Resource managers, regulators, and regulated entities need rapid, reach-scale methods to classify streamflow duration to implement and comply with many federal, state and local programs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and partners are developing regional streamflow duration assessment methods (SDAMs) for nationwide coverage that use hydrological, geomorphological, and/or biological indicators, observable in a single visit to classify reaches as perennial, intermittent or ephemeral (https://www.epa.gov/streamflow-duration-assessment). We present an Arid West regional beta method, released in early 2021, to demonstrate the SDAM development process from study design through implementation. The beta method results from a multi-year study conducted at 89 reaches across 7 states. We evaluated 141 candidate indicators expected to control or respond to streamflow duration at sites of known flow duration class. Through statistical analyses, we identified the subset of indicators with the highest diagnostic accuracy of flow duration class, including hydrophytic plant species richness, aquatic macroinvertebrate abundance, EPT presence, algal cover, and fish presence. The beta method resulting from this study is available for a one-year implementation and review period while we continue an expanded data collection effort in 2021 to inform a final SDAM for the Arid West.

DEVELOPMENT OF A THREE-TIERED ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR EPHEMERAL AND INTERMITTENT STREAMS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN US. [Oral Presentation]

Raphael Mazor (Primary Presenter/Author)
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, raphaelm@sccwrp.org;

John Olson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Dept of Applied Environmental Science, California State University Monterey Bay, CA, USA, joolson@csumb.edu;

Andrew Caudillo (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
California State University, Monterey Bay, ancaudillo@csumb.edu;

Matthew Robinson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
California State University Monterey Bay, marobinson@csumb.edu;

Cara Clark (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, cclark@mlml.calstate.edu;

Abstract: Intermittent and ephemeral streams comprise a large portion of arid regions, yet tools to assess stream health have so far only been available for perennial streams, meaning that watershed assessments are incomplete. We developed new assessment tools to assess the ecological condition of intermittent and ephemeral streams when they are dry following the EPA’s Level 1-2-3 framework. We developed an L3 (intensive) index following the reference condition approach to characterize terrestrial arthropod communities; efforts to include bryophyte indicators in the index were not successful. We used the L3 index and its metrics to validate an L2 (rapid, field-based) assessment tool developed for episodic streams. Finally, we conducted an L1 (landscape-level) assessment by developing models to predict whether traditional or dry-stream L2 and L3 tools were appropriate for stream segments in both states, and found that ephemeral streams were more extensively threatened by watershed disturbance in California than in Arizona. However, the accuracy of the models in Arizona was hampered by a lack of monitoring data that documents the location of ephemeral streams. This framework paves the way for incorporation of ephemeral and intermittent streams into monitoring and regulatory programs.

DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTIVE BIOASSESSMENT INDICES OF NON-PERENNIAL STREAMS AND RIVERS IN THE ARID SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES [Oral Presentation]

Andrew Caudillo (Primary Presenter/Author)
California State University Monterey Bay / Utah State University, andrew.caudillo@usu.edu;

Abstract: The need to develop assessment methodologies for dry streams has been increasing. Although dry streams that connect navigable waters are protected under national legislation, there are no accepted bioassessment methods for them. We assessed dry streams in the arid southwestern United States and developed Observed to Expected indices to assess the effect of anthropogenic stress at these sites. We developed indices using three assemblages in dry streams: channel arthropods, vegetation-dwelling arthropods, and bryophytes. We explored different definitions of reference condition using different spatial scales to assess their effect on index performance. Indices developed with channel arthropods were the most responsive and successful, likely because they are directly affected by stress, unlike the other assemblages in this study. The ecological status of dry streams can be determined from indices of taxonomic completeness when using channel-dwelling arthropods. The other assemblages we assessed did not occur at enough sites to produce responsive indices. Vegetation-dwelling arthropods should be omitted from future dry stream studies because of their lack of response to stressors in stream channels. Further research should be conducted on bryophytes to better understand their response to local-scale stressors.

DISENTANGLING ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO NATURAL DRYING AND HUMAN IMPACTS IN RIVER ECOSYSTEMS [Oral Presentation]

Rachel Stubbington (Primary Presenter/Author)
Nottingham Trent University, rachel.stubbington@ntu.ac.uk;

Romain Sarremejane (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, romain.sarremejane@gmail.com;

Alex Laini (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
alex.laini@unipr.it, alex.laini@unipr.it;

Núria Cid (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, nuria.cid-puey@inrae.fr;

Thibault Datry (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, France, Thibault.datry@inrae.fr;

Abstract: Rivers are highly dynamic ecosystems, in which human impacts and drying events are increasingly common. Disentangling ecological responses to these interacting stressors is crucial to guide effective biomonitoring and ecosystem management. We analysed the independent and interactive effects of impacts and drying on aquatic invertebrate assemblages in rivers across Europe, using taxonomic richness and indices of ecological quality. We calculated these response metrics for the whole community and for an assemblage of drying-resistant and resilient (‘high RR’) taxa. Richness-independent biomonitoring indices typically had strong, independent responses to impacts and drying, indicating their potential for use in biomonitoring – alongside a measure of taxonomic richness. Community richness had interactive negative responses to impacts and drying, complicating its use in biomonitoring programmes – whereas high RR richness responded only to impacts – but only weakly. To increase the responsiveness of high RR richness metrics to variability in impact levels, we recommend recognizing region-specific environmental conditions and high RR taxa. We thus conclude that effective ecological status assessments could be developed for drying rivers by integrating the information in richness-independent biomonitoring indices and region-specific metrics of high-RR richness within new multimetric indices.

DROUGHTS IN COOL, WET TEMPORARY RIVERS – A NETWORK-SCALE PERSPECTIVE TO INFORM MANAGEMENT [Oral Presentation]

Romain Sarremejane (Primary Presenter/Author)
INRAE, romain.sarremejane@gmail.com;

Rachel Stubbington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, rachel.stubbington@ntu.ac.uk;

Judy England (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment Agency, judy.england@environment-agency.gov.uk;

Catherine E. M. Sefton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, catsef@ceh.ac.uk ;

Michael Eastman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, miceas@ceh.ac.uk ;

Simon Parry (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, spar@ceh.ac.uk ;

Albert Ruhi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, albert.ruhi@berkeley.edu;

Abstract: Temporary rivers are increasingly exposed to extended, unpredictable and extreme drying events during droughts. Such extremes can push aquatic organisms beyond tolerance thresholds, which could prevent community recovery post-drying. Evidence-informed strategies are needed to enable managers to anticipate, monitor and mitigate the impacts of droughts on temporary river communities. Enabled by a manager-academic collaboration, our study aim was to understand the effects of droughts on the spatiotemporal dynamics of temporary stream invertebrate communities at local and network scales. We explored how drought-induced drying and network fragmentation affected the spatiotemporal variability of invertebrates using a 13-year biological and hydrological dataset collected at 20 sites within an intermittent river network. Drought affected communities through a combination of local and network-scale factors, which acted on taxon-specific resistance and resilience capacities, respectively. Invertebrate communities dominated by taxa with low resilience and resistance are at greater risk of regional extinction, particularly when all populations respond synchronously to drought. Management strategies that promote assemblage persistence during and recovery from droughts should be designed at the network scale, to maintain and enhance both regional habitat diversity and connectivity to recolonist sources.

DROUGHTS IN TEMPORARY RIVERS – MANAGEMENT INFORMED BY RESEARCH [Oral Presentation]

Judy England (Primary Presenter/Author)
Environment Agency, judy.england@environment-agency.gov.uk;

Romain Sarremejane (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
INRAE, romain.sarremejane@gmail.com;

Rachel Stubbington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, rachel.stubbington@ntu.ac.uk;

Chloe Hayes (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Nottingham Trent University, chloe.hayes2017@my.ntu.ac.uk;

Catherine E. M. Sefton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, catsef@ceh.ac.uk ;

Michael Eastman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, miceas@ceh.ac.uk ;

Simon Parry (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
CEH, UK, spar@ceh.ac.uk ;

Albert Ruhi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, albert.ruhi@berkeley.edu;

Abstract: The temporary rivers of cool, wet countries, such as England, encompass a wide range of river types, including our globally rare iconic chalk streams. Concerns about of human impacts on their ecological quality means evidence-informed strategies are needed to anticipate, monitor and mitigate the impacts of droughts on temporary river assemblages. Understanding characteristics such as the frequency, seasonality and duration of flow loss and drying is critical for interpreting biotic response. Here, we explore how evidence from an academic-manager collaboration is informing drought monitoring and management strategies. The research has helped us track drought development to support decision-making. We have identified sites supporting communities sensitive to drought, which are now incorporated within our drought monitoring network. Communities at other sites are more resistant to change. The habitat characteristics of the resistant sites are informing our restoration plans to help us adapt to climate change. Understanding the changes at a network scale allows consideration of regional habitat diversity, connectivity to recolonization sources and enables a catchment approach to management. Finally we outline on-going research to provide the evidence needed to further understand and manage these valuable aquatic-terrestrial systems.

ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO HYDROLOGICAL INTERMITTENCY IN TROPICAL PACIFIC LOWLANDS STREAMS [Oral Presentation]

Daniela Rosero-López (Primary Presenter/Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, droserol@usfq.edu.ec;

Giovanny M. Mosquera (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, giovamosquera@gmail.com;

Daniel Escobar Camacho (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, descoba2@umd.edu;

Andrea C. Encalada (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Instituto BIOSFERA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Ecuador Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, aencalada@usfq.edu.ec;

Abstract: The Andean Chocó in the Ecuadorian Pacific lowlands host a myriad of freshwater ecosystems modulated by climatic conditions. In this region, hydrological intermittency is believed to play a major role in sustaining biodiversity and ecological functions. To quantify freshwater ecosystem response to seasonal variation, we conducted a spatially distributed catchment analysis including perennial and intermittent streams in the Cube River watershed within the Esmeraldas River Basin, Ecuador. We monitored stream biological and ecological variables (e.g., benthic algae, cyanobacteria, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish), physical and chemical (e.g., temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and metals) and hydrological variables (e.g., streamflow, morphology) in 20 streams sites presenting different land-uses varying from conserved forests pastures during the wet season. Preliminary results indicate a high hydrological variability of intermittent streams compared to perennial streams. Biological variables (benthic fauna) show a dynamic response to frequency and duration of peak flow events associated primarily to stream morphology. Our results seek to improve our understanding of biodiversity and functional integrity in drying rivers in a highly diverse region. Research on streamflow intermittency in drying river networks aims to provide insightful knowledge on hydrological thresholds of ecological functions.

ECOSYSTEM CONDITION MONITORING IN TEMPORARY RIVERS IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA… USING ANTS, PLANTS, AND FISH! [Oral Presentation]

Alisha Steward (Primary Presenter/Author)
Department of Environment and Science, Queensland Government; Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, alisha.steward@qld.gov.au;

Jonathan Marshall (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queensland Department of Environment and Science, jonathan.marshall@des.qld.gov.au;

Peter Negus (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queensland Department of Environment and Science, Peter.Negus@des.qld.gov.au;

Abstract: Many Queensland rivers and streams stop flowing and dry up, causing havoc for river health assessments that rely on traditional ‘wet phase’ indicators. We developed an approach that incorporates all phases of temporary rivers, be they wet or dry. The focus is on characterising the dominant threats to river health in an assessment region. Threats are ranked based on expert elicitation and then cause-effect conceptual models are used to select indicators representing the greatest threats and responses of the ecosystem to them. For example, in temporary rivers of the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, we quantified the threat posed by feral pigs to dry riverbeds using pig damage intensity and used terrestrial invertebrate metrics to measure ecosystem responses to the threat. For wet locations we used the number of exotic fish species to characterise the intensity of the threat they posed and the proportional biomass of exotic to native fish as the ecosystem response metric. Indicators like riparian vegetation condition are relevant across all hydrological phases. Because indicators relate to specific threats they identify those most critical, and allow specific recommendations for management to improve temporary river health, regardless of instream conditions.

ESTABLISHING A DIVERSE AUSTRALIAN NETWORK TO ADVANCE THE RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT OF TEMPORARY STREAM AND RIVERS [Oral Presentation]

Catherine Leigh (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Biosciences and Food Technology, School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia, catherine.leigh@rmit.edu.au;

Eddie Banks (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, eddie.banks@flinders.edu.au;

Kathryn Korbel (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia, kathryn.korbel@mq.edu.au;

Margaret Shanafield (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Flinders University, margaret.shanafield@flinders.edu.au;

Songyan Yu (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, sunny.yu@griffith.edu.au;

Martin Andersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Australia, m.andersen@unsw.edu.au;

Melanie Blanchette (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Mine Water and Environment Research Centre (MiWER), School of Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia, m.blanchette@ecu.edu.au;

Nick Bond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
La Trobe University, n.bond@latrobe.edu.au;

Sarah Bourke (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA Australia, sarah.bourke@uwa.edu.au;

Ryan Burrows (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, ryan.burrows@unimelb.edu.au;

Ian Cartwright (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia., ian.cartwright@monash.edu;

Erica Garcia (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Charles Darwin University, erica.garcia@cdu.edu.au;

Gavan McGrath (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions, 17 Dick Perry Av., Kensington, 6151, Western Australia , gavan.mcgrath@uwa.edu.au;

Tim Ralph (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia, tim.ralph@mq.edu.au;

Andre Siebers (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
La Trobe University, andre.siebers@outlook.com;

Naomi Wells (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, naomi.wells@scu.edu.au;

Aleicia Holland (Primary Presenter/Author)
La Trobe University, a.holland2@latrobe.edu.au;

Abstract: Diverse networks help address broad scientific questions and promote effective problem solving, reflecting the diversity of members’ perspectives and experiences. Advances in data sharing and communication are further facilitating the inclusivity, diversity and collegiality of research networks and the ability to collaboratively access and analyse data, broadening the reach and transparency of outputs. Temporary rivers and streams (TRS) are abundant and diverse ecosystems on which people and nature rely. Just as awareness of these ecosystems and their importance grows, along with the anthropogenic pressures they face, so too does the range of scientific questions about them. Fostering diverse, inclusive and interdisciplinary networks is therefore paramount for innovative and holistic science that advances TRS research and management and delivers broad socio-ecological benefit. Australia is an ideal place to progress the frontiers of TRS science, having at least 700,000 TRS spread across myriad climate zones. An emerging Australian network aims to dismantle ‘silos,’ integrate Indigenous and Western science, better understand TRS as ecosystems and water resources and advance TRS research and management globally. We discuss why and how the network was established, the challenges of doing so, and the benefits arising.

EXPLORING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF DRY TEMPORARY RIVERS IN SOUTH ENGLAND [Oral Presentation]

Tim Sykes (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Southampton, t.j.sykes@soton.ac.uk;

Abstract: In the headwaters of iconic chalk streams, ‘winterbourne’ flows naturally come and go as groundwater levels pulse on a seasonal basis. In their flowing phase, winterbournes resemble perennial chalk streams in their rich biodiversity and aesthetic beauty. However, in their natural ponded and dry phases they are sometimes (mis-)interpreted as being ecologically degraded. This perspective is complicated by the artificial drying of many perennial chalk streams due to anthropogenic impacts, hence the landscape has both naturally and unnaturally dry riverbeds. What does society make of this? This research will ask: what cultural ecosystem services do people perceive they derive from winterbournes? What emotions (positive and negative) and intrinsic and relational values do these liminal places create for people, why, how and for whom, and do their emotions ebb and flow over time with the natural cycle? Ecosystem disservices and negative feelings, solastalgia and ecological grief, may come to the fore. Through a Grounded Theory approach, I will review contemporary literature and use a mix of quantitative and qualitative inductive, participatory methods, e.g. walking interviews, on-line survey, narrative analysis of poetry, short stories and solicited diaries, to co-construct knowledge.

Fish diversity variation in Neotropical streams in northern Ecuador. [Oral Presentation]

Daniel Escobar Camacho (Primary Presenter/Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, descoba2@umd.edu;

Daniela Rosero-López (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, droserol@usfq.edu.ec;

Giovanny M. Mosquera (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, giovamosquera@gmail.com;

Andrea C. Encalada (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Instituto BIOSFERA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbayá, Ecuador Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Cumbaya, Ecuador, aencalada@usfq.edu.ec;

Abstract: Environmental conditions influence the variation of diversity and abundance in ecosystems and human disturbance can exacerbate the impacts of this variation. These impacts may be further affected by marked climate seasonality. The Cube River catchment, a biodiversity hotspot in the Chocó Andean ecoregion, Northwestern Ecuador, shows hydrological intermittency (strongly marked wet and dry seasons). The catchment locates within the Maché-Chindul Ecological Reserve, a national protected area that is shared with several local farmers, leading to an heterogenous landscape. This study aims to analyze the impacts of hydrological intermittence on fish diversity on a set of streams considering different levels of landscape transformation. Fish will be sampled at 20 locations (~40% on conserved forest) in the peak of the wet and dry seasons. We will also sample environmental variables (geomorphological, hydrological, physic-chemical and biological). Fish species richness and community abundance will be obtained, as well as potential associations between environmental variables and abundances of fish species. The findings of this work will elucidate how, based on empirical data, Neotropical stream communities are impacted by climate seasonality and anthropogenic disturbance – knowledge of which little is known in the Neotropical region.

HIGH-FREQUENCY TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY LOGGERS AS A METHOD TO CLASSIFY PERENNIAL, INTERMITTENT AND EPHEMERAL FLOW CLASSES IN THE GREAT PLAINS [Oral Presentation]

Julie Kelso (Primary Presenter/Author)
ORISE Environmental Protection Agency, julia.kelso@gmail.com;

Ken Fritz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, fritz.ken@epa.gov;

Tracie Nadeau (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nadeau.tracie@epa.gov;

Whitney Beck (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environmental Protection Agency, Beck.Whitney@epa.gov;

Brian Topping (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, topping.brian@epa.gov;

Rachel Harrington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, harrington.rachel@epa.gov;

Raphael Mazor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, raphaelm@sccwrp.org;

Abstract: High-frequency hydrological data in non-perennial streams are needed to inform watershed management decisions based on flow duration. Stream Temperature Intermittency and Conductivity (STIC) loggers are an inexpensive method to infer flow duration. We identified reaches across the Great Plains with hydrologic data from USGS gages and previous field observations. Based on these previous data, study reaches were assigned an initial classification of perennial (n= 45), intermittent (n=74), or ephemeral (n=56), and STIC loggers were deployed. Sites were visited three times during water year 2020 to download loggers and record hydrologic condition (e.g., flowing, dry, isolated pools). Twelve percent of all loggers had >10% of data missing due to battery failure (9%), premature full memory (2%), or user error (1%). Initial flow classes were compared to new classifications based on 2020 hydrologic conditions. Initial classifications based on previous field observations had lower percent agreement with new classifications than initial USGS gage classifications and new classifications for ephemeral (14% vs 100%), intermittent (49% vs 66%), and perennial reaches (29% vs 77%). Results indicate high-frequency data can improve characterization of flow duration at the reach scale in streams of the Great Plains.

IDENTIFYING INVERTEBRATE INDICATORS FOR STREAMFLOW DURATION ASSESSMENT METHODS [Oral Presentation]

Ken Fritz (Primary Presenter/Author)
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, fritz.ken@epa.gov;

Ben Washington (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, bwash31892@gmail.com;

Gregory Pond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
USEPA, Region 3, Office of Monitoring and Assessment, pond.greg@epa.gov;

Jay Christensen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , christensen.jay@epa.gov;

Laurie Alexander (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, alexander.laurie@epa.gov;

Roxolana Kashuba (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, kashuba.roxolana@epa.gov;

Brent Johnson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, johnson.brent@epa.gov;

Abstract: Streamflow duration assessment methods (SDAMs) are rapid, indicator-based tools for classifying streamflow duration at the reach scale. SDAMs use indicators as surrogates because direct measurement of flow duration is too resource intensive for many reaches. Invertebrates are commonly used as SDAM indicators because many are not highly mobile and have life stages that require flow for extended periods. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate data (presence/absence, density, and biomass) at the family- and genus-levels were analyzed from 370 samples across 36 intermittent and 53 perennial reaches distributed along 31 forested headwater streams. Random forest models for family- and genus-level datasets had classification accuracy ranging from 89.7% to 91.9%, with slightly higher accuracy for density and biomass than for presence/absence datasets. To reduce geographic bias, the family-level presence/absence dataset was weighted to balance bootstrap selection by ecoregion, and the global model had accuracy of 89.2%. Both aquatic and terrestrial taxa were among the top predictors and included positive (presence indicative of perennial) and negative (absence indicative of perennial) indicators. Our findings highlight that aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates can be effective indicators of flow class for forested reaches, supporting the data-driven development of SDAMs.

INCORPORATION OF TEMPORARY RIVER ECOLOGY INTO THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN QUEENSLAND [Oral Presentation]

Glenn McGregor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Queensland Department of Environment and Science, Glenn.McGregor@des.qld.gov.au;

Jaye Lobegeiger (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Environment and Science, jaye.lobegeiger@des.qld.gov.au;

Andrea Prior (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department od Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, Andrea.Prior@dnrme.qld.gov.au;

Dainishi Latimer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department od Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, Dainishi.Latimer@dnrme.qld.gov.au;

Jonathan Marshall (Primary Presenter/Author)
Queensland Department of Environment and Science, jonathan.marshall@des.qld.gov.au;

Abstract: In Queensland, Australia, sustainable allocation of water resources is required under the Water Act 2000. To support this ambitious goal, the Queensland government has established a water management framework underpinned by a risk-based environmental assessment process that identifies dependent ecosystem components/processes, quantifies their flow dependencies, and uses ecological and hydrological models to identify risks to their viability under alternative water management scenarios. Science needs to support this process are identified and prioritised through a process guided by the Water Planning Science Plan. Most Queensland rivers have intermittent flow regimes, ranging from seasonably predictable to highly unpredictable, necessitating the development of evidence-informed strategies that seek to balance water allocations to support economic development while protecting critical aspects of the flow regime which sustain temporary river ecosystems. We outline this process, highlight examples of temporary river research undertaken to support these assessments and illustrate application of this knowledge into water management and allocation rules in Queensland Water Plans . Examples of this research include flow requirements to maintain waterholes as functioning drought refugia, flow requirements for fish movement and dispersal, and inundation requirements of floodplain vegetation, wetlands, and turtles.

Reviving a desert river: benefits, challenges, and opportunities of a multi-stakeholder effort to restore flow and ecosystem function in the Santa Cruz River [Oral Presentation]

Michael Bogan (Primary Presenter/Author)
School of Natural Resources and the Environment, The University of Arizona, mbogan@email.arizona.edu;

Maya Teyechea (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tucson Water, Tucson, AZ, maya.teyechea@tucsonaz.gov;

Dick Thompson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tucson Water, Tucson, AZ, dick.thompson@tucsonaz.gov;

Abstract: During the 20th century, many desert rivers were dewatered by surface diversions and groundwater pumping. Several large desert cities developed along these dewatered riverbeds, including Phoenix, Las Vegas, and Tucson, USA. Flow has since returned to some urban portions of these rivers thanks to the discharge of treated wastewater (effluent). However, this effluent generally had poor water quality, and planners rarely considered ecological or societal concerns when deciding where to release effluent. The Santa Cruz River Heritage Project, created by the city of Tucson’s municipal water agency, is an innovative project to release high-quality effluent into a historically dewatered reach in the city’s urban core. Although the initial goal of the project was groundwater recharge, it has resulted in myriad ecological and societal benefits, including an impressively diverse odonate fauna, increased bird diversity, and numerous recreational opportunities. The project itself has received wide community support beyond what its initial stakeholders had predicted. However, challenges have included flood control concerns and how to resolve issues among diverse groups and agencies. Here, we provide an overview of the project’s ecological and society benefits and lessons learned about public communication and collaborative planning.

SAND ACCUMULATION ALTERS STREAMFLOW DYNAMICS IN SLOUGHS AND FLOODPLAINS ALONG THE APALACHICOLA RIVER, FLORIDA [Oral Presentation]

Lauren M. Williams (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Florida, lm.williams@ufl.edu;

Love Kumar (Primary Presenter/Author,Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Florida, FL, lovekumar@ufl.edu;

Matthew Deitch (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Florida, West Florida Research and Education Center, mdeitch@ufl.edu;

W. Ken Jones (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
RL Consultants, ken@rlconsultants.net;

Abstract: The ecological function of the Apalachicola River, its floodplain, and Apalachicola Bay are directly related to the hydrologic connections that govern the transport of freshwater onto and through the floodplain, and back to river channels. Decades of management actions in the river has led to reduced flow through several sloughs that connect with the floodplain, resulting in less organic matter and other nutrients transported to downstream estuaries. A comparison of hydrology and chemistry of two sloughs along the Apalachicola River, Spiders and Little Spiders Sloughs, highlights how sand accumulated as a result of river management has disrupted ecological processes. As streamflow in the main river recedes, flow through Little Spiders is sustained while flow in the once-larger Spiders Slough recedes to intermittence as water is routed into side channels. Little Spiders connects with a broad floodplain wetland farther downstream; sand accumulated in Spiders causes it to disconnect from downstream floodplains entirely. In addition to affecting nutrient delivery to the downstream estuary, this reduced flow also has impacts to tupelo and cypress communities on the river’s floodplain.

Stakeholders’ perceptions around non-perennial streams: the Balearic Islands as a case study [Oral Presentation]

Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano (Primary Presenter/Author)
Department of Geography, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain, pablo.rodriguez@uib.es;

Celso García (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Geography, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain, celso.garcia@uib.es;

Abstract: The conservation of non-perennial streams cannot be achieved without considering human perceptions around these systems. The Balearic Islands are a singular case because all their streams are non-perennial. Here, we aimed to assess stakeholders’ relationships with local non-perennial streams, including their hydrological knowledge, their flood risk behavior, and their perception of management practices. Results from over 500 surveys showed that most stakeholders did not feel informed about local streams, but most agreed that these ecosystems are important for their personal wellbeing. Regarding flood risk, most stakeholders (>80%) agreed that: 1) floods will be more common in the near future due to climate change, 2) floods' effects on humans are caused by an inadequate urban planning, and 3) it is danger to be close to a creek during heavy rain events. Our results also showed existing conflicts among different stakeholders regarding management practices, including flood risk management (i.e., clearing in-channel vegetation and canalizing streams) and the promotion of recreational activities. Our study illustrates how social sciences methodologies can be useful tools to understand public awareness and conflicts around freshwater ecosystems which can help guide future science communication and management practice.

Stream Tracker: Community Powered Stream Monitoring [Oral Presentation]

Stephanie Kampf (Primary Presenter/Author)
Colorado State University, Stephanie.Kampf@colostate.edu;

Kira Puntenney-Desmond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Colorado State University, kira.puntenney@colostate.edu;

Abstract: Temporary streams are found in all types of watersheds, and they constitute the majority of stream length globally. Yet these streams are often poorly mapped, with little known about their flow duration. Monitoring a sufficient number of these streams to improve flow duration estimates is a daunting task. Stream Tracker was developed to enable crowd sourcing of information on where streams are located and when they flow. Any participant can use either a phone app or a website to enter information on streamflow status (flow, standing water, no flow, other) and upload a photo. This information can be used to improve flow duration estimates in otherwise unmonitored streams and build models of streamflow duration. Stream tracking can also be a way to expand community engagement in stream monitoring and raise awareness of both the existence and importance of temporary streams. This talk will cover how Stream Tracker works, strategies for community engagement, methods for using the data obtained, and future needs.

The binational effort to deliver environmental flows to the Colorado River Delta [Oral Presentation]

Eliana Rodriguez (Primary Presenter/Author)
Autonomous University of Baja California, eliana.rodriguez@uabc.edu.mx;

Science Team Colorado River Delta (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Colorado River Delta, kflessa@arizona.edu;

Abstract: An overallocated river, the Colorado River, provides water to 40 million people, irrigates 2.2 million hectares of cropland, and sustains remanent wetlands of the Delta that offer ecosystem services. The river cross through the western US and into the northwest of Mexico to the last dam on its journey. In Mexico, water is diverted into an extensive channel network for agricultural, urban, industrial, and rural use. The river runs dry downstream of the last dam. Many studies and efforts by NGOs and academics documented the importance of remanent wetlands in the Delta and the lack of surface flows. In 2012 and 2017 the US, Mexico, and NGOs agreed to deliver environmental flows through 2026. With water in the river, the social response was a fiesta, the aquifer rose as much as 9 m, a brief reconnection with the sea was achieved, and 440.8 hectares of riparian habitat have been restored and the abundance of priority bird species has increased over the last 6 years. Riparian and estuarine restoration efforts continue.

The drying regimes of non-perennial rivers [Oral Presentation]

Adam Price (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
UC Santa Cruz, adamprice@ucsc.edu;

John Hammond (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
USGS, jhammond@usgs.gov;

Margaret Zimmer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of California, Santa Cruz, margaret.zimmer@ucsc.edu;

Samuel Zipper (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, samzipper@ku.edu;

Nate Jones (Primary Presenter/Author,Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Alabama, cnjones7@ua.edu;

Abstract: The concept of streamflow regimes and their impact on physical, chemical, and biological functions are central to the aquatic sciences. However, over half of our world’s river miles dry regularly; thus focusing on the variability in flow instead of the variability in drying may be limiting our understanding of these ecosystems. Here, we seek to flip the script and propose a focused ‘drying regime’ framework. Specifically, we use streamflow from USGS gages across CONUS to characterize duration, rate, frequency, and magnitude of over 25,000 unique drying events. Individual drying events reflect the occurrence of a local peak in streamflow followed by an eventual occurrence of no flow. Preliminary results indicate that drying events clustered into four distinct categories, and most gages experienced events belonging to more than one cluster. As a result, we found minimal spatial coherence among clusters. Through the use of random forest analysis we found that watershed properties and land use primarily explained cluster membership, suggesting event-scale drying patterns are influenced by catchment storage and connectivity dynamics. The novel framework presented will allow future work to quantify the impact of river drying on ecosystem function.

Physico-chemical dry-phase indicators for the assessment of ecological health of rivers [Poster Presentation]

María Mar Sánchez-Montoya (Primary Presenter/Author)
Department of Ecology and Hydrology, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100,Spain, marsanch@um.es;

Obdulia Sánchez (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, osd@um.es;

Maria Isabel Arce (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, marisarce@um.es;

Abstract: Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), characterized by the presence of a dry phase, are widespread, abundant and expected to raise. However, a proper biomonitoring program to determine their ecological quality is still lacking and challenging to develop. Indicators during dry-phase, lack of surface water, are barely starting to be developed, especially those related to physico-chemical condition, which potential use has been ignored until now. We examined extractable nitrate, ammonium, pH, conductivity and dissolved organic carbon in dry riverbed sediments and co-occurring riparian soils as potential physico-chemical quality elements during the dry phase. We monitored 47 IRES across Segura River Basin (SE Spain), which were previously classified among three pre-established quality classes from poorly to highly anthropogenic disturbed (Good, Moderate and Bad). Nitrate in both channel and riparian habitats, ammonium in channels and conductivity in a combined channel-riparian habitat were the parameters which significantly discriminated among different levels of quality classes, showing higher levels in the most disturbed sites. This finding support the incorporation of the sensitive dry-phase physico-chemical parameters as indicators in the assessment of IRES ecosystems health . This study was funded by SENECA Foundation (20645/JLI/18).