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SFS Annual Meeting

2021 Detailed Schedule

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ACCELERATING THE RECOVERY OF STREAM INSECTS IN RESTORED STREAMS BY ENHANCING THE EGG-LAYING HABITAT FOR ADULT STREAM INSECTS [Oral Presentation]

Samantha Jordt (Primary Presenter/Author)
North Carolina State University , samanthajordt@gmail.com;

Brad Taylor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
North Carolina State University Dept. of Applied Ecology; Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, bwtaylo3@ncsu.edu ;

Abstract: Physical habitats for larval insects are improved by stream restoration, however, habitats for adult aquatic insects are often overlooked in restoration designs. We hypothesized that limited availability of suitable rocks for egg-laying restricts egg recruitment of aquatic insects in restored streams, thus contributing to the lag in their recovery. In 2019, we quantified the abundance of rocks suitable for egg-laying and the number of egg masses attached to rocks in multiple restored and reference streams in western North Carolina. Rocks were 90 % more abundant in reference than restored streams. Surprisingly, rocks that rolled or were unrecoverable was 91 % higher in restored than reference streams. Egg masses were more aggregated on rocks in restored than reference streams. In 2020, we added rocks to five restored sites and did not manipulate five other restored streams. Adding rocks increased the average number of rocks by 193% and egg mass abundance by 106% compared to untreated restored streams These results suggest that the availability and stability of egg-laying substrates are limiting insect recruitment and that including egg-laying substrates in project designs could be an approach to accelerate insect recovery in restored streams.

Analysis of localized water chemistry and land use drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure using multivariate modelling and ordination techniques [Oral Presentation]

Garrett Hoover (Primary Presenter/Author)
West Liberty University, gwhoover@westliberty.edu;

Abstract: An assessment of land use, water chemistry and macroinvertebrate community data was performed at 20 stream sites in southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia’s Northern Panhandle. Environmental variables were related to macroinvertebrate community response variables using ordination techniques via Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) and Dendrograms, as well as through hierarchical modelling using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). NMS biplots revealed strong associations between ordination axes and macroinvertebrate diversity scores, watershed development, ambient annual turbidity, and riparian forest cover. Using site groupings generated from cluster analysis, INLA models revealed significant effects on macroinvertebrate community response from ambient annual conductivity, watershed development and riparian agricultural cover. Results support regionwide water quality assessments citing conductivity and sedimentation as prevailing in-stream stressors, as well as land use characteristics as determining factors of water quality, even at localized scales.

Catchment-wide ecological system analysis; a tool for integrated stream restoration planning [Oral Presentation]

Piet F.M. Verdonschot (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Amsterdam / Wageningen Environmental Research , piet.verdonschot@wur.nl;

Jip de Vries (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Amsterdam, j.de.vries@uva.nl;

Gea van der Lee (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Wageningen Environmental Research, gea.vanderlee@wur.nl;

Ralf C.M. Verdonschot (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Wageningen Environmental Research, ralf.verdonschot@wur.nl;

Abstract: For a long time, stream restoration mainly focused on alleviating single stressors at habitat scale. This might be an important reason why restoration is often less effective. It is a challenge to assess how multiple, interacting stressors over different scales affect macroinvertebrate community composition. We selected a lowland stream catchment, identified a target macroinvertebrate community and all major stressors acting at different scales. We organized the data according to the major environmental components (hydrology, morphology, chemistry) and three spatial scales (catchment, stream valley, instream habitat). For each stressor, we classified the intensity of the adverse effects on the invertebrate community. Next, we calculated the overall stress, in fact the impact of anthropogenic and environmental stressors, on the invertebrate community by cumulating the different stressors and accounting for retention and relative discharges at confluences. Finally, we validated the overall environmental stress with the ecological quality scores derived from independent biological monitoring data on macroinvertebrates. Using this catchment-wide ecological system analysis we were able to identify and localize the most stringent stressors limiting the recovery of the target macroinvertebrate community and to provide informed focus for management decisions on stream restoration.

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES OF A TALLGRASS WATERSHED 10 YEARS AFTER WOODY RIPARIAN VEGETATION REMOVAL [Oral Presentation]

Dan Carter (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, dlcarterksu@gmail.com;

James Guinnip (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, jguinnip@ksu.edu;

Rachel Keen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, rlease@ksu.edu;

Amanda Kuhl (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, akuhl@ksu.edu;

Jesse Nippert (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, nippert@ksu.edu;

Zak Ratajczak (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, zarata@ksu.edu;

Jeff Taylor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, jht@ksu.edu;

Ben VanDerweide (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kansas State University, b.vanderweide@gmail.com;

Allison Veach (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Texas San Antonio, allison.veach@utsa.edu;

Walter Dodds (Primary Presenter/Author)
Kansas State University, wkdodds@ksu.edu;

Abstract: Woody riparian plant expansion is occurring worldwide. We removed 30-m and 10-m wide strips of woody vegetation parallel to the main and tributary channels, respectively, over 4.8 km stream length in an entire native tallgrass prairie watershed. The stream and terrestrial treatment watershed burned every two years and was compared with one- and four year-burn frequency watersheds nearby with before-after control impact design. Woody removal was maintained by mechanical cutting for a decade following the initial 2010 removal. We found strong increases in stream water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the first 3 years which then returned. Allochthonous inputs to the stream channel decreased 5-fold and mosses decreased significantly in the removal reaches over the decade. Both hydrologic signals and water isotope signatures exhibited directional temporal changes regardless of treatment. Terrestrial plant communities did not return to the native prairie state. There were distinct shifts in ecosystem state with some temporary and others occurring over 5-10 years. We find that woody expansion in grassland riparian zones is likely inexorable without significant human intervention beyond annual burning.

EFFECTS OF FOREST AND LANDSCAPE RESTORATION ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS: A LITERATURE REVIEW [Oral Presentation]

Marcelo Moretti (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Vila Velha, msmoretti@gmail.com;

Paula dos Reis Oliveira (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Vila Velha, reolivpaula@gmail.com;

Fabio de Oliveira Roque (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, roque.eco@gmail.com;

Andreas Bruder (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Canobbio, Switzerland, andreas.bruder@supsi.ch ;

Abstract: Ecological restoration offers a promising way to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services in human-modified landscapes. Riparian restoration has been applied to enhance stream ecosystem services, including flood control, clean water, and maintenance of biodiversity. However, the effects of forest and landscape restoration (FLR) on a larger spatial scale on stream ecosystem processes and biodiversity are rarely evaluated. We analyzed the literature to identify knowledge gaps and provide guidance for future research in FLR focusing on stream biodiversity and ecosystem services. We applied automated text mining and topic modelling to track the evolution of research topics within peer-reviewed articles of FLR published over the last 30 years, explore interconnections among these topics and identify emerging avenues for investigation. Gaps in information between growing and decreasing topics highlight the need for studies exploring effects of FLR on stream ecosystems and improve collaboration networks. Riparian restoration also involves reestablishment of aquatic-terrestrial links and our literature analysis may stimulate scientists and practitioners to more commonly evaluate the effects of FLR on stream ecosystem functioning and biomonitoring. This seems crucial to increase the efficacy of restoration efforts in the current UN decade on ecosystem restoration.

HIGH-RESOLUTION THERMAL AND FLUVIAL LONGITUDINAL PROFILING INFORMS RIVER RESTORATION FOR SALMONIDS [Oral Presentation]

Francine Mejia (Primary Presenter/Author)
U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, fmejia@usgs.gov;

Christian Torgersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Cascadia Field Station, ctorgersen@usgs.gov ;

Eric Berntsen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kalispel Tribe, Natural Resources Department, eberntsen@knrd.org;

Todd Andersen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kalispel Tribe, Natural Resources Department, tandersen@kalispeltribe.com;

Jason Connor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kalispel Tribe Natural Resources Department, jconnor@KNRD.com;

Philip Kaufmann (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, Kaufmann.Phil@epa.gov;

Mark Lorang (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Freshwatermap, mark@freshwatermap.com;

Abstract: Restoring rivers for salmonids requires initial assessment of the thermal and geomorphic riverscape to identify stressors and determine features that can be enhanced. We floated 70 km of the lower Priest River in northern Idaho (USA) to produce longitudinal profiles of (1) water temperature, (2) water velocity and depth with acoustic doppler current profiling (ADCP), and (3) riparian canopy height and density, and channel incision from lidar (light detection and ranging) data. We complemented these spatially continuous data with in-situ thermographs placed in the mainstem and at selected pools and tributary junctions. We hypothesized that incised areas with limited riparian cover would warm rapidly in a downstream direction. Preliminary results revealed complex thermal patterns. Water temperature decreased in a downstream direction due to groundwater and surface water exchange and tributary inflows. We also observed localized downstream warming in low-velocity reaches where travel time was greater and net solar radiation was relatively high. In contrast, high-velocity reaches showed slower warming in a downstream direction. These findings highlight the importance of high-resolution, spatially extensive assessments of the fluvial landscape to help prioritize the selection of sites for restoration.

LAND COVER CHANGE REDUCES NUTRIENT LOSSES FROM FIELDS TO WATERWAYS IN TWO AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS [Oral Presentation]

Jennifer L. Tank (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Notre Dame, tank.1@nd.edu;

Shannon Speir (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Notre Dame, sspeir@nd.edu;

Matt Trentman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, matt.trentman@flbs.umt.edu;

Ursula Mahl (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Notre Dame, Ursula.H.Mahl.1@nd.edu;

Lienne Sethna (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Indiana University, lsethna@iu.edu;

Todd Royer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, tvroyer@indiana.edu;

Abstract: Despite efforts to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural landscapes, environmental impacts on freshwater ecosystems persist due to inputs of excess fertilizer nutrients and their legacy on the landscape. For four water years (2016-2019), we quantified reductions of dissolved N and P losses from cropland in response to the widespread planting of winter cover crops (CC) in two agricultural watersheds (Indiana, USA). We collected water samples every two weeks from tile drains and longitudinal stream sites to quantify the effect of CC on nitrate-N and soluble reactive P (SRP) losses from fields to streams. Cover crops consistently reduced tile drain nitrate-N loss by 52-82% compared to tiles without CC, while SRP decreases ranged from 49-83%. Nitrate-N yields were comparable among subwatersheds, but headwaters disproportionately contributed SRP to streams in both watersheds, suggesting targeted CC implementation could reduce SRP loading. Finally, subwatersheds with increased CC coverage were weaker sources, and sometimes sinks, of dissolved N and P compared to those with lower CC coverage. Our results show that CC differentially affect dissolved N and P loading, and that widespread CC implementation can achieve significant downstream reductions.

PHOSPHORUS MONITORING AND INTERNAL LOADING INFORM DELISTING FOR MUSKEGON LAKE AREA OF CONCERN [Oral Presentation]

Maggie Oudsema (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, oudsemam@gvsu.edu;

Emily Kindervater (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Annis Water Resources Institute- Grand Valley State University, kinderve@mail.gvsu.edu;

Bopaiah Biddanda (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Grand Valley State University - Annis Water Resources Institute, biddandb@gvsu.edu;

Alan Steinman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Annis Water Resources Institute-Grand Valley State University, steinmaa@gvsu.edu;

Michael Hassett (Primary Presenter/Author)
Annis Water Resources Institute - Grand Valley State University, hassetmi@gvsu.edu;

Abstract: Muskegon Lake was listed as a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) in 1985 due to a long history of environmental abuse and was designated with nine beneficial use impairments, including eutrophication or undesirable algae. Years of industrial discharge and loss of coastal wetland habitat led to total phosphorus concentrations >60 ug/L prior to 1974. The federal Clean Water Act reduced these discharges and TP concentrations have averaged ~25 ug/L in recent years. However, recent observations indicate increasing TP concentrations in the hypolimnion, suggesting internal phosphorus loading (IPL) may be occurring, while dissolved oxygen concentrations suggest mid-lake hypoxia may be inducing IPL. When applying laboratory-measured sediment phosphorus release rates to scenarios of various annual oxic and anoxic conditions, IPL was estimated to account between 2.3% and 25.8% of total phosphorus load to Muskegon Lake annually. Results suggest IPL can be an important source of phosphorus in Muskegon Lake, but this impact will be localized spatially and limited temporally.

Punching above their weight: Wetlands moderate nutrient delivery to streams despite comprising just 5% of the conterminous US land area [Oral Presentation]

Ryan Hill (Primary Presenter/Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, hill.ryan@epa.gov;

Scott Leibowitz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, leibowitz.scott@epa.gov;

Marc Weber (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, weber.marc@epa.gov;

Jana Compton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, compton.jana@epa.gov;

Mark Rains (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, mrains@usf.edu;

Irena Creed (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, irena.creed@usask.ca;

Charles Jones (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians, Corvallis, OR, cejones@usgs.gov;

Jay Christensen (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , christensen.jay@epa.gov;

Rebecca Bellmore (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Southeast Alaska Watershed Coalition, rebecca@sawcak.org;

E. Henry Lee (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR, Lee.EHenry@epa.gov;

Heather Golden (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , golden.heather@epa.gov;

Charles Lane (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
US EPA, Watershed & Ecosystem Characterization Division, Cincinnati, OH , lane.charles@epa.gov;

Abstract: Wetlands can mediate the transfer of materials between uplands and streams through flow interception and connectivity to streams. We classified the connectivity of 6.7 million wetlands to 2.6 million stream segments across the conterminous US (CONUS). We defined flowpaths from wetlands to receiving streams and classified wetland units as riparian vs. non-riparian, likely dominant flow (surface vs. subsurface), and soil drainage (poorly vs. well-drained) along paths. Riparian was the dominant wetland type (71% by area). We delineated wetland drainage basins and quantified the nitrogen (N) each receives. Maps reveal profound spatial mismatches between N inputs and intercepting wetlands across the CONUS. Despite comprising just 5% of the landscape, wetlands potentially intercept 25% of upland N inputs. Regression analysis with 1,779 sample sites showed that instream total N was weakly associated with N inputs intercepted by non-riparian surface-connected wetlands and strongly associated with wetland-bypassed inputs. Conversely, instream total N was not associated with N inputs intercepted by both riparian and non-riparian subsurface-connected wetlands, suggesting they function as N sinks. Results from our maps and model suggest that wetlands could help to safeguard the water quality of CONUS watersheds.

REIGNITING HEALTHY RESILIENCE: USING DISTURBANCE TO OVERCOME NEGATIVE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE IN STREAM RESTORATION [Oral Presentation]

Angus McIntosh (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Canterbury, angus.mcintosh@canterbury.ac.nz;

Helen Warburton (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Canterbury, helen.warburton@canterbury.ac.nz;

Isabelle Barrett (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Canterbury, issie.barrett@canterbury.ac.nz;

Abstract: ‘Resistance’ and ‘resilience’ describe the capacity of ecosystems to withstand and recover from disturbance. Often linked to ecological health, these regularly underpin restoration goals. However, degraded ecosystems can also be resistant and resilient to disturbance (negative resistance and resilience) making their communities highly stable and thus restoration resistant. We investigated this post-restoration scenario (physical recovery without biological recovery) using a stream mesocosm experiment, demonstrating that presence of a persistent degraded community can hinder biological recovery. We propose degraded communities must first be destabilised to facilitate recovery, requiring understanding of how degraded communities are assembled. To detangle trait-environment relationships, we conducted a meta-analysis of New Zealand streams across both anthropogenic and natural disturbance gradients. Trait-based ordination indicated different disturbance gradients shape communities along different axes of change, informing restoration by identifying disturbances which could disrupt existing trait-environment relationships, displacing less desired taxa. We tested this theory in channel experiments, investigating how different community types responded to additional disturbance. Responses depended on disturbance history: novel disturbances incited the most community change. Thus, there is potential to overcome negative resistance and resilience by applying disturbance as a restoration tool to direct community recovery.

RESPONSES OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES AND BROWN TROUT POPULATIONS TO IMPROVEMENTS IN WATER QUALITY AND HABITAT: A LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT [Oral Presentation]

Christopher Kotalik (Primary Presenter/Author)
Colorado State University, cjkotalik@gmail.com;

William Clements (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Colorado State University, William.Clements@colostate.edu ;

Eric Richer (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Colorado Parks and Wildlife, eric.richer@state.co.us ;

Abstract: Although numerous studies have documented biological recovery from improved water quality or habitat, few studies have compared the relative success of remediation and restoration. Monitoring in the Upper Arkansas River (Colorado) over the past three decades provided a unique opportunity to assess the relative effectiveness of water quality remediation and habitat restoration. Remediation activities resulted in dramatic reductions in bioavailable metal concentrations, which significantly improved benthic communities and fish populations. Habitat restoration significantly increased trout density and biomass; however, in contrast to the responses to improved water quality, we observed few changes in benthic community composition after restoration. Additionally, while restoration increased trout populations, prey-subsidy availability and consumption were reduced. Variation in the responses between water quality and habitat improvements may be due to different mechanisms that influenced recovery. For example, because high metal concentrations historically degraded most biological compartments, effective remediation improved most biological metrics. In contrast, habitat restoration increased trout populations but prey-subsidies were altered, suggesting potential feedback among ecological processes. Differences between remediation and restoration responses, coupled with interactive effects of these treatments, underlies the complexity of predicting and setting goals for stream recovery.

REWILD ME A RIVER: AN ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION-BASED APPROACH TO WATERSHED RESTORATION [Oral Presentation]

Natalie Rideout (Primary Presenter/Author)
Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, nrideout@unb.ca;

Bernhard Wegscheider (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Canadian Rivers Institute, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, bwegsche@unb.ca;

Matilda Kattilakoski (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, matilda.kattilakoski@gmail.com;

Katie McGee (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, ON, Canada & Centre for Biodiversity Genomics and Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada, kmcgee@uoguelph.ca;

Antóin O'Sullivan (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Canadian Rivers Institute, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, aosulliv@unb.ca;

Yirigui Yirigui (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment and Climate Change Canada @ Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, yirigui.88@unb.ca;

Wendy Monk (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment and Climate Change Canada @ Canadian Rivers Institute, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, wmonk@unb.ca;

Donald Baird (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Environment and Climate Change Canada @ Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada, djbaird@unb.ca;

Abstract: Thoreau once said, “all good things are wild and free”, and indeed, despite their current status in our anthropogenically-dominated era, our rivers, too, deserve to be wild and free. Rewilding, a concept gaining traction in Europe, differs from traditional ecosystem restoration in that it favours a passive approach, focusing on helping humans to “get out of the way”, allowing nature to heal itself. Rewilding is based on ecological principles, yet can be applied without a predefined anthropocentric outcome. We explore the concept of rewilding as a holistic, science-driven approach to river restoration and present a framework to assess the ‘rewilding potential’ of a river, with a focus on ecosystem functions and structures. Because application of restoration tactics at the reach scale rarely affects the broader riverscape, this framework operates at a watershed scale. Alongside this framework, we present results from an ongoing case-study in the Wolastoq | Saint John River watershed in Atlantic Canada, assessing rewilding potential through spatial prioritization of threat mitigation and promotion of restorative ecosystem functions. Our goal is to stimulate new thinking on the restoration of our damaged rivers, promoting regenerative, resilient ecological networks.

STREAM FOOD WEB RESPONSES TO RIPARIAN THINNING IN SECOND-GROWTH REDWOOD FORESTS OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA [Oral Presentation]

Jason Dunham (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
U. S. Geological Survey, jdunham@usgs.gov;

David Roon (Primary Presenter/Author)
Oregon State University, david.roon@oregonstate.edu;

Abstract: Resource managers are interested in thinning second-growth riparian forests to enhance aquatic productivity in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest. However, increases in aquatic productivity depend on and can be mediated by the trophic pathways that link riparian forests to streams. To determine how riparian thinning influenced the trophic pathways supporting stream fish and amphibians, we employed a manipulative field experiment in three watersheds in the redwoods of northern California. We hypothesized that experimental thinning treatments would increase solar radiation, which would increase the abundance of stream periphyton, which in turn would influence the seasonal and spatial dynamics of the food webs supporting stream fish and amphibians. To test these hypotheses we measured: stream periphyton abundance, macroinvertebrate communities in the diets of top predators - coastal giant salamanders and coastal cutthroat trout, and stable isotopes. In this presentation we share preliminary results on how stream food webs responded to riparian thinning. Data from this study provide a whole-system, mechanistic understanding of how the food webs that link streams and riparian forests may shift in response to proposed forest restoration actions in second-growth riparian forests.

SUCCESSFUL REINTRODUCTION OF TRICHOPTERA IN A RESTORED LOWLAND STREAM [Oral Presentation]

Ralf C.M. Verdonschot (Primary Presenter/Author)
Wageningen Environmental Research, ralf.verdonschot@wur.nl;

Piet F.M. Verdonschot (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Amsterdam / Wageningen Environmental Research , piet.verdonschot@wur.nl;

Abstract: Positive effects of stream restoration on macroinvertebrate communities can be limited as a result of isolation from source populations of the targeted organisms. This was demonstrated by carrying out an experimental reintroduction of the functionally important caddisfly Lepidostoma basale in a restored lowland stream in the Netherlands. In spring 2014 2400 last instar larvae were released at a single site within a stream with suitable habitat requirements, but which had become increasingly isolated from potential source populations. Population development was monitored the subsequent years by surveying woody debris, the substrate preferred by the species, along the entire length of the stream. Also streams in adjacent watersheds were surveyed to determine if individuals dispersed in lateral direction. The observed number of individuals increased strongly over time. This indicates that isolation from source populations and not the post-restoration environmental conditions were limiting establishment. In such cases reintroduction can be considered as a management option.

WHY STREAM RESTORATION SHOULD BE LAND-USE SPECIFIC [Oral Presentation]

Paula dos Reis Oliveira (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Vila Velha, reolivpaula@gmail.com;

Michiel Kraak (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, M.H.S.Kraak@uva.nl;

Harm Van der Geest (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Amsterdam, H.G.vandergeest@uva.nl;

Piet F.M. Verdonschot (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Amsterdam / Wageningen Environmental Research , piet.verdonschot@wur.nl;

Abstract: In degraded stream ecosystems, restoration projects that take land-use into account may better tackle the stressors involved and consequently also better identify the appropriate restoration measures. Therefore, we aimed to design a land-use oriented framework to identify the major pathways from the stress caused by four anthropogenic land-use types to biotic responses in streams. To this end our framework describes the effects of surrounding land-use on stream macroinvertebrate communities considering: land-use pressure, stress, disturbance of ecological key parameters and abiotic and biotic responses. The framework applied per land-use type revealed that terrestrial input from forest is CPOM-dominated (wood and leaves) positively affecting oxygen concentration and food and habitat quality for EPT-taxa; in grasslands, nutrient-rich sediment increased macrophytes densities resulting in high quality food and structural habitat for many species; streams in arable-cropland were fine sediment-dominated, resulting in poor oxygen and habitat conditions for macroinvertebrates; in streams receiving WWTP-effluent, high concentrations of dissolved nutrients resulted in poor oxygen conditions, benefiting low-oxygen-tolerant species by food availability. It is concluded that land-use oriented restoration projects may pave the way to recover degraded streams.

ADDING LEAF DETRITUS MODIFIES ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES DURING RESTORATION OF AGRICULTURAL STREAMS [Poster Presentation]

Matthew McTammany (Primary Presenter/Author)
Bucknell University, mmctamma@bucknell.edu;

Jordan Isaacs (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Bucknell University, jmi004@bucknell.edu;

Rebecca Kelly (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Bucknell University, rfk012@bucknell.edu;

Abstract: Riparian management in agricultural landscapes can reduce sediment and nutrient inputs and restore forested vegetation and associated leaf detritus and shading to streams. While fencing and bank stabilization might improve water and habitat quality quickly, riparian reforestation requires several years for vegetation to become established and grow. Augmenting detritus in agricultural streams could be an effective, low-cost addition to riparian management to accelerate ecological recovery of biological communities and ecosystem processes. We added leaf detritus, in amounts equal to forested streams, in a single pulse to an agricultural stream undergoing channel and riparian management to jump-start recovery of detritus processing and improve retention of nutrients. Leaf breakdown was faster in agricultural stream reaches with active riparian and channel management than in a non-restored agricultural reach, but it remained slower than a forested reference stream and was not enhanced by detritus addition in the restored agricultural stream. However, addition of leaf detritus increased phosphorus uptake, reducing uptake lengths by 50% compared to pre-addition and to restored reaches of the same agricultural stream without added detritus. Uptake lengths remained more than 4x longer in the detritus-enhanced agricultural reach than the forested stream.

BEAVER PONDS AS TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR A STREAM IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE [Poster Presentation]

Holly Stanley (Primary Presenter/Author)
Ohio State University, stanley.406@buckeyemail.osu.edu;

Haley McLean (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Ohio State University, mclean.154@osu.edu;

Rachel Gabor (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
The Ohio State University, gabor.40@osu.edu;

Abstract: Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs when sulfur-rich minerals unearthed during surface mining are exposed to water and oxygen, producing sulfuric acid. It results in low pH water with high concentrations of mobilized metals. Current treatment methods for restoration of AMD streams are costly and vary in effectiveness. Natural and artificial wetlands have been used to restore aquatic ecosystems impacted by AMD. We investigated whether beaver ponds, a type of wetland, could improve water quality in a stream impacted by AMD from abandoned coal mines in Southeastern Ohio. Sensors were placed upstream and downstream of the ponds to measure indicators of stream metabolism. Upstream of the ponds, the pH ranged from 3-4 and the iron concentration was around 54mg/L with visible precipitates. Downstream, the pH reached 7.5 and iron levels decreased to 0.3mg/L with no signs of precipitates. Preliminary sensor data shows that during storms, the upstream pH increases rapidly, while downstream appears unaffected. This suggests the acidic input upstream may be from groundwater. Our results indicate that beaver ponds have the potential to improve water quality in streams impacted by AMD, but more streams need to be studied.

BIOLOGICAL RECOERY AFTER ACID MINE REMEDIATION IN THE AULTMANS RUN WATERSHED [Poster Presentation]

Ryan Neese (Primary Presenter/Author)
Indiana University of Pennsylvania, mjyv@iup.edu;

Abstract: The appropriate implementation of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems can enhance stream quality and generate substantial biological recovery. Thorough monitoring of biotic conditions in streams with passive control systems is often lacking, despite being essential for making decisions about further treatment action and funding. To meet this need, we measured physicochemical conditions and macroinvertebrate and fish diversity upstream and downstream of three passive treatment systems in the Aultman Run watershed, Indiana County, PA. Diminished water quality was recorded directly downstream of treatments, with 43% receiving a USDA quality rating of poor or fair. In contrast, reaches upstream or not close to treatments made up 100% of the good/excellent quality ratings. Biotic metrics varied among sites, ranging from a site nearly devoid of life (one macroinvertebrate and one fish) to a site with reasonably high biotic diversity (10 macroinvertebrate taxa and 14 fish species). Overall, sites directly downstream of AMD treatments had lower taxonomic richness and water quality than sites upstream or away from treatments. Our findings highlight the importance of routine monitoring to identify fouled or failing treatment systems and prioritize them for repair.

DETANGLING TANGLEWOOD: CHARACTERIZING THE VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, AND LONGITUDINAL CONNECTIVITY IN A COASTAL PLAIN HEADWATER STREAM [Poster Presentation]

Delaney Peterson (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Alabama, dmpeterson2@crimson.ua.edu;

Nate Jones (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Alabama, cnjones7@ua.edu;

Arial Shogren (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, shogrena@msu.edu;

Sarah Godsey (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Idaho State University, godsey@isu.edu;

Carla Atkinson (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
The University of Alabama, carla.l.atkinson@ua.edu;

Abstract: Water movement through watersheds drives the chemical, physical, and biological functions of downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, there are systematic gaps in our understanding of watershed storage and connectivity dynamics that limit our ability to effectively manage downstream waters, especially in low-relief regions like the southeastern Coastal Plain. Here, we work to address this knowledge gap by characterizing the vertical, horizontal, and longitudinal hydrologic connectivity of a headwater stream (90ha) in central Alabama. We measured vertical flux in groundwater wells installed above and below clay confining layers, and measured horizontal flux by organizing wells into hillslope transects capturing three distinct hydrogeomorphic units with varying degrees of stream incision. We then performed seasonal network surveys visually quantifying longitudinal connectivity through the network length. Our initial results suggest that vertical connectivity is constrained by clay layers; horizontal connectivity is related to stream incision, where incised streams have higher water table elevation gradients and greater water flux; and longitudinal connectivity reflects seasonal patterns of wet-up and dry-down, with greater connectivity in the wet spring season. This work provides an initial characterization of headwater processes that will impact downstream water quality in Coastal Plain watersheds.

Effects of sediment replenishment on riverbed environments and macroinvertebrate assemblages downstream of a dam [Poster Presentation]

Izumi Katano (Primary Presenter/Author)
Nara Women’s University, katano@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp;

Junjiro Negishi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Hokkaido University, negishi@ees.hokudai.ac.jp;

Tomoko Minagawa (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Kumamoto University, minagawa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp;

Hideyuki Doi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Hyogo, hideyuki.doi@icloud.com;

Yôichi Kawaguchi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Tokushima University, kawaguchi@ce.tokushima-u.ac.jp;

Yuichi Kayaba (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Public Works Research Institute, y-kayaba@pwri.go.jp;

Abstract: This study examined the effects of sediment replenishment on a riverbeds and macroinvertebrates for a dammed river before and after sediment replenishment. We evaluated particle sizes of replenished sediments, and the case material of case-bearing caddisfly. We observed significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages before and after sediment replenishment, and between the upstream and tributary references and downstream of the dam. Percentages of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, and the number of inorganic case-bearing caddisflies downstream of the dam following sediment replenishment, were significantly higher than the upstream and tributary reference sites. The particle size of case materials used by case-bearing caddisfly corresponded to the size of replenished sediment. Dissimilarity results after replenishment showed that assemblages downstream of the dam diffed from upstream sites, although they were similar to the tributary sites. The dissimilarity between the tributary and downstream of the dam was the same as that between the upstream and tributary. Sediment replenishment was observed to reduce the harmful effects from the dam, and partly restore benefits such as increasing species diversity and altering community assemblages, similar to the effects of tributary inflows.

EVALUATION OF BROOK TROUT DISPERSAL AND SPAWNING ACTIVITY FOLLOWING CULVERT REMOVAL [Poster Presentation]

Eric Chapman (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, echapman@paconserve.org;

Eli Long (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, elong@paconserve.org;

Kathleen Lavelle (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Trout Unlimited, klavelle@tu.org;

Shawn Rummel (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Trout Unlimited, srummel@tu.org;

David Janetski (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Indiana University of Pennsylvania, janetski@iup.eud;

Nicholas Christensen (Primary Presenter/Author)
Indiana University of Pennsylvania, wtnv@iup.edu;

Abstract: Culvert replacements are a high conservation priority for reducing stream fragmentation, yet post-replacement monitoring of fish populations rarely occurs. To address this shortcoming, we are tracking brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) movements following five culvert replacements that occurred in August 2020 in Bobby Run, Cameron County, Pennsylvania. Movements are being tracked using a mark-recapture approach with PIT and elastomer tags. We are also monitoring movements in a nearby control stream without passage barriers. Three months after initial tagging, we recaptured 27.3% of marked fish (102/373) in Bobby Run and 21.5% (92/427) in the control stream. Overall, 13.7% of fish moved from their original location in Bobby Run and 10.9% in the control. Of the recaptured fish, 8.8% moved upstream past culvert replacement sites in Bobby Run, similar to upstream movement at the control stream (8.7%). These results indicate that trout in Bobby Run rapidly returned to baseline (similar to the control) movement patterns after culvert replacement. Overall, the information generated by our study will improve understanding of the benefits of habitat connectivity, which we anticipate will lead to more concrete justification for future stream restoration efforts.

HOW RESTORED RIPARIAN FOREST CAN ATTENUATE SEDIMENT EXPORT FROM CATCHMENTS UNDER FOREST PLANTATION MANAGEMENT? [Poster Presentation]

Gláucia Regina Santos (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), glauciaflorestal@usp.br;

Carla Cassiano (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Federal University of Mato Grosso, carlacassiano.ufmt@gmail.com;

Beverley Wemple (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Vermont, beverley.wemple@uvm.edu;

Silvio Ferraz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Forest Sciences, Brazil, silvio.ferraz@usp.br;

Matheus Ogasawara (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of São Paulo, matheus.ogasawara@usp.br;

Abstract: Forest operations can alter physical, chemical and biological attributes of streams that consequently, interfere in the ecological processes of the aquatic ecosystem. The objective of this study was to assess forest operations effects on sediment export according to management intensity and riparian condition in subtropical Brazil. Three catchments, with different management systems, were evaluated: eucalyptus forest plantation (EUC), native forest plantation (NAT), and mosaic of forests plantation (MOS), in southeastern Brazil. The sediment export was estimated through a relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentration. The results showed that sediment export ranged from 0.032 Mg ha?1 yr?1 to 0.411 Mg ha?1 yr?1. Regarding riparian attenuation effect, two aspects should be considered. 1) the condition of riparian forest since degraded or initial stage forests maybe not function properly to protect soils; 2) the riparian forest proportion should be not enough to attenuate large managed areas. We propose that the ratio of managed area by riparian area (M/R) may explain sediment export. Taking as example the studied catchments, we could recommend M/R < 4, with riparian areas occupying at least 20% of catchments, what is usual at certified forest plantations in Brazil.

HYDROLOGICAL EFFECT OF FOREST RESTORATION IN A FIRST-ORDER CATCHMENT [Poster Presentation]

Diana Yulieth Peña Sierra (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of São Paulo, dianay.ps@usp.br;

Lara Garcia (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Forestry Science and Research Institute, lara@ipef.br;

Silvio Ferraz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Forest Sciences, Brazil, silvio.ferraz@usp.br;

Abstract: The complex structure of the forest cover and its variation over time can alter the behavior of the hydrological regime in a catchment. Hydrological models are alternatives to simulate the hydrological effects of forest development that in the field can take a long time. In order to evaluate the hydrological age-related effect of the forest restoration, a coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model was developed for a first-order catchment (0.72 km2) in Brazil. We used meteorological and fluviometric data collected in the field and physical-hydraulic characteristics of the land use and soil properties to simulate all the water movement modules of the model. The structural development of forest and consequent improvement of soil characteristics decrease streamflow, low flow, peaks and flashiness index in addition to showed an increasing trend in baseflow. Thirty years is still a short time for the forest return from the high initial water consumption, however the structural development over time increased its ability to regulate flows in the catchment. Thus, these results imply an affectation on the physical habitat of the stream during the first stage of restoration, which is reduced over time with increased flow regulation

Long-term Dynamics of Large Wood Added to Midwestern, USA, Streams [Poster Presentation]

Sam Bosio (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of Notre Dame, sbosio@nd.edu;

Patrick Shirey (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Pittsburgh, patrickdshirey@gmail.com;

Sally Entrekin (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Virginia Tech, sallye@vt.edu;

Timothy Hoellein (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Loyola University Chicago, thoellein@luc.edu;

Ashley Moerke (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Center for Freshwater Research and Education, Lake Superior State University, amoerke@lssu.edu;

Emma Rosi (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, rosie@caryinstitute.org;

Jennifer Tank (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Notre Dame, jtank@nd.edu;

Gary Lamberti (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of Notre Dame, glambert@nd.edu;

Abstract: Large wood (LW) is commonly added to restore degraded streams, particularly in regenerating forests with low LW recruitment due to past logging. While the short-term effects of LW input on stream structure and function are well-studied, long-term dynamics of added wood are less documented. In 2004, 25 aspen logs (2.5m L x 0.5m D) were added to 100-m treatment reaches of three small Michigan (USA) streams (baseflow discharge <60 L/s) that contained low prior LW abundance. Over 14 years, we monitored the movement of LW and assessed differences in stream geomorphology and substrate between treatment and upstream control reaches. Across all three streams, 41 of the 75 added logs moved downstream an average of 4.0 m (SD, 7.0 m), with all logs remaining within their original reaches. Movement was generally associated with logs having over 70% within the low-flow channel or lying nearly horizontal, suggesting that movements are predictable and controllable with careful log placement. LW effects on channel geomorphology were more variable, but LW appears to create microhabitats that enhance stream productivity over time. Log additions to small midwestern streams may therefore constitute a viable approach for ecosystem restoration.

RESPONSE OF INFILTRATION PROCESS TO A LONG TERM GRADIENT OF TROPICAL FOREST REGENERATION OVER PASTURE [Poster Presentation]

Aline Fransozi (Primary Presenter/Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Forest Sciences, Brazil, aline.fransozi@usp.br;

Silvio Ferraz (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Forest Sciences, Brazil, silvio.ferraz@usp.br;

Pedro Brancalion (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Forest Sciences, Brazil, pedrobrancalion@gmail.com;

Miguel Cooper (Co-Presenter/Co-Author)
University of São Paulo, USP/ESALQ, Dept of Soil Sciences, Brazil, mcooper@usp.br;

Abstract: The secondary forest has played an important role because the management of it can affect multiple ecosystem functions and process, highlighting the water services that has been used as target in restoration projects. For the positive effects of this conversion, infiltration is a key process, as it represents the input of water into the soil. We assessed infiltration rates using Beerkan Estimation of Soil Parameters through Infiltration Experiments, referred as BEST. The study was conducted in a pasture matrix landscape on Atlantic Forest patches, in Brazil. Measurements were taken on forest plots at five different times of natural regeneration, as well on a degraded pasture considered as zero age. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) increased exponentially along the age. The highest values were observed after 20 years, when the Ks reached 16 times the value of pasture. Here we discuss that the age isn't the only one factor that affect the infiltration process and the multiple ways that the secondary succession takes can result in forest structure changes, but not in soil structure changes in a short time scale. FAPESP Process 2015/23719-6.