Sunday, May 22, 2016
15:30 - 17:00

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15:30 - 15:45: / 307 FLOW ANOMALIES IN SOUTHEASTERN U.S. RIVERS: QUANTIFYING LOCAL EXTIRPATION PROBABILITIES OF FRESHWATER FAUNA

5/22/2016  |   15:30 - 15:45   |  307

FLOW ANOMALIES IN SOUTHEASTERN U.S. RIVERS: QUANTIFYING LOCAL EXTIRPATION PROBABILITIES OF FRESHWATER FAUNA Climate change and water management impact the conservation status of freshwater fauna, which are among the most threatened species worldwide. We collected historic and current species distributions from records and expert opinion for freshwater fishes in the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basins (N = 201 in ACT, N = 130 in ACF) and quantified flow anomalies from gages with continuous records from 1948-2012. Binomial logistic regression models quantified probabilities of species extirpations within sub-basins (USGS HUC8) as a function of species traits, basin characteristics, and flow anomalies. ACT extirpations occurred largely in upland sub-basins for small-bodied endemic species (e.g., darters), and migratory and large-bodies fishes (e.g., sturgeon, shad, pike, eel). ACF extirpations occurred in lowland sub-basins for migratory and large-bodies fishes (e.g., sturgeon, shad, eel). ACT extirpations were negatively related to low-flow intensity and positively related to median magnitude of 2-year droughts; whereas ACF extirpations were explained by high-flow intensity and high inter-annual discharge variability. Overall, flow anomalies in both basins were less predictive of species extirpation than basin characteristics (distance from river mouth, presence of dams) or fish traits.

John S. Kominoski (Primary Presenter/Author), Florida International University, jkominoski@gmail.com;


Albert Ruhi ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center. , aruhi@sesync.org;


Megan Hagler ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Georgia, ms.meganhagler@gmail.com;


John Sabo ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Arizona State University, John.L.Sabo@asu.edu;


Tushar Sinha ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Texas A&M University Kingsville, Tushar.Sinha@tamuk.edu;


Sankar Arumugam ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), North Carolina State University, Sankar_Arumugam@ncsu.edu;


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15:45 - 16:00: / 307 SEASONALITY AND PREDICTABILITY REGULATE TEMPORAL BIODIVERSITY OF STREAM INVERTEBRATES

5/22/2016  |   15:45 - 16:00   |  307

SEASONALITY AND PREDICTABILITY REGULATE TEMPORAL BIODIVERSITY OF STREAM INVERTEBRATES Temporal environmental fluctuations exert strong controls on biodiversity. Regular, predictable environmental oscillations should promote coexistence of a great number of species over a given timeframe. Species diversity and community turnover is determined by a balance between temporal environmental variability (seasonality) and the reliability of this variability (predictability). Drawing on tools from wavelet analysis and information theory, we provide a framework for understanding how the seasonality-predictability of an environment interact to shape local biodiversity. We use this framework to generate predictions about temporal biodiversity using examples from regions spanning a rainfall seasonality gradient. Using datasets from Mediterranean-climate California, Sonoran Desert and New Zealand, we illustrate these concepts with stream invertebrate community dynamics. We found that community fluctuation ranged from strongly oscillatory in highly-seasonal Mediterranean streams to random fluctuations in aseasonal New Zealand streams. These patterns were reflected in temporal beta-diversity metrics. Our work has implications for both basic science and ecosystem management, including timing of sampling, the effects of future changes to natural seasonality regimes on biota, and the utility of these tools for detecting climate change trends on biodiversity.

Jonathan Tonkin (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Canterbury, jdtonkin@gmail.com;


Nuria Bonada ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Barcelona, bonada@ub.edu;


Michael Bogan ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), School of Natural Resources and the Environment, The University of Arizona, mbogan@email.arizona.edu;


David Lytle ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Oregon State University, lytleda@oregonstate.edu;


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16:00 - 16:15: / 307 VARIABILITY IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES AMONG PRAIRIE HEADWATER STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS

5/22/2016  |   16:00 - 16:15   |  307

VARIABILITY IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES AMONG PRAIRIE HEADWATER STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS Grasslands of the central Great Plains are heavily impacted by agriculture and urbanization. Widespread research and restoration efforts have focused on terrestrial ecosystems in the region, but the streams draining them receive much less attention. Most research on prairie streams has taken place at the Konza Prairie Biological Station (KPBS) located in the tallgrass prairie ecoregion, but the degree to which KPBS streams reflect typical prairie stream conditions is unknown. We sampled macroinvertebrate communities using USEPA Rapid Bioassessment protocols in ten headwater streams in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska (n=3 in tallgrass, n=6 in mixed grass, n=1 in shortgrass) and found differences in macroinvertebrate community structure between mixed and tallgrass prairie streams (p=0.002) and between tallgrass and shortgrass streams (p=0.048), but not between mixed grass and shortgrass streams (p=0.8). Chlorophyll-a concentrations were similar across all stream types (p=0.96). We hypothesize that invertebrate community differences are due to varying hydrology and organic matter inputs among prairie types. Broadening our understanding of prairie streams will help guide management and restoration of these jeopardized systems.

Logan Shoup (Primary Presenter/Author), Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, logan.shoup@gmail.com;


Matt Whiles ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Florida, mwhiles@zoology.siu.edu;


Jessica Fulgoni ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Southern Illinois University, jfulgoni@siu.edu;


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16:15 - 16:30: / 307 REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION-DISCHARGE RELATIONSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL STREAMS

5/22/2016  |   16:15 - 16:30   |  307

REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION-DISCHARGE RELATIONSHIPS IN AGRICULTURAL STREAMS The frequency of storm events, and annual average temperatures, are increasing in Canada, potentially altering the hydrology of the landscape. Streams that drain agricultural watersheds may be at higher risk for nutrient contamination with increased flows. Three years of recent stream water quality and stream discharge data for Ontario and Manitoba, Canada were compared using ANCOVA and linear models. Southern portions of Manitoba and Ontario are intensively agricultural, however these provinces have different responses to increased discharge despite similar proportions of catchment cropland. ANCOVA analysis showed that Manitoba streams had significantly higher levels of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) when compared to Ontario streams (p<0.0001 for all comparisons) even at similar levels of agriculture. Additionally, discharge had a significant positive effect on TN at higher proportions of cropland (R2=0.36-0.57, p<0.0001), but this was not true for TP. There were no significant interaction effects between province and discharge for either nutrient. These regional differences may be due to landscape characteristics and climatic variables, and further study is currently being undertaken to identify the role of these types of parameters.

Sarah D'Amario (Primary Presenter/Author), Trentu University, sarahdamario@trentu.ca;


Henry Wilson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Henry.Wilson@agr.gc.ca ;


Marguerite A. Xenopoulos ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Trent University, mxenopoulos@trentu.ca;


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16:30 - 16:45: / 307 A 7500 YEAR RAINFALL RECONSTRUCTION FOR A DROUGHT-PRONE AUSTRALIAN REGION INDICATES WE HAVEN'T SEEN THE WORST OF IT

5/22/2016  |   16:30 - 16:45   |  307

A 7500 YEAR RAINFALL RECONSTRUCTION FOR A DROUGHT-PRONE AUSTRALIAN REGION INDICATES WE HAVEN'T SEEN THE WORST OF IT South-east Queensland is a major population centre and experiences severe droughts. During the 'Millennium Drought' (2001-2009), rainfall deficit reached 1500 mm and water storages fell to c.20% capacity. Stochastic modelling suggested that while worse droughts could occur, likelihood is less than 1:10000 years. To evaluate this expectation, we reconstructed regional rainfall over the past 7500 years. We used the carbon isotope composition of the leaves of the tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, collected monthly over eleven years, to accurately model rainfall from leaf isotope composition, and applied this to a long sequence of these leaves found preserved in lake sediments. Results accurately represented decadal-scale rainfall patterns when reconstructed and measured rainfall overlapped. The Millennium Drought was the driest decade in 1500 years, although earlier, but less severe, dry periods lasted centuries. Thus, extended periods of rainfall deficit have occurred more frequently than 1:10000 years. Moreover, the c.120 year instrumental rainfall record is atypical of the past 1500 years. This information has great potential to inform water policy and climate change predictions in south-east Queensland.

Jon Marshall (Primary Presenter/Author), Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts, jonathan.marshall@dsiti.qld.gov.au;


Cameron Barr ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 1. Geography, Environment and Population, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, cameron.barr@adelaide.edu.au ;


Julian Greer ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 1. Geography, Environment and Population, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, julian.greer@adelaide.edu.au;


John Tibby ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 1. Geography, Environment and Population, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, John.Tibby@adelaide.edu.au;


Cesca McInerney ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 1. Geography, Environment and Population, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, Cesca.McInerney@adelaide.edu.au;


Melanie Leng ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 5. NERC Isotope Geosciences Facilities, British Geological Survey, Keyworth Nottingham, United Kingdom; , mjl@bgs.ac.uk;


Andrew Henderson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), 4. School of Geography, Politics & Sociology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; , Andrew.Henderson@newcastle.ac.uk;


Glenn McGregor ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation, Glenn.McGregor@dsiti.qld.gov.au;


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16:45 - 17:00: / 307 EFFECT OF CONTRASTING EXTREME FLOODING EVENTS ON BIOTIC COMMUNITIES IN GLACIER BAY, ALASKA

5/22/2016  |   16:45 - 17:00   |  307

EFFECT OF CONTRASTING EXTREME FLOODING EVENTS ON BIOTIC COMMUNITIES IN GLACIER BAY, ALASKA High rainfall in southeast Alaska in summer 2014 creating a series of large, recurrent and atypical flood events in Glacier Bay National Park, contrasting with an earlier winter extreme flood in 2005. Understanding the effects of different flooding regimes has been hindered by absence of long-term pre-disturbance data but we have long-term records for streams, many exceeding 20 years. Findings from Wolf Point Creek, the stream with the longest record from 1978, indicated a reset of the macroinvertebrate community in the years 2006-08 following the 2005 flood. In subsequent years (2010-14) the community shifted but did not recover to pre-flood composition. After the summer flooding of 2014, the community was markedly reset again but not similar to 2006 suggesting different end-points to the two flooding regimes. Following the 2005 floods, biotic recovery appeared to be independent of geomorphic recovery and the complexity of the system appeared to play a role in the system’s resilience to these events. This research has important implications for river restoration with respect to mitigation approaches to reduce the impacts of extreme and atypical floods.

Victoria Milner (POC,Primary Presenter), University of Worcester, v.milner@worc.ac.uk;


Megan Klaar ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Leeds, UK, M.J.Klaar@leeds.ac.uk;


Jessica Picken ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), jpicken@gwct.org.uk, University of Birmingham;


Anne Robertson ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Roehampton University, A.Robertson@roehampton.ac.uk;


Lee Brown ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Leeds, UK, l.brown@leeds.ac.uk;


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