Monday, June 5, 2017
11:00 - 12:30

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11:00 - 11:15: / 302A ECOHYDROLOGY OF THE STREAM SIMULATION DESIGN APPROACH IN URBAN STREAMS

6/05/2017  |   11:00 - 11:15   |  302A

ECOHYDROLOGY OF THE STREAM SIMULATION DESIGN APPROACH IN URBAN STREAMS Culverts and other structures at road-stream crossings can result in barriers to fish and aquatic organism movement as a result of drops in elevation, high velocity flows, and impairment of debris and sediment processing within the stream channel. These barriers to stream habitat connectivity can be removed and replaced with new structures by applying a variety of stream-crossing design approaches. The stream simulation design approach to stream-crossing replacement incorporates a bankfull width, cross-sectional area, slope, bedforms, and substrates similar to those outside of the influence of the stream crossing. Applications of the stream simulation design approach need to be modified for highly urbanized stream networks to accommodate a greater influence from stormwater flows, increases in scouring capacity, unstable substrates, a wider variety of debris sizes, and increased entrenchment throughout the stream network. Urban aquatic ecologists, hydrologists, and engineers can work together to reduce stream channel instability and infrastructure failure by applying the stream simulation design approach to accommodate unique urban stream channel processes. This will improve aquatic habitat resiliency and reduce costs of infrastructure maintenance within urban ecosystems.

Anne Timm (Primary Presenter/Author), USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, altimm7@gmail.com;


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11:15 - 11:30: / 302A HOW STREAM WATER TEMPERATURE CAN GUIDE AN INTEGRATIVE URBAN STREAM PROJECTS FRAWEMORK.

6/05/2017  |   11:15 - 11:30   |  302A

HOW STREAM WATER TEMPERATURE CAN GUIDE AN INTEGRATIVE URBAN STREAM PROJECTS FRAWEMORK. Urban stream ecology is intrinsically linked to the need to improve stormwater management and the rapidly expanding networks of engineered green infrastructure (GSI). In this multidisciplinary context, where increased collaborations between aquatic ecologists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers are needed, we proposed the use of water temperature-based metrics to define a baseline for an integrative framework for GSI. Water temperature is a fundamental parameter of stream ecology that is influenced by land use, stormwater infrastructure designs, and riparian buffer management, especially in urban areas. For example, water temperatures measured in Baltimore area showed that impervious surface can increased daily water temperature by 3 oC. Since water temperature can be linked to most aquatic ecological processes, water quality and aquatic organism distributions at various spatio-temporal scales, water temperature-based metrics appear logical for monitoring multidisciplinary storm water projects. We believe the use of common metrics when developing GSI, will improve the communication and collaboration between ecologists, hydrologists, and engineers. Moreover, it will set the baseline for a common framework to improve urban stream ecology and GSI capacities in already urbanized and urbanizing areas.

Valerie Ouellet (Primary Presenter/Author), Stroud Water Research Center, vouellet@stroudcenter.org;


Melinda Daniels ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Stroud Water Research Center, mdaniels@stroudcenter.org;


Anne Timm ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, altimm7@gmail.com;


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11:30 - 11:45: / 302A URBAN STREAM SALINIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON NUTRIENTS

6/05/2017  |   11:30 - 11:45   |  302A

URBAN STREAM SALINIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON NUTRIENTS Many urban watersheds are experiencing long term salinization, due in part to the widespread application of read salts. Human-dominated streams also face episodic salinization as urbanization quickly directs applied road salts to receiving streams via impervious runoff and stormwater infrastructure. We conducted laboratory incubations to investigate the potential effects of road salts on water quality in the Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area (Chesapeake Bay Watershed), and observed that salt additions could rapidly mobilize chemicals from sediments to the water column over a day. We developed an empirical model to predict the mobilization of nutrients from the stream bed to the water column under various salinity scenarios. These laboratory experiments provide mechanistic insights on the potential relationship between salinization, nutrients, and metals –a geochemical coupling that could be incorporated into the design and functioning of tomorrow’s engineered green infrastructure.

Shahan Haq (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Maryland, shahan66@gmail.com;


Sujay Kaushal ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Maryland, skaushal@umd.edu;


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11:45 - 12:00: / 302A STORMWATER MANAGEMENT BASINS AS LOCAL POINT SOURCES FOR ROAD SALT INPUT TO GROUNDWATER AND STREAMS, INCLUDING CONTRIBUTING TO ELEVATED NON-WINTER STREAM NA AND CL CONCENTRATIONS

6/05/2017  |   11:45 - 12:00   |  302A

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT BASINS AS LOCAL POINT SOURCES FOR ROAD SALT INPUT TO GROUNDWATER AND STREAMS, INCLUDING CONTRIBUTING TO ELEVATED NON-WINTER STREAM NA AND CL CONCENTRATIONS Road salt application results in elevated Cl– and Na+ concentrations in ground and surface waters in (sub)urban areas and adjacent to roads. Elevated Cl– and Na+ concentrations have negative impacts on freshwater ecosystems and drinking water quality. We investigated the role that stormwater management plays in the movement of road salt from impervious surfaces to streams across a range of scales in suburban Baltimore, MD. Groundwater downgradient of two stormwater management basins (SMBs) showed year-round Cl– and Na+ concentrations of 100s–1000s of mg/L. The groundwater represents a year-round source of Cl– and Na+ to the adjacent second-order stream, and the high Na+ concentrations in the groundwater drive exchange reactions that significantly alter soil chemistry with likely long-term effects. At the scale of a fourth-order watershed, tributaries with SMBs have the same or higher Cl– concentrations throughout the year than tributaries without SMBs. SMBs do not protect streams from chronic or acute road salt contamination with pulse inputs documented via conductivity sensors. The SMBs instead shift some of the Cl– and Na+ inputs to non-winter months or subsequent years.

Joel Moore (Primary Presenter/Author), Towson University, joelmoore6@gmail.com;


Joel Snodgrass ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Virginia Tech, joels@vt.edu;


Steven Lev ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), IDA Science & Technology Policy Institute, slev@ida.org;


Ryan Casey ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Towson University, racasey@towson.edu;


David Ownby ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Towson University, downby@towson.edu;


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12:00 - 12:15: / 302A COMPONENTS OF URBANIZATION AND URBAN PROXIMITY IDENTIFY THREATS TO STREAM WATER QUALITY

6/05/2017  |   12:00 - 12:15   |  302A

COMPONENTS OF URBANIZATION AND URBAN PROXIMITY IDENTIFY THREATS TO STREAM WATER QUALITY The urban stream syndrome predicts stressors and associated biological responses common in urban streams. However, variation in stressor intensity may be attributed to urban proximity to streams and urban components (e.g. residential, commercial). We measured water quality at low and high flow in 10 Arkansas streams representing an urban gradient. Land use proximity was quantified at catchment and buffer scales. Multiple linear regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion identified factors that explained variation in nutrients and sediment across catchments. First, we predicted greater nutrient and sediment concentrations with increasing urbanization in buffers. Nutrients and sediments did increase with greater urbanization, but hydrology determined the influence of proximity. For example, catchment-scale urbanization explained variation in nutrients at storm flow, while buffer-scale urbanization explained variation in nutrients at low flow. Second, we predicted as the most-rapidly expanding land use, residential development, would explain greater variation in nutrients and sediment. As predicted, residential development explained greater variation of most stressors at high and low flow. Our results suggest hydrology, land use proximity, and urban components interact to govern water quality in a recently-urbanized watershed.

Stephanie Stoughton (Primary Presenter/Author), University of Central Arkansas, stoughton54@gmail.com;


Sally Entrekin ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), University of Central Arkansas , sentrekin@uca.edu;


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12:15 - 12:30: / 302A SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING TO AN URBAN RIVER IN SOUTHEAST IDAHO BEFORE AND AFTER STORMWATER PERMIT IMPLEMENTATION

6/05/2017  |   12:15 - 12:30   |  302A

SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING TO AN URBAN RIVER IN SOUTHEAST IDAHO BEFORE AND AFTER STORMWATER PERMIT IMPLEMENTATION In 2008, the City of Pocatello in southeast Idaho, USA installed a detention basin to intercept a stormwater outfall that discharged directly to the Portneuf River. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality continuously monitors turbidity with sondes at two locations in the river, upstream and downstream of the Pocatello Urbanized Area (PUA). We estimated sediment and phosphorus loads on a daily basis from 2003 to 2015 using turbidity and flow data. Sediment and phosphorus contributions from the PUA were calculated as the difference between the downstream and the upstream loads. Overall, the river at the downstream site exported 53,524 kg/day of sediment and 80 kg/day of phosphorus. The PUA accounted for 5% of the sediment and phosphorus load at the downstream site. PUA contributions of sediment and phosphorus were greatest winter-spring. In high flow years, the PUA contributed larger loads of sediment and phosphorus to the river. Following installation of the detention basin and increased stormwater management efforts, we were unable to detect changes in sediment loading from the PUA given our measurement scale and large inter annual variability.

Hannah Harris (Primary Presenter/Author), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, hannah.harris@deq.idaho.gov;


Greg Mladenka ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, greg.mladenka@deq.idaho.gov;


Lynn Van Every ( Co-Presenter/Co-Author), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, lynn.vanevery@deq.idaho.gov;


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